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Dumont T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Neonatal clitoromegaly is usually attributed to androgen stimulation secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia or in utero androgen exposure. We present a unique case of transient, isolated neonatal clitoromegaly, associated with increased androgen levels of unidentifiable cause, which spontaneously resolved when the androgen levels normalized. This is the first report ...
Schaal Benoist - - 2009
Mammalian females have long been known to release olfactory attraction in their offspring. Mammary odor cues control infant state, attention and directional responses, delay distress responses, stimulate breathing and positive oral actions, and finally can boost learning. Here, we survey female-offspring odor communication in two mammalian species - European rabbits ...
Stark Michael J - - 2009
Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11betaHSD2) limits fetal glucocorticoid exposure and is associated with physiological stability in the premature newborn infant. Antenatal betamethasone alters 11betaHSD2 activity and confers sex-specific advantages in neonatal outcome. We investigated the influence of betamethasone and sex on 11betaHSD2 activity, neonatal adrenal function and clinical course in 24- ...
Sibly Richard M - - 2009
Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results ...
Toscano J E - - 2009
Previous research in our laboratory has shown that damage to the amygdala in neonatal rhesus monkeys profoundly alters behaviors associated with fear processing, while leaving many aspects of social development intact. Little is known, however, about the impact of neonatal lesions of the amygdala on later developing aspects of social ...
Budak Gürer G - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential hazardous effects of 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) Radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the cochlear functions of female infant and adult rabbits by measuring Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. METHODS: Eighteen each one-month-old New Zealand ...
Sheller Claire R - - 2009
Most primates are characterized by cohesive male-female bonds that are maintained year round. While recent studies have addressed the selective pressures influencing the evolution of male-female relationships in primates, we know relatively little about the proximate mechanisms affecting them. It has been demonstrated that newborn white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) attract ...
Nakagami Akiko - - 2009
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental chemical with physiological potencies that cause adverse effects, even at environmentally relevant exposures, on the basis of a number of studies in experimental rodents. Thus, there is an increasing concern about environmental exposure of humans to BPA. In the present study, we used experimentally ...
Adachi Ikuma - - 2009
In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to conspecifics, ...
Wehner Nancy G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody to human alpha4 integrin that blocks the interaction of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins with their ligands, including fibronectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1. Because alpha4 integrins and their ligands are widely involved in mammalian development, lymphopoeisis, and ...
Catalano Ralph - - 2009
Much literature argues that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which stressed females cull frail males in utero. This argument implies that males from low sex ratio birth cohorts should, on average, live longer than those from high sex ratio cohorts. Research reports such associations but these tests use completed ...
Nakamichi Masayuki - - 2009
We surveyed the literature and obtained information from primate researchers and zookeepers to study the distribution of dorsal carriage among 77 simian species including New and Old World monkeys and apes in relation to arboreality and terrestriality, birth (litter) weight relative to maternal weight, and presence or absence of distinct ...
Stark Michael J - - 2009
This study aimed to characterize early neonatal microvascular function after preeclamptic pregnancy with respect to infant sex and in utero growth. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was examined prospectively from 6 to 72 h of age using laser Doppler flowmetry in a cohort of term infants of normotensive women and women ...
Saltzman Wendy - - 2009
Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of ...
Isbell Lynne A - - 2009
Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both ...
Golub Mari S - - 2009
Infant iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs spontaneously in monkey populations as it does in humans, providing a model for understanding effects on brain and behavior. A set of 34 monkey infants identified as IDA (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) over a 5-year period at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) was ...
Barthold Julia - - 2009
In some primate species, pelage colorations at birth contrast with adult colorations. The intensity of natal coats and their phylogenetic distribution is highly variable within primates. Natal coat coloration seems to change to adult coloration in most species when infants become independent from their mothers, but an accepted functional explanation ...
Zangenehpour Shahin - - 2009
Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they ...
Pike David A - - 2008
Coastal ecosystems provide vital linkages between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and thus support extremely high levels of biodiversity. However, coastlines also contain the highest densities of human development anywhere on the planet and are favoured destinations for tourists, creating a situation where the potential for negative effects on coastal species ...
Karere Genesio M - - 2009
Studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating that early adversity and specific genotype can be joint risk factors for poor behavioral outcomes. Using a rhesus monkey model, we examined how social context and different forms of early adversity influence whether a specific genotype (polymorphism in the promoter region of monoamine oxidase ...
Beehner Jacinta C - - 2008
Since Sugiyama's [1965] first observations of infanticide, empirical evidence from a multitude of primate species has supported the sexual selection hypothesis-the idea that males enhance their reproductive success by killing nonrelated, unweaned infants to hasten the mothers' return to fertility. Like other primates that live in social groups where paternity ...
Mathews Greta A - - 2009
Influences of early androgen exposure on personality were investigated. Participants were either exposed to abnormal levels of androgens prenatally due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 40 females, 29 males), or were unaffected relative controls (29 females, 30 males). Compared to female controls, females with CAH were less tender-minded (p<.001; 16 ...
Leighton Patrick A - - 2008
Because species respond differently to habitat boundaries and spatial overlap affects encounter rates, edge responses should be strong determinants of spatial patterns of species interactions. In the Caribbean, mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) prey on hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) eggs. Turtles nest in both open sand and vegetation patches, with a ...
Agostini Ilaria - - 2008
Natural hybridisation between species has been reported in several primate taxa. In the Neotropics, there is increasing evidence of this phenomenon in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) in contact zones between species. We describe the first known case of formation of a mixed-species group, and two cases of putative infant hybrids ...
Eberhard William G - - 2009
A survey of 117 species of arthropods and 17 species of vertebrates showed a strong trend for male genitalia to have relatively low static allometric values. This trend contrasts with the allometry of other structures under sexual selection, which usually show steep allometric slopes. The trend to low allometric genital ...
Kümmerli Rolf - - 2008
Among papionin primates, the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. Two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. Previous ...
Yamane Takashi - - 2008
The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 ...
Fedigan Linda Marie - - 2008
Early investigations into variable reproductive success in nonhuman primates tended to focus on the benefits conferred by high dominance rank. However, the effect of high rank on individual reproductive success has been found to vary both intra- and interspecifically, requiring researchers to expand their investigations to include additional factors. Here ...
de Waal Frans B M FB Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. - - 2008
Helping and sharing among humans is often motivated by empathy and accompanied by a sense of satisfaction. To determine whether similar self-rewarding mechanisms may underpin assistance among nonhuman primates, eight female brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) underwent testing in a simple choice paradigm. Paired with a partner, subjects could select ...
Wirz Annarita - - 2008
This paper presents the results of a demographic analysis of 22 years of data recorded on a colony of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in captivity at the CNR Primate Centre (Rome, Italy). Information is provided on reproduction, sex ratio, inter-birth interval (IBI), seasonality, and body weight. From 1984 to ...
Maroja L S - - 2008
Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited alpha-proteobacteria that can cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in insects. This incompatibility between sperm and egg is evident when uninfected females mate with infected males. Wolbachia-driven reproductive incompatibilities are of special interest because they may play a role in speciation. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not ...
Fishman Lila - - 2008
Conspecific pollen precedence (CPP) is a major component of reproductive isolation between many flowering plant taxa and may reveal mechanisms of gametophytic evolution within species, but little is known about the genetic basis and evolutionary history of CPP. We systematically investigated the genetic architecture of CPP using patterns of transmission ...
Allou K - - 2008
Oryctes monoceros is a serious coconut pest, causing up to 40% damage in tropical Africa. Synthetic aggregation pheromone, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, has been used to lure adults to traps. Traps with pheromone plus decaying palm material captured a high proportion of males. This raises the question whether individuals, which damage palms ...
Feulner Philine G D - - 2008
The ultimate aim of this study is to better understand the diversification of African weakly electric fish in the Congo River. Based on a robust phylogenetic hypothesis we examined the radiation within the mormyrid genus Campylomormyrus. Morphological traits relevant for the divergence between the identified species were detected. Among them, ...
Cilek J E - - 2008
The French 2-tier box trap was evaluated in northwestern Florida to determine its attractiveness to host-seeking tabanids (Diptera) when baited with either CO2 alone; a 4:1:8 mixture of octenol, 3-n-propylphenol, and 4-methylphenol; or a combination of CO2 plus 4:1:8 mixture. Six genera representing 43 species were obtained from this trap. ...
Dever Joseph T - - 2008
L-methionine (Met) has been implicated in parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in infants and, at high levels, it causes liver toxicity by mechanisms that are not clear. In this study, Met toxicity was characterized in freshly isolated male and female mouse hepatocytes incubated with 5 to 30 mM Met for 0 to ...
Fávaro Eliane A - - 2008
We compared the presence and mean number of eggs from oviposition traps with the mean number of Aedes aegypti females captured by manual aspirators and by MosquiTRAPs to determine the sensitivity of each method and to standardize each indicator. The collections of adults and eggs were performed over 23 weeks ...
Dettmer Amanda M AM Neuroscience and Behavior Program Tobin Hall, 135 Hicks Way, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. - - 2008
A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to ...
Dysoley Lek - - 2008
Forest malaria remains a major problem in many parts of Southeast Asia and South America. In Cambodia, where a significant reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed in the last 20 years, the forest malaria situation was studied in Chumkiri District by analysing the available passive case detection ...
Ono Akiko - - 2008
The reproductive characteristics and pollination system of Rhododendron semibarbatum were investigated at two sites in Honshu, Japan. This species is protandrous, partially self-incompatible at postzygotic stages, and requires outcrossing via pollinator visitation for effective seed production. The effective pollinators were two bumblebee species: males of Bombus ardens at Miyama, and ...
Matsumoto Takeru - - 2008
It was reported that males daphnid Daphnia magna that have been induced by methyl farnesoate exposure exhibit higher tolerance to chemical compounds such as potassium dichromate and pentachlorophenol than females. Male neonates are also known to be induced by exposure to juvenile hormone analogs, such as fenoxycarb and pyriproxyfen. If ...
Abbott David H - - 2008
Experimentally induced fetal androgen excess induces polycystic ovary syndrome-like traits in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Developmental changes leading to this endocrinopathy are not known. We therefore studied 15 time-mated, gravid female rhesus monkeys with known female fetuses. Nine dams received daily s.c. injections of 15 mg of testosterone ...
Porzionato Andrea - - 2008
In the literature, few studies detailed morphometric parameters of the inferior olivary complex, and mainly applying biased methods based on counting in a two-dimensional plane. In the present work, the unbiased quantitative method of the optic disector was applied in order to analyse neuronal densities, nuclear volumes and total neuron ...
Horwood Anna M AM Infant Vision Laboratory, School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading, UK. - - 2008
A remote haploscopic photorefractor was used to assess objective binocular vergence and accommodation responses in 157 full-term healthy infants aged 1-6 months while fixating a brightly coloured target moving between fixation distances at 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33 m. Vergence and accommodation response gain matured rapidly from 'flat' neonatal responses ...
Friederici Angela D - - 2008
Using a phonological discrimination paradigm, we show that the brain responses of 4-week-old infants systematically vary as a function of biological sex and testosterone level. Females who are generally low on testosterone demonstrated a clear phonological discrimination effect with a bilateral distribution. In male infants this effect systematically varied as ...
Hoberg Eric P - - 2008
Abomasal nematodes (Ostertagiine: Trichostrongyloidea) representing a previously unrecognized genus and species are reported in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) from Kenya, Uganda, and South Africa. Africanastrongylus buceros gen. nov. et sp. nov. is characterized by a symmetrical tapering synlophe in the cervical region and a maximum of 60 ridges in ...
Prakash S - - 2008
This paper is a part of our study on the male reproductive system of bonnet monkey. The developmental changes in testis of bonnet monkey were studied qualitatively and quantitatively, at the light microscopy level. Testicular development appears to primarily involve tubular growth that starts immediately after birth. There is a ...
Ramírez-Llorens P - - 2008
We report here one observed and two potential cases of infanticide during a brief period of 1 month after a dominant male replacement in one group of black capuchin monkeys in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. We also compile infant disappearances and demographic data in seven groups followed from 1-14 years. ...
Dávidová Martina - - 2008
Parasite community composition of European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus), the only bitterling species occurring on the European continent, was investigated in 16 different localities from four European sea drainages during 1998-2007. A total of 41 species of metazoan parasites was identified. Nine parasite species are new records for European bitterling, namely ...
Berthouly Anne - - 2008
1. Maternal carotenoids in the egg yolk have been hypothesized to promote maturation of the immune system and protect against free radical damages. Depending on availability, mothers may thus influence offspring quality by depositing variable amounts of carotenoids into the eggs. Sex allocation theory predicts that in good quality environments, ...
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