Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 973
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >
Kutsukake Nobuyuki - - 2002
We document here an unusual case of intense aggression against an infant male from another group by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Mahale Mountains National Park, in Tanzania. Adult males of the study group collectively attacked an unknown male infant. Although an unknown female, probably the mother, tried to ...
St Amant Diane C - - 2002
Epidemiological studies suggest H(2)O(2)-producing lactobacilli protect women against gonorrhea. Here we demonstrate that Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus jensenii, the most common lactobacilli in the female genital tract, inhibit gonococci in both acidic and neutral pH conditions. Inhibition was neutralized by bovine catalase, suggesting that H(2)O(2) is the primary mediator of ...
Batista M - - 2002
The effects of bilateral vasectomy on the seminal characteristics were assessed in six bucks of the Canarian breed. In addition, we tried to establish the effects of vasectomy on the plasmatic concentrations of testosterone and the libido of the bucks. Semen samples were collected once a week from 8 weeks ...
Carrai Valentina - - 2003
In this study we report preliminary data on the consumption of tannin-rich plants by sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) living in the Kirindy forest, western Madagascar. Sifakas spent most of their time feeding on only a few plant species. The tannin intake during the period between the pregnancy and birth season ...
Shintani Norihito - - 2002
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a highly conserved neuropeptide and widely expressed in both brain and peripheral tissues, including several reproductive organs (e.g., testis and ovary). PACAP stimulates syntheses of several sexual hormones and steroids, suggesting it has possible roles in reproductive function. In this study, the role of ...
Cappon G D - - 2002
Peroxisome proliferators are a class of nongenotoxic rodent hepatocarcinogens that cause peroxisome proliferation and liver tumors when administered to rats and mice; but other species, including guinea pigs, dogs, and primates are less sensitive or refractory to the induction of peroxisome proliferation. Therefore, rodent peroxisome proliferators are not believed to ...
Levi Fabio - - 2002
Trends in death certification rates from non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) were analyzed on the basis of the World Health Organization database over the period 1969-1998. Until the late 1970s, mortality from NHL was similar in the European Union (EU), the USA and Japan, i.e. around 3/100,000 males and 2/100,000 females. Over ...
Bailey Michael T - - 2002
The intestinal microflora of common marmosets and rhesus monkeys were compared by enumerating bacteria from the small and large intestines. Rhesus monkeys had a consistent microflora pattern manifest by higher concentrations of total and Gram-negative aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, as well as aerobic and anaerobic Lactobacilli, in the large ...
Watts David P - - 2002
Infanticide by males has been recorded in four chimpanzee populations, including that in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Some infanticidal attacks occur during inter-community aggression. The sexual selection hypothesis does not easily explain these attacks because they may not directly increase male mating opportunities. However, females in the attackers' community may ...
Wong Bob B M - - 2002
Certain orchids produce flowers that mimic the sex pheromones and appearance of female insects in order to attract males by sexual deception for the purpose of pollination. In a series of field experiments, we found that the sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, can have a negative impact on its wasp ...
Pryce Christopher R - - 2002
Rat, monkey, and human infants have evolved to expect certain patterns of care. Spontaneous or experimental deviations of care from the norm result in infant stress responses. Hyperactivity of immature stress systems such as the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the limbic-sympatho-adrenomedullary axis can alter their subsequent reactivity across the life span.
Hennessy Michael B - - 2002
Although the guinea pig is characterized by precocial physical development and minimal active maternal care, studies suggest the presence of the mother can influence neuroendocrine and behavioral activity of offspring even well beyond weaning. Previous results may have been influenced by the procedure of housing weaned subjects with the mother ...
Gros-Louis Julie - - 2002
Primate vocalizations that appear to occur independently of specific contexts typically are considered to be contact calls. However, results from several recent studies indicate that these calls function to facilitate social interactions. White-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) emit a high-frequency vocalization, termed a "trill," in social interactions and during travel. ...
Brown Charles R - - 2002
Comparisons across bird species have indicated that those more exposed to parasites and pathogens invest more in immunological defence, as measured by spleen size. We investigated how spleen volume varied with colony size, parasite load and an individual's colony-size history in the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, a colonial passerine bird ...
Leihy Michael W - - 2002
Secretion of 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (5alpha-adiol) by the testes of the tammar wallaby is responsible for initiation of prostatic development after d 20 in male pouch young. To ascertain the role of this hormone in the subsequent growth and differentiation of the prostate and in the development of the male phallus, 5alpha-adiol ...
Oksanen Tuula A - - 2002
We used exogenous gonadotropin hormones to physiologically enlarge litter size in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). This method allowed the study design to include possible production costs of reproduction and a trade-off between offspring number and body size at birth. Furthermore, progeny rearing and survival and postpartum survival of the ...
Hall Jason P W - - 2002
A fully resolved cladogram for 19 species in the Charis cleonus group of riodinid butterflies, which have closely parapatric ranges throughout the Amazon basin, is used to derive an area cladogram for the region. This represents the first comprehensive species-level analysis using insects and results in a hypothesis of Amazonian ...
Krokos F D - - 2002
Studies to determine possible differences in the pheromone communication system of three different populations of the corn stalk borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) in France. Spain. and Greece were carried out. The two main pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), were detected in all analyses with very small differences ...
Svensson Glenn P - - 2002
The short-term evolutionary effect of pheromone-based mating disruption on the mating ability of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was investigated. Three independent selection lines were established, and the mating ability of moths in plastic tents treated with high doses of pheromone and in control tents was compared for two ...
Howard Ralph W - - 2002
Cuticular hydrocarbons of an ectoparasitic wasp attacking two beetle hosts have been identified and examined for the influence of age, gender, mating status, and host on hydrocarbon composition. The 37 wasp hydrocarbons identified consisted of a series of n-alkanes (C16 to C33), 3-, 5-, 9-, 10-, 11-, and 12-methyl alkanes ...
Retallack Gregory J - - 2002
The middle Miocene (15 Ma) Maboko Formation of Maboko Island and Majiwa Bluffs, southwestern Kenya, has yielded abundant fossils of the earliest known cercopithecoid monkey (Victoriapithecus macinnesi), and of a kenyapithecine hominoid (Kenyapithecus africanus), as well as rare proconsuline (Simiolus leakeyorum, cf. Limnopithecus evansi) and oreopithecine apes (Mabokopithecus clarki, M. ...
Kee Chea-su - - 2002
PURPOSE: Human infants exhibit a high prevalence of astigmatism. Although macaque monkeys are commonly used as animal models in experiments on early ocular growth and emmetropization, the prevalence of astigmatism in infant monkeys is unexplored. In this study we examine the prevalence and nature of astigmatism in infant monkeys. METHODS: ...
Blanchard Ray - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to confirm a previous finding that homosexual males with older brothers weigh less at birth than do heterosexual males with older brothers. The subjects comprised 250 feminine boys referred to a child psychiatry service because of extreme cross-gender wishes or behavior and assumed, on ...
Gifford A - - 2002
We report a possible case of extended gestation in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus. Birth of a pouch young was first observed 127 days after the removal of the male from a multi-female colony at Taronga Zoo. No other males were present at that time or had access to the facility. ...
Waller C M - - 2002
The effect of mating frequency on fertility and litter size of sows, kept in outdoor production systems was investigated. Sows that were mated once or twice during a single oestrus were included in the study to compare the effect of number of matings on farrowing rate and litter size. Natural ...
Smith Eric L P - - 2002
Exposure of primate infants to adverse rearing conditions during the first half year of life can result in enduring behavioral, neuroendocrine, and immunologic abnormalities. However, the effects of differential rearing on cytokines, some of which can regulate immune and inflammatory responses and modulate activity of the central nervous system and ...
Gerald Melissa S - - 2002
Dominance is often presumed to confer priority of access to resources. This study evaluated the relationship between two assessments of dominance: (1) social dominance, based on agonistic interactions and (2) feeding priority among pairs of unfamiliar adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) differing in scrotal colour, but matched for height, ...
Kawasaki Katsuyoshi - - 2002
A novel and simple assay system using a 96-well ELISA plate was established for measuring serum oxytocin in cynomolgus monkeys. This method omits the centrifuge for B/F separation because the second anti-rabbit IgG antibody-coated ELISA plate can easily separate the first anti-oxytocin rabbit antibody-bound radiolabeled oxytocin. Since this method has ...
Muller Martin N - - 2002
Genital masculinization in female spotted hyenas has been widely explained as an incidental consequence of high androgen levels. High androgen levels, in turn, were supposed to be favored because they led to adaptive aggressive behavior. Incidental androgenization is no longer a tenable hypothesis, however, because genital masculinization has been shown ...
Sackett Gene P - - 2002
Nursery-reared primates do not experience psychological "maternal bonding" or immunological benefits of breast milk, so they are expected to be inferior to mother-raised monkeys in growth, health, survival, reproduction, and maternal abilities. Studies of nursery-reared monkeys support aspects of this prediction for infants deprived of social contact or raised in ...
Bayley Mark - - 2002
It has been thoroughly established that the fungicide vinclozolin and the persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE, can function as antiandrogens in mammals in a manner similar to the therapeutic antiandrogen flutamide. In mammals, these chemicals bind the androgen receptor and prevent the transcription of the associated genes causing abnormal sexual development ...
Smith Earl L EL - - 2002
PURPOSE: To characterize the temporal integration properties of the mechanisms responsible for form-deprivation myopia (FDM), the effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision on the degree of FDM were investigated in infant monkeys. METHODS: Starting at approximately 3 weeks of age, unilateral form deprivation was produced in 24 infant ...
Gomes Ursula R - - 2002
In previous experiments based on color vision discrimination of Munsell chips, Pessoa et al. (Behav Brain Res 1997;89:285-8) presented evidence of trichromatic color vision in capuchin monkeys. However, the possibility of subjects using brightness cues was not eliminated. The purpose of the present study was to reassess the color perception ...
Reinhardt Viktor - - 2002
Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common hus-bandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Re-gional Primate Research Centers have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of about 1 year (Hall & DeVore, 1965; ...
Montú Monica A - - 2002
Ergasilus euripedesi is redescribed from newly collected material of both sexes. A new genus, Gauchergasilus, is proposed, with Gauchergasilus euripedesi n. comb., formerly Ergasilus euripedsi Montú, 1980, as its type and only species. The new genus is characterised principally by the five-segmented antennule, the presence of a conspicuous barb on ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2002
Six experiments based on visual preference procedures were conducted to examine gender categorization of female versus male faces by infants aged 3 to 4 months. In experiment 1, infants familiarized with male faces preferred a female face over a novel male face, but infants familiarized with female faces divided their ...
Champoux M - - 2002
A polymorphism in the serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with measures of 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression and 5-HT-mediated behaviors in humans. An analogous length variation of the 5-HTTLPR has been reported in rhesus monkeys (rh5-HTTLPR). A retrospective association study was conducted on 115 rhesus macaque infants ...
Rohr D H - - 2001
The developmental transition from a residential, immature 'yellow' eel to a migratory, maturing adult 'silver' eel is accompanied by many morphological changes that appear to be under endocrine control. High circulating levels of the teleost, and usually male-specific, androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) are found in migrating female short-finned eels, Anguilla australis. ...
Pamplona-Basilio M - - 2001
The ultrastructure of the male reproductive system of Didymocystis wedli was studied for the first time, demonstrating spermiogenesis and spermatogenesis at different cell stages. The spermatozoa morphology was compared with that of other Digenea species. It was observed that the different cells of the spermatogenesis process follow the classic pattern ...
Strier K B - - 2001
We monitored the birth patterns of sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) during a 4-yr period from October 1996 to August 2000 at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brown howler monkey births (n = 34) occurred throughout the year, and ...
Bentley-Condit V K - - 2001
Infant handling has been documented in numerous species. Among cercopithecines, interaction motivations are reported to range from aunting to kidnapping; these interactions are often distressful for both mother and infant. Here we examine handling by adult female yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus) at the Tana River National Primate Reserve, Kenya, ...
Bull N J - - 2001
Sex allocation patterns and colony productivity are examined in Exoneura nigrescens, a social allodapine bee. As for previous studies on Australian allodapine bees, numerical sex ratios were strongly female biased in the smallest broods, but neared equality in larger broods. Local fitness enhancement has been suggested previously to explain female-biased ...
Uller C - - 2001
The "violation of expectancy" looking-time methodology has proven a powerful tool for exploring prelinguistic mental representations in human infants as well as in nonhuman primates. Four studies applying this methodology to the question of spontaneous number representations in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) are reported here. Monkeys were shown 1 + ...
Bishnupuri K S - - 2001
To date, the phenomenon of maternal transfer of hormones to the young is an enigma. The present study explains for the first time the maternal transfer of melatonin (MEL) to the young, affecting neonatal growth and sexual maturation. The suckling pups of MEL-treated mothers exhibited significant decreases in body, testicular, ...
Light D M - - 2001
Ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both ...
Dooley J W - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In 1993, the U.S. Secretary of Defense opened combat aircraft assignments to women. To verify the adequacy of acceleration (+Gz) protection for female high-G aircrew, USAF investigators conducted fit tests of standard and developmental G-protective equipment and determined the effectiveness of a unique laboratory modification (AL Mod) of the ...
Watts M M - - 2001
The effects of the xenoestrogens ethinylestradiol (EE) and bisphenol A (BPA) on the survival and reproductive behaviour of the amphipod Gammarus pulex were determined in a series of bioassays. Acute toxicity of the test chemicals was determined under static conditions, revealing 10 d median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of 0.84 and ...
Ménard N - - 2001
In species with a promiscuous mating system, the functions of male-infant caretaking remain unclear in the absence of genetic paternity tests. We tested paternal investment and hypotheses concerning reproductive tactics in wild groups of Barbary macaques, including results of genetic paternity tests. Our study revealed that male-infant caretaking was not ...
Champoux M - - 2001
Previous studies have demonstrated that experimentally altering the accessibility and availability of food can have profound impact on behavior and adrenocortical activity in nonhuman primate species. In this study, groups of mother-infant squirrel monkey dyads were housed in either high demand (HFD: 120% normal daily food intake provided), low demand ...
Bachevalier J - - 2001
Normal infant monkeys and infant monkeys with neonatal damage to either the medial temporal lobe or the inferior temporal visual area were assessed in dyadic social interactions at 2 and 6 months of age. Unlike the normal infant monkeys, which developed strong affiliative bonds and little or no behavioral disturbances, ...
< 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >