Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1893
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Ren Baoping - - 2012
Allomaternal nursing, common in several species of social mammals, also has been reported in nonhuman primates. However, the function of this behavior in enhancing infant survivorship remains poorly understood. The study was conducted on a free-ranging group of the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) in the Baimaxueshan Natural Reserve. Direct ...
Laituri Carrie A - - 2012
Overnight observation for apneic events is standard practice in former preterm infants. However, the literature supporting current protocols is dated. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the post-anesthetic risks in these patients. A retrospective review was conducted on former preterm infants admitted after an inguinal herniorrhaphy between 1/00 and 10/09. The protocol ...
Resch Bernhard - - 2012
To assess the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in infants at high risk for severe RSV lower respiratory tract infection, such as premature infants, infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and those with congenital heart disease, based on long-term epidemiologic data from Austria. A decision-tree model ...
Onesimo Roberta - - 2012
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a relatively common condition, but atypical presentations can present a diagnostic challenge. We describe the case of a 9-week-old Latin male infant who presented with a 2-day history of intermittent crying and poor feeding. He was suspected to have intussusception but was affected by and successfully ...
Cyrus Alissa - - 2012
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the desirability of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) screening, the effectiveness of the consent process, and the feasibility of conducting DMD screening in a pediatric office. Methods. Infant males who attended a 12-month routine well-child visit at a participating pediatric clinic were ...
Morrison Barbara - - 2012
The critical period for establishing breastfeeding (BF) is during the first days after birth. However, some routine maternity unit care practices may be experienced as interruptions interfering with BF opportunities and satisfaction. Therefore, we wanted to describe the frequency and duration of interruptions; amount of time alone; number, length, success ...
Goodyear-Smith Felicity - - 2012
Children who have missed or delayed immunisations are at greater risk of vaccine-preventable diseases and getting their first scheduled dose on time strongly predicts subsequent complete immunisation. Developing a relationship with an infant's parents and general practice staff soon after birth followed by a systematic approach can reduce the number ...
Kabir Iqbal - - 2012
Suboptimal and inappropriate complementary feeding practices are one of the major causes of child undernutrition in the first 2 years of life in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to use the newly developed World Health Organization infant feeding indicators to identify the potential risk ...
Joshi Nira - - 2012
Inappropriate complementary feeding increases the risk of undernutrition, illness and mortality in infants and children. This study uses a subsample of 1428 children of 6-23 months from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2006. The 2006 NDHS was a multistage cluster sample survey. The complementary feeding indicators were estimated according ...
Ulak Manjeswori - - 2012
Promotion of proper breastfeeding practices for the first six months of life is the most cost-effective intervention for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. However, the adherence to breastfeeding recommendations in many developing countries is not satisfactory. The aims of the study were to determine breastfeeding and infant feeding patterns at ...
Dargaville Peter A - - 2012
Innovation in the field of exogenous surfactant therapy continues more than two decades after the drug became commercially available. One such innovation, lung lavage using dilute surfactant, has been investigated in both laboratory and clinical settings as a treatment for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Studies in animal models of MAS ...
Hajer S - - 2012
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of hereditary chronic anemias that manifest essentially as painful crisis and susceptibility to infection. Neonatal screening is a preventive action that reduces the rates of mortality due to complications arising from infections by encouraging early prophylactic penicillin use and pneumococcal vaccination. The purpose ...
Senarath Upul - - 2012
South Asian region has the highest global burden of child undernutrition, with almost 41% of children stunted, 16% wasted and 33% underweight. Improved feeding of children less than 2 years of age is particularly important because they experience rapid growth and development, and are vulnerable to illnesses such as acute ...
Inagaki Takayuki - - 2012
The management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is difficult and not well standardized. We evaluated our management protocol for infants with intraventricular and/or periventricular hemorrhage (IVH and PVH, respectively). There were four deaths and two significant treatment-related complications in our series. We also observed two cases of isolated ventricle in patients treated ...
Pimpalwar Ashwin P - - 2012
A 4-month-old female infant presented to our institute with recurrent pneumonia and was diagnosed with a right lower lobe esophageal bronchus. This congenital anomaly is extremely rare with very few cases reported in the literature. We describe the diagnostic workup and management that led to a successful outcome.
Ort Rebecca - - 2012
Ample data exists about the high precision of three-dimensional (3D) scanning devices and their data acquisition of the facial surface. However, a question remains regarding which facial landmarks are reliable if identified in 3D images taken under clinical circumstances. Sources of error to be addressed could be technical, user dependent, ...
Jackson Barbara J - - 2012
: To identify the efficacy of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III), Screening Test-Gross Motor Subtest (GMS) in identifying infants who are accepted for early intervention services. : This retrospective study included 93 infants with a neonatal intensive care experience who participated in a 6-month ...
Harris Michael - - 2012
A male infant born at 25&emsp14;weeks gestation presented with abdominal distension, was transferred to our institution for surgical management following suspected bowel perforation with severe sepsis. Umbilical catheter cultures grew Candida parapsilosis. At laparotomy, there was a large ileal perforation with peritonitis, he was treated with amphotericin, antibiotics and had ...
Karimi Mehran - - 2012
Various reasons accounted for the infection of infants kept at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Expressed breast milk may be regarded as a source of infection in infants. This study investigated the source of bacterial contamination and the impact of educational interventions on the contamination of mothers' expressed breast milk ...
Crowe Sonya - - 2012
The fifth Millennium Development Goal target for 90% of births in low and middle income countries to have a skilled birth attendant (SBA) by 2015 will not be met. In response to this, policy has focused on increasing SBA access. However, reducing maternal mortality also requires policies to prevent deaths ...
Namiiro Flavia B - - 2012
Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, ...
Weiss William J - - 2012
The Penn State Infant Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) is a 12-14 ml stroke volume pneumatically actuated pump, with custom Björk-Shiley monostrut valves, developed under the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Pediatric Circulatory Support program. In this report, we describe the seven most recent chronic animal studies of the Infant ...
Bamat Nicolas - - 2012
Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) of neonates has been used as a treatment of respiratory failure for over 30 years. While CMV facilitates gas exchange, it may simultaneously damage the lung. Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) has received less attention than other ventilation parameters when considering this balance of benefit and ...
Brehmer Felix - - 2012
Intrauterine infection and inflammation are major reasons for preterm birth. The switch from placenta-mediated to lung-mediated oxygen supply during birth is associated with a sudden rise of tissue oxygen tension that amounts to relative hyperoxia in preterm infants. Both infection/inflammation and hyperoxia have been shown to be involved in brain ...
Hill Kenneth - - 2012
Monitoring development indicators has become a central interest of international agencies and countries for tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. In this review, which also provides an introduction to a collection of articles, we describe the methodology used by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation to ...
Ashish K C - - 2012
Reducing neonatal death has been an emerging challenge in low and middle income countries in the past decade. The development of the low cost interventions and their effective delivery are needed to reduce deaths from birth asphyxia. This study will assess the impact of a simplified neonatal resuscitation protocol provided ...
Bennet Laura - - 2012
Fetuses at risk of premature delivery are now routinely exposed to maternal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids. In randomized clinical trials, these substantially reduce acute neonatal systemic morbidity, and mortality, after premature birth and reduce intraventricular hemorrhage. However, the overall neurodevelopmental impact is surprisingly unclear; worryingly, postnatal glucocorticoids are consistently associated ...
Lauzon-Guillain Blandine de Bd Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United - - 2012
To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of temperament derived ...
Seaton Sarah E SE Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, - - 2012
To assess time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in overall and cause-specific stillbirth rates in England. Population-based retrospective study. England. Stillbirths occurring among singleton infants born between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2007. Cause-specific stillbirth rate per 10 000 births by deprivation tenth and year of birth. Deprivation measured using the ...
Jadcherla Sudarshan R SR Neonatal and Infant Feeding Disorders Program, Center for Perinatal Research, Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Section of Neonatology, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43205, USA. - - 2012
In neonatal intensive care unit infants referred for home-tube feeding methods, we evaluated the effect of an innovative diagnostic and management approach on feeding outcomes at discharge and 1 year, by comparing data from historical controls; we hypothesized that clinical and aerodigestive motility characteristics at evaluation were predictive of feeding ...
Aslin Richard N RN Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, NY, USA. - - 2012
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive diffuse optical-imaging technique that can measure local metabolic demand in the surface of the cortex due to differential absorption of light by oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Over the past decade, NIRS has become increasingly used as a complement to other neuroimaging techniques, such as ...
Corrow Sherryse S Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA. - - 2012
Two experiments investigated infants' and adults' perception of 3D shape from line junction information. Participants in both experiments viewed a concave wire half-cube frame. In Experiment 1, adults reported that the concave wire frame appeared to be convex when it was viewed monocularly (with one eye covered) and that it ...
van Ganzewinkel Christ-Jan Jlm CJ Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Máxima Medical Centre, De Run 4600, 5504 DB Veldhoven, The Netherlands. - - 2012
Until now, studies on paracetamol given intravenously have mainly been performed with the pro-drug propacetamol or with paracetamol in preterm babies above 32 weeks of gestation. Studies in these babies indicate that intravenous paracetamol is tolerated well, however studies on the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol are lacking. There are no ...
Likwela Joris L - - 2011
Objective  To assess the effect of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) on birth weight in sites with varying degrees of drug resistance. Methods  Birth weight data from three regions in Democratic Republic of Congo with varying degrees of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance (1.6% in Mikalayi, 21.7% in Kisangani and 60.6% ...
Kang Huining - - 2012
Gene expression profiling was performed on 97 cases of infant ALL from Children's Oncology Group Trial P9407. Statistical modeling of an outcome predictor revealed 3 genes highly predictive of event-free survival (EFS), beyond age and MLL status: FLT3, IRX2, and TACC2. Low FLT3 expression was found in a group of ...
van Heugten Marieke - - 2011
PURPOSE: To examine the possibility that early signal-to-word form mapping capabilities are robust enough to handle substantial indexical variation in the realization of words. METHOD: 7.5-month-olds were tested using the Headturn Preference Procedure. Half of the infants were exposed to words embedded in passages spoken by their mother and tested ...
Van Kooij Britt J M - - 2011
Aim  To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods  Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g ...
Hahné Susan - - 2011
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, different hepatitis B vaccination schedules have been used for children born to HBV-infected mothers. All schedules included a birth dose of hepatitis B immunoglobuline (HBIg). We assessed determinants of perinatal HBV transmission and determinants of anti-HBs titers in infants born to HBsAg positive mothers. METHODS: We ...
Garcia Silvia - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Febrile infants less than 3 months of age have a greater risk for serious bacterial infection (SBI). The risk is inversely correlated with age. Most protocols recommend admitting to hospital all febrile infants less than 28 days of age. However, as the prevalence of SBI is not homogenous in ...
Cohen Engler Anat - - 2012
Melatonin is secreted during the night in adults but not in infants. It has a hypnotic effect as well as a relaxing effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. It is plausible that breast milk, which consists of melatonin, may have an effect on improving infants' sleep and ...
Murthy Vadivelam - - 2012
Data on the effects of a prolonged inflation time during the resuscitation of very prematurely born infants are limited; one study showed no effect, and in another, although lower bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) rates were seen, that effect could have been due to the prolonged inflation time, the positive end expiratory ...
Paes B - - 2012
Palivizumab utilization, compliance, and outcomes were examined in infants with preexisting medical diseases within the Canadian Registry Database (CARESS) to aid in developing guidelines for potential "at-risk" infants in the future. Infants who received ≥1 dose of palivizumab during the 2006-2010 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) seasons at 29 sites were ...
Zhang Bo B Section on Developmental Affective Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, - - 2012
The development of separation response behaviors in infant rhesus macaques across the first 6 months of life was assessed. Seventeen infants underwent a neonatal assessment at 7, 14, 21, and 30 days of age which included a brief period of social isolation. At 3 and 6 months of age these ...
Miller E Kathryn - - 2012
To assess incidence, burden of illness, and risk factors for human rhinoviruses (HRVs) in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A 2-year prospective cohort study was conducted among VLBW premature infants in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infants were enrolled in the NICU from June 1, 2003, to May ...
Yadav Sucheta - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of bubble and conventional nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preventing extubation failure (EF) in preterm infants. METHODS: Infants of gestation ≤32 wk and birth weight <1500 g, ready for initial extubation within first wk of life were randomly allocated to either bubble (n = 16) or conventional ...
Eckert G U - - 2012
This study describes the development of a score based on cumulative risk factors for the prediction of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) comparing the performance of the score against the birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) in order to predict the onset of ROP. A prospective cohort of preterm ...
Kato Toru - - 2011
We report a preterm infant, who showed abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) findings 1h after birth and later developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). The patient was a girl with a gestational age of 29weeks. She was delivered by emergency cesarean section because of placental abruption and intrauterine co-twin demise. Artificial ventilation ...
Ohman Anna - - 2011
Infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) are at risk of developing skull asymmetry. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a modified "severity scale for assessment of plagiocephaly" among physical therapists (PT). Thirty-nine members of a network of PTs working with infants with ...
Saeedeh Tarvij Eslami - - 2011
Background/Objective:  To evaluate the characteristics and accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) values of neonatal meningitis, we compared CSF values in newborns and infants until 2 months old with or without meningitis. Methods.  This case-control study was performed on 120 newborns and infants until 2 months old. 60 patients with meningitis ...
Savino A - - 2011
Purpose: Thyroidal hormones are important for bone development, and ultrasonographic (US) evaluation of the distal femoral epiphysis (DFE) has recently been suggested as a new method for the assessment of skeletal maturity in infants. A delayed bone maturation, expressed by a smaller or absent DFE nucleus (in terms of DFE ...
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