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Results 201 - 250 of 346
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Gross G J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterise the development of the transient outward current (Ito) in atrial myocytes of infants and children. METHODS: Whole cell voltage clamp was used to study outward currents in enzymatically isolated atrial myocytes from infants and children ranging in age from 3 days to 13.2 years. ...
Fraser K E - - 1995
The hammock suspension technique for hip spica cast application in children utilizes a classic suspension system to support infants during application of the hip spica cast. The suspension system is simple and safe, and requires only readily available materials. The suspension system is exceptionally well-tolerated by infants. This technique was ...
Machado C S - - 1994
Intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) counts were histologically assessed in the jejunum, ileum and appendix of 39 neonates (0-28 days), 32 infants (1-9 months) and 13 children (1-9 years). Small intestinal mucosa samples were obtained from 73 autopsies, and from 8 surgical and 3 aspirative biopsies. IEL counts of specimens from the ...
Sodeyama N - - 1994
Soluble beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor derivatives (APPs) in cerebrospinal fluid from infants, children, adults and aged individuals were treated with neuraminidase. In the samples from infants, reduction of molecular weight of APPs following neuraminidase treatment was significantly less than those from adults or aged individuals. Hyposialylation of beta/A4 amyloid protein ...
Norris M K - - 1994
Nutritional needs and management of critically ill infants and children are complex and fundamentally different from adults. In addition to common physiologic issues of nutrition during acute illnesses, infants and children have nutritional needs related to growth and development of the whole child as well as individual organ systems. Critical ...
Ozand P T - - 1994
Three infants with malonic aciduria are reported, one of whom could be studied in detail. All children had severe and progressive encephalopathy with intermittent ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. One infant died of cardiomyopathy. Biochemical studies revealed that one patient had neither malonyl-CoA decarboxylase nor glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies. This variant of malonic ...
Meretoja O A - - 1994
This study was undertaken to see if infants are more sensitive than children to a combination of atracurium and vecuronium in an equipotent dose ratio: (microgram: microgram) 5:1 in infants and 4:1 in children. We studied 15 infants (1-11 months old) and 15 children (3-10 yr old) during nitrous oxide-oxygen-alfentanil ...
Crawford F A FA - - 1994
A variety of cardiac rhythm disturbances that occur in infants and children may be refractory to medical or catheter ablation therapy, or both, and thus require surgical ablation. These dysrhythmias include Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, atrial automatic tachycardia, atrioventricular node reentry tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardia. The surgical technique originally used in adults ...
Chessells J M - - 1994
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is rare under 1 year and has a poor prognosis. Only 14 of 48 infants treated on two consecutive MRC UKALL trials remain alive in first remission. Forty infants have subsequently been treated on a protocol incorporating further intensification with an option for high-dose chemotherapy and ...
Donahue M C - - 1994
Golytely (GLP) is a commonly used oral preparation for infants and children undergoing intestinal surgery. Although the composition of GLP, a nonabsorbable electrolyte lavage solution, is designed to avoid electrolyte shifts and dehydration, systematic evaluation of the effects of this preparation on the hydration status and serum electrolytes of infants ...
Spinelli H M - - 1994
This study was undertaken to evaluate several concerns regarding the extradural space resulting from elective fronto-orbital advancement or frontal sinus cranialization techniques. The questions are (1) Do infants undergoing these techniques have the potential to obliterate this space at an accelerated rate, e.g., within 1 or 2 days? (2) Do ...
Ihara T - - 1994
The generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the reactive oxygen species, by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) stimulated by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied in infants by cytofluorography. After heparinized whole blood was incubated with bacteria for 60 min, generated H2O2 was measured. The positive rate of H2O2 generation ...
Brian J - - 1994
Infant cordials containing opium were commonly used in Victorian England to quieten babies and young children. The cordials were freely available and sold under a variety of brand names. JANET BRIAN describes the slow progress towards legislative control of the sale of opium and its use in infant cordials, in ...
Fagundes Neto U - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: We documented asymptomatic environmental enteropathy, which may occur in low socioeconomic populations, and which is manifested by bacterial proliferation in the upper portions of the small bowel and by alterations in the digestive-absorptive capacity. DESIGN: Forty asymptomatic infants (< 1 year) of the Cidade Leonor slum in São Paulo, ...
Cauldwell C B - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Mivacurium's rapid onset and short duration of action in children suggests that intramuscular administration might treat laryngospasm and facilitate tracheal intubation without producing prolonged paralysis. Accordingly, the authors measured the neuromuscular effects of intramuscular mivacurium in anesthetized infants and children. METHODS: Twenty unpremedicated infants and children (3 months to ...
Sahney S - - 1994
Renal biopsy is a technically difficult procedure in children. Some centers are still using general anesthesia, fluoroscopy, and/or open renal biopsies in young infants. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of two different types of 18-gauge, automated, spring-loaded disposable biopsy needles in 43 children, aged 8 months to 16 years, ...
Byrne W J - - 1994
Children, particularly infants, frequently put objects into their mouths, and occasionally these objects are swallowed. Fortunately, most foreign bodies are harmless and will pass spontaneously through the gastrointestinal tract. Some foreign bodies such as the rare bezoar or caustic substances, provide unique clinical challenges. This article provides guidelines for the ...
Neu A M - - 1993
Chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) is a common form of renal replacement therapy in children. Recent studies suggest that immunological abnormalities, in particular hypogammaglobulinemia, may develop in children and infants on peritoneal dialysis. We report an infant maintained on CPD who died of gram-negative sepsis. At post-mortem examination, he was noted ...
Jaskiewicz J A - - 1993
The old dogma of conservative management and hospitalization for all young febrile infants may no longer be necessary or considered the best option for many febrile infants encountered by practitioners today. All infants will continue to require individualized decisions regarding their care by astute clinicians well-versed in the best options ...
Baraff L J - - 1993
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines for the care of infants and children from birth to 36 months of age with fever without source. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: An expert panel of senior academic faculty with expertise in pediatrics and infectious diseases or emergency medicine. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: A comprehensive literature search ...
Leung A K - - 1993
A retrospective study of 9070 female infants born at the Foothills Provincial Hospital was conducted to determine the incidence of labial fusion at birth. A prospective study was also conducted on 1970 female patients assessed through a paediatric outpatient clinic to determine the incidence of labial fusion in this population. ...
Shenoy P - - 1993
A case of peritonsillar abscess in an infant is described, which is a rare lesion in infants and young children. To our knowledge this is the youngest child described in the English literature. The clinical presentation and treatment of peritonsillar abscess in infants and young children are discussed. Serious complications ...
Golinkoff R M - - 1993
Do infants and young children (two-year-olds) possess an implicit theory of mind which is revealed through their communicative interactions or are they simply treating their interlocutors as objects to manipulate in service to their own material ends? Shatz & O'Reilly (1990) criticized a paper by Golinkoff (1986) for claiming that ...
Yutani C - - 1993
To elucidate the mechanism of the development of atherosclerosis, we have investigated the cell population of phenotypes of contractile (C-SMC) and synthetic (S-SMC) states of SMCs at proximal and distal areas of bifurcation of the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries in children and young persons by transmission electron microscopy. The ...
Orlowski J P - - 1992
Pediatric euthanasia is currently practiced in the Netherlands on newborns, infants, children, and adolescents, although exact numbers are not known. Euthanasia in the Netherlands is generally assumed to be active and voluntary, but some cases of pediatric euthanasia would have to be characterized as nonvoluntary. Much of the motivation behind ...
Hutchings M E - - 1992
The binaural masking level difference (MLD) was measured in two groups of infants (aged 7-10 months) who either had or did not have a documented history of otitis media with effusion (OME). Subjects were trained to detect a 500 Hz signal (either in or out-of-phase between the ears) against an ...
Grubbauer H M - - 1992
Tick-borne encephalitis has not been reported in infants younger than 12 months of age. We report a 3.5-month-old child with a serologically proven tick-borne encephalitis. The infant had a history of a tick bite 3.5 weeks before the first symptoms of encephalitis appeared. The family lives in an endemic area ...
McLeod H L - - 1992
Maturation of physiologic process which govern the disposition of pharmacologic agents can yield significant changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs in neonates, infants and children. However, there are very little data concerning the disposition of anticancer drugs in young children. Pharmacokinetic data for six anticancer agents were ...
Birch J M - - 1992
Cancers in infants represent less than 0.05% of all malignant neoplasms, but form a particularly interesting group for study. The ratio of solid tumours to leukaemias is 2:1 in children aged 1-14 but 5:1 in infants less than 1 year. The rate for neuroblastoma which is the most common malignancy ...
Saunders K J - - 1992
We investigated the validity of replacing cycloplegic retinoscopy with a noncycloplegic, "near" retinoscopy technique. We refracted a group of 31 infants (less than 2 years) and 43 children (greater than 2 years) with both techniques, grading our level of confidence in the result. Near retinoscopy gave on average a less ...
Brock P R PR Department of Haematology and Oncology, Hospital for Sick Children, London, - - 1992
The tolerance to and toxicity of cisplatin treatment was retrospectively studied in 30 infants. A total of 191 courses were given with a median of six per child and a median cumulative dose of 400 mg m-2. Electrolyte disturbances were noted in 15/23 infants (38:144 courses): hypomagnesaemia, which was dose ...
den Hollander J M - - 1992
Changes induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may markedly affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil before and after CPB were compared in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery, who had been anesthetized with nitrous oxide in oxygen and low inspiratory concentrations of halothane. Six infants and six ...
Schroeder S A - - 1992
Five infants had interstitial pneumonitis with constant histologic findings, which was different from that previously described in children. All the infants presented with tachypnea at birth and persistent disease, both clinically and radiographically, despite treatment. Open-lung biopsy in each case showed a diffuse interstitial thickening due to pale oval and ...
