Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1869
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Jakus Zoltán Z Department of Medicine, 2 Cardiovascular Institute, and 3 Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA - - 2014
Mammals must inflate their lungs and breathe within minutes of birth to survive. A key regulator of neonatal lung inflation is pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein complex which increases lung compliance by reducing alveolar surface tension (Morgan, 1971). Whether other developmental processes also alter lung mechanics in preparation for birth is ...
Stevens Jeni J School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, New South Wales, - - 2014
The World Health Organization and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund recommends that mothers and newborns have skin-to-skin contact immediately after a vaginal birth, and as soon as the mother is alert and responsive after a Caesarean section. Skin-to-skin contact can be defined as placing a naked infant onto ...
Boyce Rogely W RW Amgen Inc.,One Amgen Center Drive, MS 29-2-A, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
RANKL is a key regulator of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. Denosumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that inhibits bone resorption by binding and inhibiting the activity of RANKL. To determine the effects of denosumab on pre-and postnatal skeletal growth and development, subcutaneous injections of 0 (control) or 50mg/kg/month ...
Loots Clara C *Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Emma Children's Hospital, AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands †School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia ‡Pediatric Gastroenterology, Royal Children's Hospital Brisbane, Australia §Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Women's and Children's Health Network, Australia ||North Western Academic Centre University of Melbourne, Australia ¶School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia #Gastroenterology Unit, Women's and Children's Health Network, Adelaide, - - 2014
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce acid gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal acid exposure in infants. However, they do not reduce total GER nor symptoms attributed to GER. Reflux is reduced in the left lateral position (LLP). We hypothesize that the effect of LLP in combination with acid suppression is most ...
Bartholomew Julie J Department of Neonatology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, - - 2014
Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroids play an extremely important role in the management of premature infants. The antenatal administration of steroids has been universally implemented. They have not only been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), but also have an impact on the incidence of ...
Lee A-R AR Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju Special Self-governing Province, - - 2014
Catheterisation of the internal jugular vein (IJV) can be difficult in infants. We aimed to evaluate whether a simple manoeuvre, a slight caudo-lateral traction of the ipsilateral arm (CLTIA), could decrease the head rotation-induced overlap of the IJV to the carotid artery (CA) in infants. Twenty-five infants were included. The ...
Harsløf Laurine B S LB Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958, Frederiksberg C, - - 2014
Long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) improve blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile in adults and improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We have previously shown that n-3 LCPUFA reduces BP and plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in infants. Few studies have found effects on glucose homeostasis in humans. We explored possible effect ...
Li Zhiwen Z Institute of Reproductive and Child Health/Ministry of Health Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, - - 2014
Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The ...
Gonzales Gustavo F GF Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Honorio Delgado 430, Lima 31, Peru, - - 2014
To determine if correction of cut-offs of haemoglobin levels to define anaemia at high altitudes affects rates of adverse perinatal outcomes. Data were obtained from 161,909 mothers and newborns whose births occurred between 1,000 and 4,500 m above sea level (masl). Anaemia was defined with or without correction of haemoglobin (Hb) ...
Vandenplas Y Y UZ Brussel, Department of Paediatrics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, - - 2014
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or non-thickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of ...
Sherman Michael P MP aDepartment of Child Health bDepartment of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine cSinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri dDivision of Neonatal Medicine, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, Florida, - - 2014
There is an intense interest among neonatal caregivers as to whether lactoferrin given enterally may reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. This review presents scientific and clinical evidence that lactoferrin alleviates or prevents this life-threatening disease. Preclinical studies in neonatal rats showed that lactoferrin given orally before ...
McAdams Ryan M RM Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, - - 2014
Immediate umbilical cord clamping after delivery is routine in the United States despite little evidence to support this practice. Numerous trials in both term and preterm neonates have demonstrated the safety and benefit of delayed cord clamping. In premature neonates, delayed cord clamping has been shown to stabilize transitional circulation, ...
Thach B T BT Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Kirkwood, MO, - - 2014
Objective:Our aim was to evaluate programs promoting bed sharing on maternity wards and determining ways to reduce these risks.Study Design:Members of the National Association of Medical Examiners were contacted requesting information on deaths of healthy infants while bed sharing on maternity wards.Result:Fifteen deaths and three near deaths are reported. One ...
Janvier Annie A Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte Justine, Montréal, Quebec, - - 2014
To determine whether routine probiotic administration to very preterm infants would reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) without adverse consequences. Since the end of July 2011, we have administered a probiotic mixture to all admitted infants of <32 weeks' gestation. We give 0.5 g of a mixture of 4 bifidobacteria ...
Thust Stefanie Catherine SC Department of Neuroradiology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, - - 2014
An 11-week-old baby was brought to the paediatric emergency department by his mother with a 2-day history of inconsolable crying. On examination, clinical features of macrocephaly, separated sutures and 'sunsetting' of the eyes were noted. Abnormal head circumference measurements had been obtained on several occasions since birth, but were not ...
