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de Freitas Burity C H - - 1995
The allometric relationship between the weight of the heart and the body measurements was analyzed in 31 primates of genus Callithrix (C. jacchus and C. penicillata). The data were analyzed after logarithmic transformation using the model: Ln Y = Ln a + (b) Ln X. We compared with the t-test ...
Trifiletti R - - 1995
A large Sicilian kinship in which myotonic dystrophy (DM) affected spanning four generations is presented. The pedigree clearly illustrates the phenomenon of anticipation, and illustrates that this phenomenon is more marked when transmission occurs through an affected female rather than an affected male. The pedigree is interpreted in light of ...
Hartwig W C - - 1995
Among primates, squirrel monkeys uniquely possess an interorbital fenestra, in which the midline bony orbitosphenoid septum is largely absent and the soft tissues of the orbits are separated only by a thin membrane. Neural development may contribute to the approximation of the orbits to the midline in Saimiri, insofar as ...
Mes J - - 1995
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) analyses were made on prenecropsy blood samples and postmortem adipose, liver, kidney, and brain tissues from female rhesus monkeys fed a daily dose of 0, 5, 20, 40, or 80 micrograms Aroclor 1254/kg body weight for approximately 6 years. During this time, the females were bred with ...
Boyce W T - - 1995
Five nursery-reared rhesus (Macaca mulatta) infants were studied on 8 consecutive days over a period of 2 weeks when they ranged from 4 to 5.5 months. Saliva cortisol samples were obtained by giving each animal, while in its individual home cage, a 6-in. cotton dental roll pretreated with sugared fruit-drink ...
Arnold D L - - 1995
A group of 80 menstruating rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys were randomly allocated to four similar test rooms (20 monkeys/room) and then randomly allocated within each room to one of five dose groups (four females/dose group/room). Each day, the monkeys self-ingested capsules containing doses of 0, 5, 20, 40 or 80 ...
Lubach G R - - 1995
In animals, perturbations of the rearing environment have been shown to alter behavior, cognition, and physiology, including immune responses. In order to evaluate the effect of early rearing conditions on the development of immune responses in the infant primate, several immunological measures were assessed in rhesus monkey infants, nursery-reared (NR) ...
Webster M J - - 1995
As part of a long-term study designed to examine the ontogeny of visual memory in monkeys and its underlying neural circuitry, we have examined the subcortical connections of the inferior temporal cortex in infant monkeys and compared them to those previously described in adult monkeys (Webster et al. [1993] J. ...
Maestripieri D - - 1995
Previous studies of macaques have failed to show a relationship between female reproductive condition and infant-directed behavior. This has led to the view that maternal responsiveness in nonhuman primates is independent from hormonal variables and is mainly regulated by social and experiential factors. The present study reports longitudinal data on ...
Kutteh W H - - 1995
Every year approximately one in 5000 babies is born with ambiguous genitalia, a condition that requires immediate sex assignment if possible. We investigated whether transabdominal ultrasonography with the use of a linear array high-resolution 7.5-MHz transducer would enhance the accuracy of detecting the uterus in the newborn. One hundred mothers ...
Tegegne A - - 1995
A qualitative anthropological study in Gondar region, northwestern Ethiopia, revealed a very striking difference in cultural patterns of defecation in the two sexes which coincided with a high male/female ratio (16.5:1) of sigmoid volvulus morbidity in the regional hospital. Adult males show very irregular bowel behaviour, with bowel motions varying ...
Mota M T - - 1995
The relationship within common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) pairs is based on pair-bond formation. This pair-bond is important for the successful rearing of the young and for the enhancement of reproductive success. Female marmosets bear twins which are carried mainly by males starting on the first day after the birth of ...
Nakagawa N - - 1995
In patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas), all group members except the adult male, regardless of their age or sex and of whether they have their own infants or not, frequently display allomothering. The mothers sometimes refuse allomothering. However, when an allomother succeeds in taking and carrying an infant (i.e. infant kidnapping) ...
Sicotte P - - 1995
In bimale groups of mountain gorillas, conflicts between the silverbacks sometimes induce infants and females to interpose between the opponents. This paper describes a set of 40 such interpositions, using data from 380 h of focal observation of the silverbacks in 2 groups at the Karisoke Research Center. Aggressive interactions ...
Kizer J R - - 1995
Meconium peritonitis results from in utero perforation of the bowel and subsequent spillage of meconium into the peritoneal cavity. Free communication of the peritoneal space with the processus vaginalis during gestation permits formation of a meconium hydrocele. Meconium hydrocele has been reported in the newborn scrotum but to our knowledge ...
Lee J M JM - - 1995
In an earlier study, we found no effects of 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (EMF) from a 500 kV transmission line on serum melatonin patterns or on puberty in ten female Suffolk lambs (Ovis aries). We conducted a larger replicate study of 15 lambs exposed to a mean electric ...
Grant V J - - 1994
Previous research (Grant, 1990, 1992) suggests that the sex of the infant is linked to maternal dominance, although it is unclear from existing studies whether women have obtained higher dominance ratings merely as a consequence of already carrying a male foetus. In an effort to overcome this problem, self-report personality ...
Houtsmuller E J - - 1994
The present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters of masculinization in male rats that were ...
Porteous I S - - 1994
The uncontrolled reproduction of the captive chimpanzee colony at the Primate Centre, CIRMF, Gabon, has led to high neonatal mortality. The only solution meeting ethical, financial, and practical considerations was to attempt reversible physical contraception using intrauterine devices (IUDs). Human IUDs were inserted into 21 females of various ages, parities, ...
Smith S M - - 1994
Nectar feeding by males and females of the mosquito Aedes provocans was studied at a site near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Canada plum, Prunus nigra, and especially pin cherry, P. pensylvanica, bloomed contemporaneously with the emergence of Ae. provocans and were important nectar sources for adult mosquitoes during their first week ...
Williams J R - - 1994
Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are monogamous mammals that form male-female pair bonds. Partner preference formation, one component of the pair bond in prairie voles, occurs following male-female cohabitation and is facilitated by mating. The peptide hormone oxytocin is released during physical contact and particularly following vaginal stimulation. Oxytocin has been ...
Fernandez-Salas I - - 1994
Mark-release-recapture experiments were conducted to determine the length of the gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald in the Tapachula foothills of southern Mexico. Separate trials with wild-caught females were conducted in the early and late dry season to examine intraseasonal differences. The gonotrophic cycle of insectary-reared, nulliparous females ...
Hauser M D - - 1994
In humans, the left hemisphere of the brain is dominant for processing language. To assess the evolutionary origins of this neuropsychological mechanism, playback experiments were conducted on a large population of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Playbacks provided an equal opportunity to orient the right or left ear toward the ...
Robinson A A - - 1994
Driving tests carried out (1) indicate hormonal changes are taking place in the blood while driving or travelling in a motor vehicle. Figures presented in this paper show that female hormonal changes, of an abnormal nature, taking place in the pregnant female while driving or travelling in a motor vehicle, ...
Maestripieri D - - 1994
A critical evaluation of the literature and a cost/benefit analysis suggest that changes in affiliation patterns in female monkeys following the birth of infants should be mediated by female reproductive state and dominance rank and infant characteristics such as age and sex. Several predictions concerning the effects of these variables ...
Farbman A I - - 1994
Smell is one of the most important senses driving basic patterns of behaviour in most of the earth's animal species. It plays a role in food-finding, kin recognition, reproductive behaviour, the predator-prey relationship, mother-infant recognition, homing behaviour, nest-finding, and other behaviours. Students of animal behaviour have studied the role of ...
Gilbert S G - - 1994
Adult female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed via their drinking water to 0.0, 0.15, or 0.35 mg/ml of caffeine prior to and throughout pregnancy. Caffeine exposure resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of infant deaths at parturition. Additional females were added to the control group and the original ...
Tousignant A - - 1994
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) occurs in three orders of reptiles. Several studies have examined the ability of estradiol to produce female hatchlings incubated at a male-producing temperature. The results of these experiments support the idea that estradiol could be used as a powerful tool in the conservation of endangered species ...
Phillips N K - - 1993
A monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model was used to assess infant hyperexcitability after prenatal exposure to phenytoin (PHT, n = 4), stiripentol (STP, n = 5), or PHT + STP (n = 4). Adult female monkeys were equipped with tether systems and stomach catheters so that drug administration could start 1 ...
Higley J D - - 1993
BACKGROUND: To study genetic and environmental contributions to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine concentrations, 55 young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were reared apart from their 10 fathers to perform a paternal half-sibling analysis. METHODS: To study maternal genetic contributions, 23 infants were reared with their mothers, 23 infants were removed from ...
Martinez A - - 1993
This study investigated the hormonal regulation of the developmental pattern of a major protein of the mouse vas deferens (MVDP) which represents 10% of the vas deferens protein content. Using a specific radioimmunoassay, MVDP was first detected in 10-day-old males and its concentration increased sharply between 10 and 30 days, ...
Coleman R - - 1993
We report a female infant born to a mother with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and a father with haemophilia A, who manifests both disorders. Analysis of peripheral blood DNA from the infant, her mother, and two female relatives with IP showed a highly skewed pattern of X inactivation. Random patterns were ...
Jantz R L - - 1993
Directional and fluctuating asymmetry of the palmar interdigital ridge-counts (c-d, b-c and a-b) was evaluated using a sample of 1186 male and 1042 female Germans. The c-d and b-c ridge-counts show higher right side values while the a-b count shows a higher left side value. Sex differences in asymmetry are ...
Copper R L - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine gender-specific differences in anthropometric characteristics of full-term male and female infants. METHODS: Twelve hundred five term newborn infants were examined. All measures of length and skinfold thickness were performed in a standardized manner. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding variables by regression analysis, we found that nearly all ...
Deng Z Y - - 1993
The development of infant Macaca thibetana was studied at Mount Emei, China, and compared to that of other macaque species. It was found that there are many common features in the process of infant socialization in species of the genus Macaca: mothers play an important and active role, other group ...
Peterson R E - - 1993
Developmental toxicity to TCDD-like congeners in fish, birds, and mammals, and reproductive toxicity in mammals are reviewed. In fish and bird species, the developmental lesions observed are species dependent, but any given species responds similarly to different TCDD-like congeners. Developmental toxicity in fish resembles "blue sac disease," whereas structural malformations ...
Nürnberg P - - 1993
Multilocus DNA fingerprinting with oligonucleotide probes (GTG)5, (GATA)4, and (CA)8 was applied in order to determine paternity in one birth cohort (15 infants) of social group (S) from the free-ranging colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. While sires could be identified in 11 cases, all males tested ...
Ellis L - - 1993
This study sought to determine the nature and extent of the relationship between the religiosity of mothers and their offspring, taking both the sex and the sexual orientation of the offspring into account. Religiosity was measured in terms of both intensity (importance of religion, frequency of church attendance) and denominational ...
Pinto L P - - 1993
Habitats, population densities and group sizes of 5 primate species (Callithrix flaviceps, Callicebus personatus personatus, Cebus apella nigritus, Alouatta fusca clamitans, and Brachyteles arachnoides) were estimated, using the method of repeated transect sampling, in an area of montane pluvial forest in eastern Brazil (Atlantic forest). A. fusca and C. apella ...
Martel F L - - 1993
Seven lactating female rhesus macaques, housed in social groups, were administered with low doses (0.5 mg/kg) of the opioid antagonist naloxone when their infants were 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks old. A control group received saline. Mothers receiving naloxone were involved in less grooming with other group members, and ...
Peres C A - - 1993
Because of their small body size, tamarins are potentially vulnerable to a wide range of predator species. This paper examines the general patterns of predator avoidance of the Avila-Pires saddle-back tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis avilapiresi) and the red-cap moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax pileatus) in the upper Urucu river, Amazonas, Brazil. One ...
Miller J D - - 1992
Although premature infants have high umbilical cord GH levels, little is known about spontaneous GH release in these individuals. The purpose of our study was to investigate spontaneous 12-h GH release in appropriate for gestational age male and female premature infants. We studied 22 premature infants (15 males and 7 ...
Williams J R - - 1992
Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) exhibit a monogamous mating system characterized by long-term pair bonds between mates. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cohabitation time and sexual experience on the development of pair bond formation in female prairie voles. Females that were allowed to cohabit for ...
Coe C L - - 1992
The influence of early rearing conditions on immunologic development was investigated in infant monkeys. Lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and antibody responses to tetanus vaccination were compared in 30 rhesus monkeys reared under five different conditions. Lymphocyte responses to two mitogens (concanavalin A and pokeweed) were significantly increased in ...
Kalin N H - - 1992
In Experiment 1, infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were separated and then reunited with mothers, united with a male, or placed in an empty cage. Infants girned more when with mothers or the male than when alone. Girns declined over time when infants were united with the male. Coo rates ...
Worrall D - - 1992
Male sterility in a petunia cytoplasmic male sterile line has been attributed to the early appearance of active callase, a beta-1,3-glucanase, in the anther locule. This leads to premature dissolution of the callose walls surrounding the microsporogenous cells. We have mimicked this aspect of the petunia line in transgenic tobacco ...
Burnham D K - - 1992
Three experiments were conducted to discover factors mediating adults' perceptions of male and female infants. In the first experiment, college students were shown 30-s videotapes of four male and four female babies, each of whom was randomly labeled with a male or a female name. Infants labeled as male were ...
Anderson C M - - 1992
Male investment in infant baboons was measured by frequency of carrying from 1978 through 1985. A series of hypotheses was generated and tested with the carrying data, based on the assumptions that: male baboons have some capacity to estimate likelihood of paternity; where paternity probability is greater, males will invest ...
Holloway R L - - 1992
The midsagittal area and other morphological measures were taken on the corpus callosum of four different species of primate: Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, Callithrix jacchus, and Saguinus oedipus. The first two species are strongly dimorphic, whereas the New World forms show little dimorphism with regard to overall body size, canines, ...
German R Z - - 1992
Suckling is the form of feeding unique to infant mammals. The mechanism used by infant mammals to withdraw liquid from the nipple is the subject of considerable debate. Suckling has been examined in two species of infant mammals: miniature pigs and long-tailed macaques. In both species radio-opaque markers were inserted ...
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