Mutoh K - - 1992
We investigated the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) produced by median nerve stimulation in normal infants, children and adults, focussing upon the wave forms of the scalp far-field potentials (FFPs). In adolescents and adults, 3 or 4 positive FFPs preceded the widespread N18 component on the scalp, corresponding to P9, P11, ...
Hanisch D G - - 1992
Dysrhythmias in infants and children are, in many ways, similar to those in adults, yet several important differences exist in their presentation and management. Complex dysrhythmias most frequently encountered in pediatrics include sinus node dysfunction, chaotic atrial rhythm, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia (including Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and junctional ectopic tachycardia), complete ...
Newman K - - 1992
Nine young women who had clitoral recession for clitoromegaly as infants have been evaluated for anatomical appearance, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual function. Highly satisfactory anatomic results were obtained, although two patients required subsequent revision. The tested psychological parameters were essentially normal. Virtually all patients were sexually active and all but ...
Quiding H - - 1992
1. Codeine was administered rectally to thirteen infants and young children undergoing elective surgery. Nine infants (6-10 months old) received a 4 mg suppository and four children (3-4 years old) an 8 mg suppository. Codeine and its metabolite morphine were measured in plasma by GC/MS. 2. The mean concentrations of ...
Taylor R H - - 1991
We sought to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and hemodynamic responses to desflurane in 72 fasting and unpremedicated full-term neonates, infants, and children up to 12 yr of age. The patients were divided into six groups (n = 12) according to age. After awake tracheal intubation, neonates were anesthetized ...
Greenspan S I - - 1991
It is now possible to monitor, assess, and, where necessary, facilitate emotional development in infants, young children, and their families. The focus on the infant and the family from multiple aspects of development has made it possible to formulate developmental stages that focus on the infant's social and emotional functioning. ...
Hedman-Dennis S - - 1991
Infants and small children are physiologically different than adults. Because of these differences, the smaller patient is prone to hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hypovolemia, and hypothermia. This article reviews the physiological characteristics of infants and small children. Pertinent information to obtain when assessing the smaller patient is discussed as is the manner ...
Kondrashin A V - - 1991
Demographic Subsystem (DSS) comprising structure, distribution, along with its dynamic process has been identified to influence Malaria as Anthropo-Ecosystem (MAES) broadly in two ways. Innate characters of some essential elements of DSS viz. growth, age and sex composition, infants, children, young and old adults, non-pregnant and pregnant and lactating mothers ...
Slovis T L - - 1991
Detection of ventriculomegaly in a child with a ventricular shunt is important in the diagnosis of shunt malfunction. The feasibility of visualizing the ventricles through a 2-cm burr hole, with the use of a small-footprint 7-MHz transducer, was evaluated in five infants. Each burr hole remained patent during the study ...
Wells T R - - 1991
Disproportionately short trachea, can be recognized in AP chest radiographs of infants and older children taken during quiet respiration and showing an evaluable air tracheobronchogram, by the thoracic vertebral level of the carina (normally at T4 in neonates and infants, and at T5 in children two years of age or ...
al-Rasheed S A - - 1991
Postbiopsy hematoma was assessed using ultrasonography in 106 infants and children (age 1 month to 15 years) who underwent a total of 122 percutaneous renal biopsies. Postbiopsy hematoma occurred in 22 (21%) of 105 successful biopsies. However, only 2 of these were symptomatic. Renal failure, mild and moderate hypertension and ...
Meretoja O A - - 1990
This paper reviews the studies in which neuromuscular blocking drugs were compared in at least two different age groups of patients. Most recent studies have lead to a uniform concept of the variation of the effect of these drugs in different age groups. In general, the dose of a nondepolarizing ...
Fritts T H - - 1990
The brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis, is abundant on Guam and commonly invades human habitations. Data on emergency room visits on Guam document a high frequency of snakebites on Guam. Over 50% of the emergency room visits for snakebite involved children less than 4 years old. Records exist of 4 ...
Fivush B - - 1990
Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is being diagnosed with increasing frequency in the pediatric population and occurs in approximately 2.9-6.2% of normal children. The majority of children with IH are asymptomatic; however, the most common clinical presentation is that of isolated hematuria (gross or microscopic). The prevalence, presentation and clinical course of ...
Sterling G B - - 1990
A case of scabies infestation in a ten-week-old infant is described. Infestation in a neonate presents a clinical picture quite different from that found in older children and adults. Therapeutic options can be limited in infants. Current concepts and treatment modalities are discussed.
Blazy I - - 1989
We compared plasma active and inactive renin (prorenin) concentrations and activities in infants and children, as measured with a newly available direct immunoradiometric assay kit for active renin and a widely used enzymatic renin assay (plasma renin activity). The study was performed in 57 healthy infants and children under steady-state ...
Goldhagen J L - - 1989
Three case histories of young infants with supraglottitis are presented. At this age, supraglottitis rarely occurs. Atypical features, as compared to older children, include a viral prodrome, lack of fever, stomatitis, and negative blood cultures. Although viral supraglottitis has been previously reported, this is the first report of epiglottitis associated ...
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