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Treves A - - 1997
Pelage coloration of infants was compiled for 138 species of primates. Three functional hypotheses--alloparental, infant defense, and paternity cloak--for primate natal coats are tested. Neonatal pelage contrasted with adult pelage in over half of the species examined. Subtle or inconspicuous contrast was more common than flamboyant contrast. Natal coats began ...
Pusey A - - 1997
Female chimpanzees often forage alone and do not display obvious linear dominance hierarchies; consequently, it has been suggested that dominance is not of great importance to them. However, with the use of data from a 35-year field study of chimpanzees, high-ranking females were shown to have significantly higher infant survival, ...
Kumar N - - 1997
Testosterone and its esters are widely used for androgen replacement therapy. In the prostate, testosterone ins 5 alpha-reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which leads to an amplification of its stimulatory activity in this and other tissues that have significant 5 alpha-reductase activity. While this amplification is essential during fetal development, it ...
Newmark M - - 1997
Click evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are an objective and reliable method of assessing cochlear status, particularly suitable for newborns. This study aimed to assess CEOAE inter-aural and gender differences. Other non-auditory factors, such as infant's head size and weight, were considered. Band averaged CEOAEs were analyzed for 120 healthy, full ...
Lauri E R - - 1997
The effects of prolonged (5 x 45 min) reading (loading) on time-based glottal waveform parameters of normal female and male subjects (n = 80) were studied. Two rest (morning and noon) and three loading (two in the morning and one in the afternoon) samples were recorded and analyzed. The glottal ...
Yeh S J - - 1997
Two infants, one male and one female, with elevated serum ammonia levels, were shown, based on urine organic acid analysis and DNA studies, to have ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. OTC deficiency is one of the most common urea cycle disorders. Hyperammonemia occurred at 3 days of age in the male ...
Coe C L - - 1997
Lymphocyte cytolytic responses were assessed in 75 infant squirrel monkeys to investigate the influence of psychosocial disturbance on immunity. Four studies evaluated alterations in lytic activity during social separations from the mother lasting for 1-7 days. Lytic responses against target cells were markedly decreased during the first day of separation, ...
Breen M S - - 1997
The Bible acts as an epistemological anchor for the English Bildungsroman; however, the biblical narratives are themselves in flux, especially with regard to representations of spiritual development gendered feminine. The extent to which one can consider the traveling/travailling mother a spiritually coherent figure who exists independent of male spiritual authority ...
Garber P A - - 1997
This paper explores relations of ontogeny, life history strategies and patterns of infant care in 11 species of small-bodied New World monkeys. Analysis of these data suggests that differences in the social systems of Aotus, Callicebus, Saimiri, Callimico, Saguinus, Leontopithecus, Cebuella and Callithrix are closely tied to both the costs ...
Matsumura S - - 1997
Social interactions between mothers that were holding their infants and other group members were studied in a wild group of moor macaques (Macaca maurus). Affiliative approaches to infants (AAI) by group members that were accompanied with particular behaviours, such as mouthing and touching or affiliative grunts, were observed frequently. Females ...
Narushima S S Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, - - 1997
Changes in normal vaginal flora of African green monkeys associated with the estrous cycle were examined by the swab method. Bacteroidaceae, corynebacteria, and streptococci were predominant throughout the whole estrous cycle, although individual differences were great. It was also clear that all bacterial species tended to decrease in the menstrual ...
Goy R W - - 1996
Eight pregnant rhesus monkeys were injected with 100 microg diethylstilbestrol dipropionate (DESDP) from the 40th day of gestation until term, a long-term treatment. Male (n = 3) and female (n = 5) offspring were obtained. Five other pregnant females were injected with DESDP beginning on the 115th day of gestation ...
Goldman M - - 1996
Circumcision seems to reduce the overall incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI), although a few studies have suggested that ritual circumcision may be a predisposing factor for UTI within the first 2 weeks following the procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible causal relationship between ritual ...
Okada K - - 1996
The ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) systems of 14 species of Cladosporium were determined. The genus was divided into two groups based on the distribution of the major ubiquinones, Q-10 and Q-10(H2). The group containing Q-10 consisted of six species, four of which were human pathogens, whereas the group containing Q-10(H2) consisted ...
Aruguete M S - - 1996
7 groups of squirrel monkeys were observed to assess the effect of infants on social interactions and interanimal distances among adult members of their natal groups. Each group contained one or two infants, 5 to 7 months of age at the start of the study. Infants initiated affiliative and playful ...
Phillips N K - - 1996
PURPOSE: A monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model was previously used to assess infant hyperexcitability after prenatal exposure to phenytoin (PHT), stiripentol (STP) or PHT+STP. To explore this issue further, we studied additional monkey infants in those groups, as well as groups prenatally exposed to carbamazepine (CBZ) in monotherapy (n = 5) ...
