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Hollis NaTasha D ND Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2013
Both a lack of maternal folic acid supplementation and the presence of genetic variants that reduce enzyme activity in folate pathway genes have been linked to meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21; however, the findings in this area of research have been inconsistent. To better understand these inconsistencies, we asked whether ...
Merrill Lisa - - 2013
Advances in medical care of preterm infants, including the widespread use of surfactant and antenatal steroids, and improvements in ventilation management, have increased the survival rates of some of the most vulnerable infants. Yet, the risk of neurologic impairment and long-term medical complications remains a concern. Recently, the use of ...
Nogueira Arcanjo Francisco Plácido - - 2013
More than two billion people suffer from anemia worldwide, and it is estimated that more than 50 % of cases are caused by iron deficiency. In this community intervention trial, we evaluated infants aged 10 to 23 months of age (n = 171) from two public child day-care centers. Intervention ...
Resch Bernhard - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) in infants and young children throughout the world. Preterm infants are at increased risk for severe RSV lower respiratory tract infection due to small lung volumes, a reduced lung surface area, small airways and an ...
Imaizumi Yoko - - 2013
The infant mortality rate (IMR) among single and twin births from 1999 to 2008 was analyzed using Japanese Vital Statistics. The IMR was 5.3-fold higher in twins than in singletons in 1999 and decreased to 3.9-fold in 2008. The reduced risk of infant mortality in twins relative to singletons may ...
Ramani Manimaran M Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 176F Suite 9380, 619 South 19th Street, Birmingham, AL 35249-7335, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk compared with formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous versus intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant ...
Malik Sabrina - - 2013
Premature infants exhibit neurodevelopmental delay and reduced growth of the cerebral cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Therefore, we hypothesized that neurogenesis in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortex would continue in the third trimester of pregnancy and that preterm birth would suppress neurogenesis. To ...
Shane Andi L - - 2013
Identifying neonates with sepsis is complicated by variability in clinical presentation. The incidence of early onset sepsis (EOS) resulting from invasive group B streptococcal (GBS) infections has been notably reduced by the widespread delivery of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Rates of EOS attributable to non-GBS etiologies have remained constant, and ampicillin-resistant ...
Blencowe H - - 2013
Reducing neonatal mortality remains a challenge with an estimated 3.0 million neonatal deaths in 2011, three-quarters of these in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. The leading causes of neonatal death globally are complications of preterm birth, intrapartum-related causes and infections. While post-neonatal, under-5 deaths fell by 47% between 1990 and 2011, ...
Ohlsson Arne - - 2013
Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but is associated with reduced blood flow to several organs. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective as indomethacin with fewer side effects. To determine the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen for closing a PDA in ...
O'Reilly Megan - - 2013
Although recent advances in neonatal care have improved survival rates, rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia remain unchanged. Although neonatologists are increasingly applying gentle ventilation strategies in the neonatal intensive care unit, the same emphasis has not been applied immediately after birth. A lung-protective strategy should start with the first breath to ...
Hallman Mikko - - 2013
Surfactant complex and its individual components decrease surface tension, silence inflammatory responses, bind and destroy air-borne microbes, facilitate phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and bind endogenous and exogenous molecules. Surfactant components generally decrease harmful inflammatory responses. New exogenous surfactants and new indications for surfactant therapy remain to be studied. At term ...
Stenson Ben J - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was first observed soon after the widespread introduction of oxygen therapy into neonatal care. Early trials suggested that restricting oxygen supplementation could reduce ROP without other consequences, but when oxygen restriction became widespread, increased mortality was observed. These observations were made before continuous monitoring of oxygenation ...
Singh Aditya - - 2013
Background. Despite the growing share of neonatal mortality in under-5 mortality in the recent decades in India, most studies have focused on infant and child mortality putting neonatal mortality on the back seat. The development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal mortality warrants an examination of factors ...
Hackam David J - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a challenging disease to treat, and caring for patients afflicted by it remains both frustrating and difficult. While NEC may develop quickly and without warning, it may also develop slowly, insidiously, and appear to take the caregiver by surprise. In seeking to understand the molecular and ...
Khan Adeel Ahmed - - 2013
In 1988, WHO estimated around 787,000 newborns deaths due to neonatal tetanus. