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Results 201 - 250 of 1018
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Kotecha Sarah J - - 2012
In recent years, the rate of preterm births has risen in many industrialised countries with late preterm births forming a substantial proportion of the preterm births. Late preterm infants are delivered at the immature saccular stage of lung development when surfactant and antioxidant systems are still developing. It is now ...
Arias-Martínez Joel - - 2012
Background/Aims: Clara cell protein (cc-10) has been shown to negatively regulate inflammation, protect pulmonary surfactant from degradation in the lung, and administration of this recombinant protein improves the condition of infant respiratory distress syndrome (iRDS), a disease that occurred mainly in preterm infants. In view of the possibility that altered ...
Nakahara Hiromichi - - 2012
Lung surfactants (LS), a complex of ∼90 wt% lipids (mainly dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine or DPPC) and ∼10 wt% surfactant proteins (SP-A, -B, -C, and -D), adsorb to an air-alveolar fluid interface and then lower its surface tension down to near zero during expiration. Intratracheal instillation of exogenous LS preparations can effectively compensate ...
Abdulla C O - - 2012
An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to ...
Eickmann Sophie Helena - - 2012
The immaturity of preterm infants' organ systems may lead to difficulties in adapting to different environmental stimuli. The aim was to compare the psychomotor development of preterm infants (with corrected age) and term infants aged 6 to 12 months and to investigate associated factors. Cross-sectional analytical study conducted at Hospital ...
Landi Nicole - - 2012
[This corrects the article on p. 32 in vol. 2, PMID: 21720537.].
Rojas-Reyes Maria Ximena - - 2012
Surfactant therapy is effective in improving the outcome of very preterm infants. Trials have studied a wide variety of surfactant preparations used either to prevent or treat respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In animal models, prophylactic surfactant leads to more homogeneous distribution and less evidence of lung damage. However, administration requires ...
Tan Kenneth - - 2012
Pulmonary surfactant is an important part of the host defence against respiratory infections. Bacterial pneumonia in late preterm or term newborn infants often leads to surfactant deficiency or dysfunction, as surfactant is either inactivated or peroxidated. Studies of animal models of pneumonia and clinical case reports suggest that exogenous surfactant ...
Gogia Siddhartha - - 2012
Zinc deficiency is a significant public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Zinc is essential for the formation and migration of neurons along with the formation of neuronal synapses. Its deficiency could interfere with the formation of neural pathways and with neurotransmission, thus affecting behavior (for example, attention, activity, ...
Aziz Abdul - - 2012
In the 1960s and 1970s, pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full-term infants with pre-existing illness with an incidence of 1.3 per 1000 live births. Risk factors for PH included severity of illness, intrauterine growth restriction, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coagulopathy and the need for assisted ventilation. Presently, PH occurs ...
Spittle Alicia - - 2012
Infants born preterm are at increased risk of developing cognitive and motor impairments compared with infants born at term. Early developmental interventions have been used in the clinical setting with the aim of improving the overall functional outcome for these infants. However, the long-term benefit of these programmes remains unclear. ...
Tsuchiya Kenji J - - 2012
The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC) Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross ...
Zwanenburg Alex A Department of Medical Physics, Máxima Medical Center, De Run 4600 Veldhoven, The Netherlands. a.zwanenburg at - - 2012
Electroencephalographic characteristics are useful in assessment of the functional status of specific neuronal connections relative to postmenstrual age. Interhemispheric burst synchrony (IBS) is a measure of the functional connectivity between the hemispheres in the maturing preterm brain. An algorithm was developed to assess IBS and was used in a prospective, ...
McIntyre Sarah - - 2011
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most severe physical disability within the spectrum of developmental delay. CP is an umbrella term describing a group of motor disorders, accompanied by many associated impairments. The disability is a result of injuries to the developing brain occurring any time from the first trimester of ...
Sansavini Alessandra - - 2011
Preterm birth is characterized by multiple interacting atypical constraints affecting different aspects of neuropsychological development. In the first years of life, perceptual, motor, and communicative-linguistic abilities, as well as attention, processing speed, and memory are affected by preterm birth resulting in cascading effects on later development. From school age to ...
D'Angio Carl T - - 2011
Influenza vaccine immunogenicity in premature infants is incompletely characterized. To assess the immunogenicity of trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in extremely low-birth-weight (≤ 1000 g birth weight) premature (<30 weeks gestation) infants. We hypothesized that geometric mean titers of influenza antibody would be lower in premature than in full-term (FT) ...
Kominiarek Michelle A - - 2011
We compared perinatal outcomes between live-born nonisolated and isolated omphaloceles diagnosed during a prenatal ultrasound. Fetuses (n = 86) with omphalocele were identified between 1995 and 2007 at a single institution. Inclusion criteria were an omphalocele >14 weeks' gestation, available fetal and/or neonatal karyotype, and a live-born infant (n = ...
Arthurs Owen J OJ Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Box 219, Addenbrookes Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, - - 2011
The current reference standard for diagnosing vesicoureteric reflux is the X-ray-based Micturating CystoUrethroGram (MCUG). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of performing interactive Magnetic Resonance voiding cysto-urethrography (iMRVC) in un-sedated infants. Twelve infants underwent conventional single-cycle MCUG followed by iMRVC. In iMRVC, patients were examined using ...
Jadin Sarah A - - 2011
The optimal feeding (breast milk, formula, or a combination) for infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) is unknown. Recommendations from the CF Foundation are based on limited data. We compared growth and pulmonary outcomes between breastfed and formula-fed infants through the age of 2 y. A total of 103 CF infants ...
Letourneau Nicole - - 2011
Approximately 15% of new mothers experience postpartum depression, representing the most common source of maternal morbidity post-delivery. Postpartum depression may impair maternal-infant interactions, contributing to poor developmental outcomes in the offspring of mothers with depression. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of home-based peer support that ...
Baer Vickie L - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Some preterm infants with a Grade 1 intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are subsequently found to have a Grade 3 or 4 IVH, while in others the Grade 1 resolves without extending. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified all neonates in our health system in the past 6 years with a ...
Chatzakis E - - 2011
Infant colonization by Staphylococcus aureus has not been adequately investigated. In this study, we aimed to define determinants associated with the carriage of S. aureus in early infancy. Serial nasal swabs were collected from 128 infants and their mothers at months 0, 6, and 12 postpartum. S. aureus isolates were ...
Thayyil Sudhin - - 2011
Post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PM MRI) of brain is increasingly used in clinical practice; understanding of normal PM contrast to noise ratio (CNR), T(1) and T(2) values relaxation times is important for optimisation and accurate interpretation of PM MRI. METHODS: We obtained T(1)- and T(2)-weighted images at 1.5T. In the ...
Costa Raquel - - 2011
This study is intended to analyze (1) differences in infant temperament at 3 and 12 months according to infants' psychophysiological profiles: "withdrawn" "extroverted", and "underaroused" and (2) changes in infant temperament from 3 to 12 months, namely according to the infant psychophysiological profile and the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-four ...
Kuipers Remko S - - 2011
Low long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA, or LCP) consumption relates to suboptimal neurodevelopment, coronary artery disease, and [postpartum (PP)] depression. Maternal-to-infant LCP transport during pregnancy and lactation is at the expense of maternal status, a process known as biomagnification. Despite biomagnification, maternal and infant LCP status generally declines during lactation. To assess ...
de L'etoile Shannon K - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between mothers' depressive symptoms and the acoustic parameters of infant-directed (ID) singing. Participants included 80 mothers and their 3- to 9-month-old infants. A digital recording was made of each mother's voice while singing to her infant. Extraction and analyses of ...
Buddington R K - - 2011
Mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) development is guided by genetic determinants established during the evolution of mammals and matched to the natural diet and environment. Co-evolution of the host GI tract (GIT) and the resident bacteria has resulted in commensal relationships that are species and even individual specific. The interactions between the ...
Mileva-Seitz V - - 2011
Maternal behavior in the new mother is a multidimensional set of responses to infant cues that are influenced by the mother's early life experiences. In this study, we wanted to test if mothers' early life experiences and mothers' genotype have interactive effects on maternal behaviors and attitudes, something which has ...
Nakagami Akiko - - 2011
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disrupting chemicals that disturb normal development of embryonic brains. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between maternal plasma PCB concentration and infant behavioral characteristics in mother-infant interactions. We grouped 20 pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) into higher and lower PCB exposure groups; monkeys ...
Gratier Maya - - 2011
This study investigates vocal imitation of prosodic contour in ongoing spontaneous interaction with 10- to 13-week-old infants. Audio recordings from naturalistic interactions between 20 mothers and infants were analyzed using a vocalization coding system that extracted the pitch and duration of individual vocalizations. Using these data, the authors categorized a ...
De Schuymer Leentje - - 2011
This longitudinal study examined dyadic and triadic skills in 26 preterm and 31 full term infants at 3, 6 and 9 months of age. In dyadic interaction, infants engaged with a stranger in face-to-face play interrupted by a still-face episode. In triadic interaction, infants interacted with the adult stranger as ...
Zisk Jody L - - 2011
We compared survival and outcomes in process of care in female versus male infants born ≤32 weeks gestational age (GA). Data were obtained from the Alere database for infants born ≤32 weeks GA. Females were compared with males for demographics, complications, and care processes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted ...