Coe C L - - 1996
Cellular immune responses were evaluated in 35 infant rhesus monkeys generated from two types of pregnancy conditions. Pregnant females were administered either saline or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for 2 weeks between Days 120 and 133 postconception, approximately 1 month before parturition. After birth, lymphocytes obtained from infants in the ACTH ...
Ziegler T E - - 1996
The socially monogamous cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) monkey is a cooperative breeder with the breeding male providing extensive parental care shortly after birth. We examined the relationship of urinary prolactin and cortisol excretion both to male parental care and as a stress response in the cotton-top tamarin monkey. First-morning urine ...
Crawford M L - - 1996
Prismatic binocular dissociation was used during infancy to mimic conditions of strabismus in macaque infants. Prisms worn continuously produce a diplopia unfavorable for the maintenance and development of the binocular visual system. Prism-reared monkeys were tested as young adults and found to be permanently stereoblind for dynamic random dot stereograms. ...
Clarke A S - - 1996
In this report we present evidence that early social experience influences aspects of the function of brain biogenic amine systems, most notably the noradrenergic system. Biogenic amine activity was studied in mother- vs. peer-reared monkey infants over the first 6 months of life and in response to two housing transitions. ...
Burgner D P - - 1996
An infant with a 46XY karyotype was born with ambiguous genitalia, including microphallus and perineal hypospadias. A female gender was assigned due to extreme failure of development of the external genitalia. Subsequent investigations demonstrated panhypopituitarism, and it is believed that severe gonadotrophin deficiency was responsible for the intersex state. This ...
Brent L - - 1996
The history of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) breeding colony of the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research was evaluated over a 24-year period to determine age at conception, breeder rearing history, maternal competence, and infant rearing history. The records of 107 breeders and 268 live births were reviewed. Of the breeders ...
Renfree M B - - 1996
In male tammar wallabies, the scrotum is the first organ to become sexually differentiated, 4-5 days before birth (day 22 of gestation). This is followed by enlargement of the gubernaculum and processus vaginalis one day before birth. However the indifferent gonad does not show any signs of testicular cord formation ...
Lesage J - - 1996
It is noteworthy that exposure to opiates during fetal development results in permanent changes in adults related to morphological, behavioral and biochemical measures; however little is known concerning the effects of such drugs in early postnatal life. We investigated in newborn rats the effects of prenatal morphine-exposure on both-the hypothalamic ...
de Waal F B - - 1996
Maternal affiliative relations may be transmitted to offspring, similar to the way in which maternal rank determines offspring rank. The development of 23 captive female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was followed from the day of birth until adulthood. A multivariate analysis compared relations among age peers with affiliative relations, kinship, ...
Kelly E J - - 1996
Human Menkes disease and the murine Mottled phenotype are X-linked diseases that result from copper deficiency due to mutations in a copper-effluxing ATPase, designated ATP7A. Male mice with the Mottled-Brindled allele (Mo-brJ) accumulate copper in the intestine, fail to export copper to peripheral organs and die a few weeks after ...
Darsie R F RF - - 1996
A revised list of the mosquito species known to occur in Mexico contains 20 genera, 37 subgenera, and 225 species. Several supraspecific categories have been described and species reassigned since the last list was published in 1956. Based on present knowledge, there are 29 species that are known only from ...
Ross R R School of Physical and Health Education, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, - - 1996
The first objective was to determine the associated sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (false positives) associated with the use of waist circumference (WC) to predict specific visceral adipose tissue (VAT) levels. Because WC is a strong correlate of VAT, and, a WC of 100 cm and a VAT area of ...
Brockman D K - - 1996
Female sifaka mate selectively with one or more resident and/or non-resident males during the breeding season. Various adaptive explanations have been advanced to explain why female primates mate with multiple males including that 1) females seek to confuse paternity and thereby forestall male infanticide and/or ensure male infant care or ...
Le S Q - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow monosomy 7 is an uncommon disorder of the pluripotent stem cells that leads to frequent childhood infections and leukemia. Primary adrenal hypoplasia occurs very rarely and is incompatible with life. Male pseudohermaphroditism results from inadequate androgen secretion or inappropriate androgen action. We report a case of monosomy ...
Mann D R - - 1996
It appears from the evidence documented in this Commentary that the neonatal period is another critical stage in the process of sexual, behavioural and immune system development and maturation in primates. Interference with normal brain-pituitary-gonadal function during this period (e.g. with a GnRH analogue in monkeys) appears to impact adversely ...
Tryphonas H - - 1996
Cross-reactivity between several commercially available mouse antihuman monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) fluorochromes, and peripheral blood leukocyte surface antigens, has been established in infant cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) monkeys using whole blood lysis, and two-color, PE and FITC flow cytometric analysis. With the exception of ...
Sun J - - 1996
Human locomotion on inclined surfaces has been little studied. This work investigated uphill and downhill walking of urban pedestrians on slopes of up to 9 degrees. During a 3-month period, the gait characteristics of 1200 female and 1200 male pedestrians were recorded as they traversed a ramp of naturally varying ...
Coplan J D - - 1996
There is increasing evidence for an important role of adverse early experience on the development of major psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an endogenous neuropeptide, is the primary physiological regulator of the mammalian stress response. Grown nonhuman primates who were exposed as infants to adverse early rearing conditions ...
Hauser M D - - 1996
Research has demonstrated that human infants and nonhuman primates have a rudimentary numerical system that enables them to count objects or events. More recently, however, studies using a preferential looking paradigm have suggested that preverbal human infants are capable of simple arithmetical operations, such as adding and subtracting a small ...
Nakano Y - - 1996
The development of quadrupedal walking in infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) was studied on the basis of their footfall patterns. Lateral views of the walking of 5 monkeys were taken by a video-camera and the timing of touchdown and liftoff was recorded. The total number of trials was 435. The ...
Jain N - - 1995
Expression of GAP-43, a neuronal specific growth associated phosphoprotein, has been highly correlated with the growth and remodeling of the nervous system during development and regeneration. As part of an effort to understand mechanisms of developmental plasticity in the somatosensory system, we determined how the expression of GAP-43 is affected ...
Maestripieri D - - 1995
This study investigated whether rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mothers distinguish between what is dangerous to themselves and what is dangerous to their infants. The behavioral interactions between 11 mother-infant pairs and other females living in their group were analyzed in the 1st 2 months of infant life. Mothers behaved as ...
Drea C M - - 1995
This study investigated the relationship between neonatal testosterone (T) and hand bias in young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Subjects (n = 8 per group) included: neonatally androgen-suppressed males, using a Nal-Lys gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (Antide); androgen-suppressed males receiving T replacement by a long-acting T preparation (CDB); control males; ...
Wilcox R M - - 1995
Scent counter-marking is a wide-spread phenomenon among mammals that is not well understood. Using a habituation paradigm, it was found that male golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) exposed to partially overlapping scents of 2 females behaved on test trials as if they remembered the top scent but not the bottom scent. ...
Johnson R L - - 1995
This paper provides an analysis of infant body weights obtained from a sample of 38 rhesus monkey infants (Macaca mulatta) aged 29-165 days, i.e., animals still nutritionally dependent on their mothers. We examine the data on neonatal weights in relation to a number of factors, most notably, the sex of ...
Wickings E J - - 1995
DNA fingerprints using three oligonucleotide probes, a (GTG)5 short tandem repeat sequence, and 2 corresponding to the core sequences of minisatellites 33.15 and 33.6, have been used to generate DNA fingerprints of a captive colony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) housed at the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), ...
de Freitas Burity C H - - 1995
The allometric relationship between the weight of the heart and the body measurements was analyzed in 31 primates of genus Callithrix (C. jacchus and C. penicillata). The data were analyzed after logarithmic transformation using the model: Ln Y = Ln a + (b) Ln X. We compared with the t-test ...
Trifiletti R - - 1995
A large Sicilian kinship in which myotonic dystrophy (DM) affected spanning four generations is presented. The pedigree clearly illustrates the phenomenon of anticipation, and illustrates that this phenomenon is more marked when transmission occurs through an affected female rather than an affected male. The pedigree is interpreted in light of ...
Hartwig W C - - 1995
Among primates, squirrel monkeys uniquely possess an interorbital fenestra, in which the midline bony orbitosphenoid septum is largely absent and the soft tissues of the orbits are separated only by a thin membrane. Neural development may contribute to the approximation of the orbits to the midline in Saimiri, insofar as ...
Mes J - - 1995
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) analyses were made on prenecropsy blood samples and postmortem adipose, liver, kidney, and brain tissues from female rhesus monkeys fed a daily dose of 0, 5, 20, 40, or 80 micrograms Aroclor 1254/kg body weight for approximately 6 years. During this time, the females were bred with ...
Boyce W T - - 1995
Five nursery-reared rhesus (Macaca mulatta) infants were studied on 8 consecutive days over a period of 2 weeks when they ranged from 4 to 5.5 months. Saliva cortisol samples were obtained by giving each animal, while in its individual home cage, a 6-in. cotton dental roll pretreated with sugared fruit-drink ...
Arnold D L - - 1995
A group of 80 menstruating rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys were randomly allocated to four similar test rooms (20 monkeys/room) and then randomly allocated within each room to one of five dose groups (four females/dose group/room). Each day, the monkeys self-ingested capsules containing doses of 0, 5, 20, 40 or 80 ...
Lubach G R - - 1995
In animals, perturbations of the rearing environment have been shown to alter behavior, cognition, and physiology, including immune responses. In order to evaluate the effect of early rearing conditions on the development of immune responses in the infant primate, several immunological measures were assessed in rhesus monkey infants, nursery-reared (NR) ...
Webster M J - - 1995
As part of a long-term study designed to examine the ontogeny of visual memory in monkeys and its underlying neural circuitry, we have examined the subcortical connections of the inferior temporal cortex in infant monkeys and compared them to those previously described in adult monkeys (Webster et al. [1993] J. ...
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