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Results 201 - 250 of 972
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Hilário Renato R - - 2010
The reproductive patterns recorded in a free-ranging group of Callithrix flaviceps were unique in a number of ways, including 4 females breeding simultaneously, a non-breeding dominant female, and a well-defined birth season. In addition, all observed copulations involved extragroup individuals. The more socially dominant breeding female had more births and ...
Thor?n Sandra - - 2010
The use of leaf nests has been documented in several mouse lemur species over the last few decades, including the golden-brown mouse lemur. Nest construction, however, has only rarely been observed and detailed descriptions of this process are lacking so far. We aim to determine the relative importance of leaf ...
Schaal Benoist - - 2010
Neonatal mammals are exposed to an outstandingly powerful selective pressure at birth, and any mean to alleviate their localization effort and accelerate acceptance to orally grasp a nipple and ingest milk should have had advantageous consequences over evolutionary time. Thus, it is essential for females to display a biological interface ...
Littlefield Brandie L - - 2010
Two infanticides occurred after a male takeover in a population of Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. The first infant was found dying from wounds received to the chest and groin after three adult males had immigrated into the group. The second infanticide was directly ...
Paukner Annika - - 2010
Recent studies have revealed that human infants process female faces differently from male faces. To test whether a similar preference for female faces exists in other primates, we presented nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques with photographs of macaque faces and human faces. At <1 month old, infant macaques preferentially oriented towards ...
Kay Daniel B - - 2010
The triadic model of human infant temperament, involving Negative Affectivity, Orienting/Regulation, and Surgency/Extraversion factors, was applied to the rhesus neonate using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Replicating and expanding earlier work in rhesus monkeys, the three-factor solution produced latent constructs comparable to human neonatal temperament.
Burke Mark W - - 2010
Hemiparesis, unilateral weakness or partial paralysis, is a common outcome following hemispherectomy in humans. We use the non-human primate as an invaluable translational model for our understanding of developmental plasticity in response to hemispherectomy. Three infant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabeus) underwent hemispherectomy at a median age of 9 weeks and ...
Cederroth Christopher R - - 2010
There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by the effects of endocrine disruptors on reproduction. Soy and soy-derived products contain isoflavones that mimic the actions of oestrogens and may exert adverse effects on male fertility. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding the ...
Fruteau C?cile - - 2010
For years, infanticide by males was thought to be unlikely in multi-male primate species. Recent studies have, however, presented evidence of infanticide in such species and a recent model by Broom and colleagues predicts that males' age and rank influence the occurrence of infanticide: youngest and highest-ranking immigrant males are ...
Xie Ri-hua - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of prenatal and postnatal social support on the association between fetal sex and postpartum depression (PPD). METHOD: We conducted a prospective cohort study in Changsha, China, between February and September 2007. We first compared the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, and the prenatal and postnatal social ...
Ziegler Toni E - - 2009
Infant survival and wellbeing is dependent upon good parenting skills. In some species of primates, fathers are necessary to ensure both positive developmental and social outcomes for their offspring. Common marmosets and the related cotton-top tamarin monkeys provide extensive paternal care of multiple offspring and are essential for infant survival. ...
Vouloumanos Athena - - 2009
Humans speak, monkeys grunt, and ducks quack. How do we come to know which vocalizations animals produce? Here we explore this question by asking whether young infants expect humans, but not other animals, to produce speech, and further, whether infants have similarly restricted expectations about the sources of vocalizations produced ...
Abbott David H - - 2009
Old World monkeys provide naturally occurring and experimentally induced phenotypes closely resembling the highly prevalent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women. In particular, experimentally induced fetal androgen excess in female rhesus monkeys produces a comprehensive adult PCOS-like phenotype that includes both reproductive and metabolic dysfunction found in PCOS women. Such ...
Alexander Gerianne M - - 2009
The physiological significance of hormonal changes in early postnatal life is emerging, but the behavioral significance in humans is unknown. As a first test of the relationship between hormones and behavior in early infancy we measured digit ratios and salivary hormone levels in forty-one male and female infants (3-4 months ...
Savage A - - 2009
Cotton-top tamains (Saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered primate found only in Colombia. Efforts to conserve this species are centered on developing effective management plans that integrate biological information regarding population dynamics and factors that influence their survival. This study documented infants born to wild cotton-top tamarin females from 1994-2008 ...
Auyeung-Kim Diana J - - 2009
Belimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody antagonist for soluble B-lymphocyte stimulator, and is a potential therapeutic for various autoimmune disorders. To support clinical use, belimumab was administered intravenously to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys every 2 weeks throughout gestation at dosages of 5 and 150 mg/kg. Fetuses were delivered by C-section ...
Thankamony Ajay A Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United - - 2009
Anogenital distance (AGD) is sexually dimorphic in rodents and humans, being 2- to 2.5-fold greater in males. It is a reliable marker of androgen and antiandrogen effects in rodent reproductive toxicologic studies. Data on AGD in humans are sparse, with no longitudinal data collected during infancy. This study was designed ...
Dumont T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Neonatal clitoromegaly is usually attributed to androgen stimulation secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia or in utero androgen exposure. We present a unique case of transient, isolated neonatal clitoromegaly, associated with increased androgen levels of unidentifiable cause, which spontaneously resolved when the androgen levels normalized. This is the first report ...
Schaal Benoist - - 2009
Mammalian females have long been known to release olfactory attraction in their offspring. Mammary odor cues control infant state, attention and directional responses, delay distress responses, stimulate breathing and positive oral actions, and finally can boost learning. Here, we survey female-offspring odor communication in two mammalian species - European rabbits ...
Stark Michael J - - 2009
Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11betaHSD2) limits fetal glucocorticoid exposure and is associated with physiological stability in the premature newborn infant. Antenatal betamethasone alters 11betaHSD2 activity and confers sex-specific advantages in neonatal outcome. We investigated the influence of betamethasone and sex on 11betaHSD2 activity, neonatal adrenal function and clinical course in 24- ...
Sibly Richard M - - 2009
Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results ...
Toscano J E - - 2009
Previous research in our laboratory has shown that damage to the amygdala in neonatal rhesus monkeys profoundly alters behaviors associated with fear processing, while leaving many aspects of social development intact. Little is known, however, about the impact of neonatal lesions of the amygdala on later developing aspects of social ...
Budak Gürer G - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential hazardous effects of 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications-like (GSM-like) Radiofrequency (RF) exposure on the cochlear functions of female infant and adult rabbits by measuring Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE) response amplitudes. METHODS: Eighteen each one-month-old New Zealand ...
Sheller Claire R - - 2009
Most primates are characterized by cohesive male-female bonds that are maintained year round. While recent studies have addressed the selective pressures influencing the evolution of male-female relationships in primates, we know relatively little about the proximate mechanisms affecting them. It has been demonstrated that newborn white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) attract ...
Nakagami Akiko - - 2009
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental chemical with physiological potencies that cause adverse effects, even at environmentally relevant exposures, on the basis of a number of studies in experimental rodents. Thus, there is an increasing concern about environmental exposure of humans to BPA. In the present study, we used experimentally ...
Adachi Ikuma - - 2009
In a previous study, Adachi, Kuwahata, Fujita, Tomonaga & Matsuzawa demonstrated that infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) form cross-modal representations of conspecifics but not of humans. However, because the subjects in the experiment were raised in a large social group and had considerably less exposure to humans than to conspecifics, ...
Wehner Nancy G - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody to human alpha4 integrin that blocks the interaction of alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins with their ligands, including fibronectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1. Because alpha4 integrins and their ligands are widely involved in mammalian development, lymphopoeisis, and ...
Catalano Ralph - - 2009
Much literature argues that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which stressed females cull frail males in utero. This argument implies that males from low sex ratio birth cohorts should, on average, live longer than those from high sex ratio cohorts. Research reports such associations but these tests use completed ...
Nakamichi Masayuki - - 2009
We surveyed the literature and obtained information from primate researchers and zookeepers to study the distribution of dorsal carriage among 77 simian species including New and Old World monkeys and apes in relation to arboreality and terrestriality, birth (litter) weight relative to maternal weight, and presence or absence of distinct ...
Stark Michael J - - 2009
This study aimed to characterize early neonatal microvascular function after preeclamptic pregnancy with respect to infant sex and in utero growth. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was examined prospectively from 6 to 72 h of age using laser Doppler flowmetry in a cohort of term infants of normotensive women and women ...
Saltzman Wendy - - 2009
Common marmosets are cooperatively breeding monkeys that exhibit high reproductive skew: most subordinate females fail to reproduce, while others attempt to breed but produce very few surviving infants. An extensive dataset on the mechanisms limiting reproduction in laboratory-housed and free living subordinate females provides unique insights into the causes of ...
Isbell Lynne A - - 2009
Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both ...
Golub Mari S - - 2009
Infant iron deficiency anemia (IDA) occurs spontaneously in monkey populations as it does in humans, providing a model for understanding effects on brain and behavior. A set of 34 monkey infants identified as IDA (hemoglobin <11 g/dl) over a 5-year period at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) was ...
Barthold Julia - - 2009
In some primate species, pelage colorations at birth contrast with adult colorations. The intensity of natal coats and their phylogenetic distribution is highly variable within primates. Natal coat coloration seems to change to adult coloration in most species when infants become independent from their mothers, but an accepted functional explanation ...
Zangenehpour Shahin - - 2009
Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they ...
Pike David A - - 2008
Coastal ecosystems provide vital linkages between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and thus support extremely high levels of biodiversity. However, coastlines also contain the highest densities of human development anywhere on the planet and are favoured destinations for tourists, creating a situation where the potential for negative effects on coastal species ...
Karere Genesio M - - 2009
Studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating that early adversity and specific genotype can be joint risk factors for poor behavioral outcomes. Using a rhesus monkey model, we examined how social context and different forms of early adversity influence whether a specific genotype (polymorphism in the promoter region of monoamine oxidase ...
Beehner Jacinta C - - 2008
Since Sugiyama's [1965] first observations of infanticide, empirical evidence from a multitude of primate species has supported the sexual selection hypothesis-the idea that males enhance their reproductive success by killing nonrelated, unweaned infants to hasten the mothers' return to fertility. Like other primates that live in social groups where paternity ...
Mathews Greta A - - 2009
Influences of early androgen exposure on personality were investigated. Participants were either exposed to abnormal levels of androgens prenatally due to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 40 females, 29 males), or were unaffected relative controls (29 females, 30 males). Compared to female controls, females with CAH were less tender-minded (p<.001; 16 ...
Leighton Patrick A - - 2008
Because species respond differently to habitat boundaries and spatial overlap affects encounter rates, edge responses should be strong determinants of spatial patterns of species interactions. In the Caribbean, mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) prey on hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) eggs. Turtles nest in both open sand and vegetation patches, with a ...
Agostini Ilaria - - 2008
Natural hybridisation between species has been reported in several primate taxa. In the Neotropics, there is increasing evidence of this phenomenon in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) in contact zones between species. We describe the first known case of formation of a mixed-species group, and two cases of putative infant hybrids ...
Eberhard William G - - 2009
A survey of 117 species of arthropods and 17 species of vertebrates showed a strong trend for male genitalia to have relatively low static allometric values. This trend contrasts with the allometry of other structures under sexual selection, which usually show steep allometric slopes. The trend to low allometric genital ...
Kümmerli Rolf - - 2008
Among papionin primates, the Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) shows the most extensive interactions between infants and group members other than the mother. Two different types of interactions occur: (1) long-lasting dyadic interactions between a handler and an infant, and (2) brief triadic interactions between two handlers involving an infant. Previous ...
Yamane Takashi - - 2008
The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 ...
Fedigan Linda Marie - - 2008
Early investigations into variable reproductive success in nonhuman primates tended to focus on the benefits conferred by high dominance rank. However, the effect of high rank on individual reproductive success has been found to vary both intra- and interspecifically, requiring researchers to expand their investigations to include additional factors. Here ...
de Waal Frans B M FB Living Links, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. - - 2008
Helping and sharing among humans is often motivated by empathy and accompanied by a sense of satisfaction. To determine whether similar self-rewarding mechanisms may underpin assistance among nonhuman primates, eight female brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) underwent testing in a simple choice paradigm. Paired with a partner, subjects could select ...
Wirz Annarita - - 2008
This paper presents the results of a demographic analysis of 22 years of data recorded on a colony of tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in captivity at the CNR Primate Centre (Rome, Italy). Information is provided on reproduction, sex ratio, inter-birth interval (IBI), seasonality, and body weight. From 1984 to ...
Maroja L S - - 2008
Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited alpha-proteobacteria that can cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in insects. This incompatibility between sperm and egg is evident when uninfected females mate with infected males. Wolbachia-driven reproductive incompatibilities are of special interest because they may play a role in speciation. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not ...
Fishman Lila - - 2008
Conspecific pollen precedence (CPP) is a major component of reproductive isolation between many flowering plant taxa and may reveal mechanisms of gametophytic evolution within species, but little is known about the genetic basis and evolutionary history of CPP. We systematically investigated the genetic architecture of CPP using patterns of transmission ...
Allou K - - 2008
Oryctes monoceros is a serious coconut pest, causing up to 40% damage in tropical Africa. Synthetic aggregation pheromone, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, has been used to lure adults to traps. Traps with pheromone plus decaying palm material captured a high proportion of males. This raises the question whether individuals, which damage palms ...
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