Bhutta Zulfiqar A ZA Division of Women and Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, - - 2014
The global burden of undernutrition remains high with little evidence of change in many countries. We reviewed the evidence of the potential nutritional interventions and estimated their effect on nutrition-related outcomes of women and children. Among the maternal interventions, daily iron supplementation results in a 69% reduction in incidence of ...
Roxby Alison C AC Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of - - 2014
Studies in HIV-1-infected infants and HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants link early cytomegalovirus (CMV) acquisition with growth delay and cognitive impairment. We investigated maternal valacyclovir to delay infant acquisition of CMV. Pregnant women with HIV-1, HSV-2 and CD4 count >250 cells/µl were randomized at 34 weeks gestation to 500 mg twice-daily valacyclovir ...
Gizaw Muluken M Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. - - 2014
Child mortality is an important indicator of a country's developmental status. Neonatal mortality and stillbirth shared a higher proportion of child deaths. However, in developing countries where there is no civil registration and most deliveries occur at home, it is difficult to measure the magnitude of neonatal mortality. Data from ...
Polin Richard A - - 2013
Respiratory failure secondary to surfactant deficiency is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Surfactant therapy substantially reduces mortality and respiratory morbidity for this population. Secondary surfactant deficiency also contributes to acute respiratory morbidity in late-preterm and term neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, and perhaps pulmonary ...
Paudel Deepak - - 2013
Nepal has made substantial progress in reducing under-five mortality and is on track to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4, but advances in neonatal health are less encouraging. The objectives of this study were to assess relative and absolute inequalities in neonatal mortality over time, and to review experience with major ...
Miyazaki Ken - - 2013
To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids (AC) therapy on outcomes of very low birthweight infants with histologic chorioamnionitis. We performed a retrospective analysis of 10,935 single infants born at a gestational age between 22 + 0 and 33 + 6 weeks and birth weight <1,500 g. Clinical data were obtained from the Neonatal Research Network ...
Wapner Ronald J - - 2013
Antenatal corticosteroids have been proven to accelerate fetal lung development and reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality when given between 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. However, there is only limited research to guide their use in the periviable period (22-26 weeks). Laboratory studies suggest that it is biologically plausible for ...
Jacobs Susan E - - 2013
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Late-onset sepsis frequently complicates prematurity, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Probiotics may reduce mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants, with unclear effect on late-onset sepsis. This study aimed to determine the effect of administering a specific combination of probiotics to very preterm infants on culture-proven late-onset ...
Belizán Jose M - - 2013
Premature birth is the world's leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global ...
de Almeida Maria Fernanda Branco - - 2013
To evaluate intervention practices associated with hypothermia at both 5 minutes after birth and at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and to determine whether hypothermia at NICU admission is associated with early neonatal death in preterm infants. This prospective cohort included 1764 inborn neonates of 22-33 weeks without malformations ...
Williams L Alison - - 2013
The review examines whether mode of feeding is associated with risk of hospitalisation for illness during infancy in developed countries. Databases were searched for published studies that included the terms "infant feeding" and "hospitalisation". Six studies were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation and adjusted analyses ...
Fischer Hendrik Stefan - - 2013
Nose and mouth leaks impair effective pressure transmission during neonatal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but little is known about how these leaks affect physiological parameters. This study investigated the influence of nose leaks and spontaneous mouth opening on peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR) using nasopharyngeal CPAP. ...
Milstone Aaron M - - 2013
Background:Chlorhexidine is a skin disinfectant that reduces skin and mucous membrane bacterial colonization and inhibits organism growth. Despite numerous studies assessing chlorhexidine safety in term infants, residual concerns have limited its use in hospitalized neonates, especially low birth weight, preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess the ...
Toda Tomohisa - - 2013
Although the mechanisms underlying the spatial pattern formation of sensory maps have been extensively investigated, those triggering sensory map formation during development are largely unknown. Here we show that the birth of pups instructively and selectively regulates the initiation of barrel formation in the somatosensory cortex by reducing serotonin concentration. ...
Thomas Wolfgang - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major sequel of extremely premature birth. Multiple ante- and postnatal factors act in concert to injure the immature lung in the pathogenesis of the disease. Among them, chorioamnionitis - according to current evidence - plays a pivotal role. Pulmonary inflammatory processes seen in animal models ...
Parker Leslie A - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease affecting premature infants with potentially devastating complications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Inadequate knowledge regarding the underlying pathophysiology of this disease has contributed to the minimal progress made in decreasing the incidence and severity of NEC. Because of an improved survival rate ...
Edwards Joan E - - 2013
Significant strides have been made in recent years to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality rates around the world. But in the United States, maternal mortality rates have increased from 6.6/100,000 live births in the 1980s and 1990s to somewhere between 13.3/100,000 live births, as reported by the Centers for Disease ...
Vandevusse Leona - - 2013
The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, critique, and synthesize the maternal and neonatal evidence on the prenatal use of probiotics and prebiotics to inform perinatal health professionals. A comprehensive literature search resulted in 37 studies of prenatal probiotics and 1 on antepartal prebiotics published from 1990 through ...