Coe Christopher L - - 2010
The relative maturity, alertness, and reactivity of an infant at birth are sensitive indices of the neonate's health, the quality of the pregnancy, and the mother's wellbeing. Even when fetal growth and gestation length have been normal, the maturing fetus can still be adversely impacted by both physical events and ...
Maestripieri Dario - - 2011
Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, ...
Gagliardi Christine - - 2010
Records from a colony of captive Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were used to estimate heritability for a number of reproductive traits. Records were based on a total of 7,816 births by 1,901 females from 1979 to 2007. Heritability was estimated with a linear animal model using a multiple trait ...
Hodge S J - - 2011
Reproductive events in animal societies often show a high degree of temporal clustering, but the evolutionary causes of this synchronization are poorly understood. Here, we suggest that selection to avoid the negative effects of competition with other females has given rise to a remarkable degree of birth synchrony in the ...
Van Belle Sarie - - 2010
This study describes two cases of directly observed and one case of nearly observed infanticide after an adult male immigrated into a multimale-multifemale group of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) at Palenque National Park, Mexico. The immigrant male entered the group alone, injured the central adult male, presumably evicted the ...
Tikkanen Minna - - 2010
Placental abruption is an important cause of preterm birth, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although more common with male fetuses, outcomes have not been evaluated by sex. Our aim was to find out whether short-term morbidity differs by infant sex in cases with placental abruption and in controls. Register-based case-control ...
Santos Cátia - - 2010
Pseudomonas mendocina carrying a novel class 1 integron containing an IMP-8 gene was isolated from an inanimate surface in a female ward sanitary facility of the Hospital Infante D. Pedro, Aveiro, Portugal. Hybridization with the integrase gene (intI1) and 16S rDNA revealed that the integron is chromosomally located. Here we ...
Ferrari S F - - 2010
Congenital aplasia of the hallux (big toe) was observed in seven adult and infant members of a free-ranging group of silvery marmosets (Mico argentatus) in the Alter do Chão savannah of central Amazonia. Apparently heritable, the condition was more common in males (80%) than females (50%) but was found in ...
Henzi S P - - 2010
Alpha male chacma baboons experience uncontested access to individual estrus females. Consequently, alpha male paternity certainty is high and underpins significant levels of infanticide by immigrant males that, in turn, has selected for male defense of infants. There is also, however, a high probability that alpha males will be absent ...
Hilário Renato R - - 2010
The reproductive patterns recorded in a free-ranging group of Callithrix flaviceps were unique in a number of ways, including 4 females breeding simultaneously, a non-breeding dominant female, and a well-defined birth season. In addition, all observed copulations involved extragroup individuals. The more socially dominant breeding female had more births and ...
Thor?n Sandra - - 2010
The use of leaf nests has been documented in several mouse lemur species over the last few decades, including the golden-brown mouse lemur. Nest construction, however, has only rarely been observed and detailed descriptions of this process are lacking so far. We aim to determine the relative importance of leaf ...
Schaal Benoist - - 2010
Neonatal mammals are exposed to an outstandingly powerful selective pressure at birth, and any mean to alleviate their localization effort and accelerate acceptance to orally grasp a nipple and ingest milk should have had advantageous consequences over evolutionary time. Thus, it is essential for females to display a biological interface ...
Littlefield Brandie L - - 2010
Two infanticides occurred after a male takeover in a population of Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. The first infant was found dying from wounds received to the chest and groin after three adult males had immigrated into the group. The second infanticide was directly ...
Paukner Annika - - 2010
Recent studies have revealed that human infants process female faces differently from male faces. To test whether a similar preference for female faces exists in other primates, we presented nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques with photographs of macaque faces and human faces. At <1 month old, infant macaques preferentially oriented towards ...
Kay Daniel B - - 2010
The triadic model of human infant temperament, involving Negative Affectivity, Orienting/Regulation, and Surgency/Extraversion factors, was applied to the rhesus neonate using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Replicating and expanding earlier work in rhesus monkeys, the three-factor solution produced latent constructs comparable to human neonatal temperament.
Burke Mark W - - 2010
Hemiparesis, unilateral weakness or partial paralysis, is a common outcome following hemispherectomy in humans. We use the non-human primate as an invaluable translational model for our understanding of developmental plasticity in response to hemispherectomy. Three infant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabeus) underwent hemispherectomy at a median age of 9 weeks and ...
Cederroth Christopher R - - 2010
There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by the effects of endocrine disruptors on reproduction. Soy and soy-derived products contain isoflavones that mimic the actions of oestrogens and may exert adverse effects on male fertility. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding the ...
Fruteau C?cile - - 2010
For years, infanticide by males was thought to be unlikely in multi-male primate species. Recent studies have, however, presented evidence of infanticide in such species and a recent model by Broom and colleagues predicts that males' age and rank influence the occurrence of infanticide: youngest and highest-ranking immigrant males are ...
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