Marshall Peter J PJ Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, United - - 2013
A leading question in developmental social-cognitive neuroscience concerns the nature and function of neural links between action perception and production in early human development. Here we document a somatotopic pattern of activity of the sensorimotor EEG mu rhythm in 14-month-old infants. EEG was recorded during interactive trials in which infants ...
Gomes Cristiane Faccio - - 2013
To analyze the development of a method for using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) to evaluate the suckling of premature infants and describe five case reports. The five premature infants who took part in the study were submitted to sEMG evaluation of the masseter and buccinator muscles during different feeding methods. Higher ...
Ochiai Shingo - - 2013
Increasing evidence supports that harmful chemicals accumulating in the human body may pose a significant threat to infant health through foetal exposure. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are thought to enhance the risk for later development of allergic disease like atopic dermatitis (AD). However, few studies have evaluated the effect of ...
Bizzarro M J - - 2013
Objective:To reduce exposure to hyperoxia and its associated morbidities in preterm neonates.Study design:A multidisciplinary group was established to evaluate oxygen exposure in our neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were assigned target saturation ranges and signal extraction technology implemented to temporally quantify achievement of these ranges. The outcomes bronchopulmonary dysplasia/death, retinopathy ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2013
Moderate preterm, late preterm, and early term deliveries represent a major and growing public health concern. These deliveries are associated with significant financial burden and pose serious risks to mothers and newborns. Women who deliver at moderate and late gestational ages in one pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering ...
Manthey Carolin F - - 2013
Breastfeeding reduces the risk of enteric bacterial infections in newborns in part due to human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), complex glycans that are present in human milk, but not in infant formula. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are attaching/effacing pathogens that cause serious diarrheal illness with potentially high mortality in infants. We ...
Song Shige - - 2013
Using the 1959-1961 Chinese Great Leap Forward Famine as a natural experiment, this study examines the relationship between mothers' prenatal exposure to acute malnutrition and their children's infant mortality risk. According to the results, the effect of mothers' prenatal famine exposure status on children's infant mortality risk depends on the ...
Eriksson Lena - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious, chronic lung disease affecting preterm infants. To identify prenatal risk factors for BPD, focusing on inflammation. Observational cohort study including 106,339 preterm infants, live born before gestational week 37 + 0, from 1988 to 2009 in Sweden. A total of 2,115 infants were diagnosed with BPD, ...
Raets M M A - - 2013
Abstract The germinal matrix (GM) is a richly vascularized, transient layer near the ventricles. It produces neurons and glial cells, and is present in the foetal brain between 8 and 36 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks, it reaches its maximum volume and subsequently withers. The GM is vulnerable to ...
Hegyi Thomas - - 2013
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) infants have poor outcomes, often compromised by bilirubin neurotoxicity. We measured unbound bilirubin (Bf) and unbound free fatty acid (FFAu) levels in 5 ELBW infants in a trial examining the effects of pharmacologic ductal closure on infants treated with Intralipid infusion (3 g/kg/day). ...
- - 2013
Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant before his or her first birthday. The infant mortality rate (IMR) measures this occurrence per 1,000 live births. In addition to being a key marker of maternal and child health, the IMR has been called the most sensitive indicator of ...
Jakobsson Hedvig E - - 2013
The early intestinal microbiota exerts important stimuli for immune development, and a reduced microbial exposure as well as caesarean section (CS) has been associated with the development of allergic disease. Here we address how microbiota development in infants is affected by mode of delivery, and relate differences in colonisation patterns ...
McIntosh Christine G - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that a foam plastic insert that allows the infant head to rest in a neutral position in sleep may prevent obstruction of the upper airway and thus reduce episodes of reduced oxygenation in term infants in car seats.METHODS:Healthy full-term babies were randomized to be studied during ...
Fischer Doris - - 2013
Objective Therapeutic hypothermia is an established therapeutic regimen in severely asphyxiated term neonates. The amount of cerebral injury is reduced resulting in an improved neurologic outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia-induced side effects mostly affect the circulatory system, kidney, and liver. However, asphyxia and hypothermia in itself reduce the hemostatic capacity of each ...
Kato Toru - - 2013
Background and objectives: Conventional electroencephalogram (cEEG) is a reliable predictor of outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Early therapeutic hypothermia initiated within 6h after birth is a beneficial treatment in these infants. However, a classification system with reduced cEEG recording time to determine early intervention has not ...
Mawson Anthony R - - 2013
Postpartum depression (PPD) is an international public health problem affecting at least 1 in 8 mothers. Known risk factors include: giving birth to a preterm or low birth weight infant, babies with greater symptoms of illness at age 4-6 weeks, formula feeding, younger maternal age, smoking, and fatigue. Prolonged breastfeeding ...
Dasanayake Ananda P - - 2013
Scaling and root planing treatment for periodontitis to reduce preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Kim AJ, Lo AJ, Pullin DA, Thornton-Johnson DS, Karimbux NY. J Periodontol 2012;83:1508-19. Ananda P. Dasanayake, BDS, MPH, PhD, FACE PURPOSE/QUESTION: Authors perform an updated systematic ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >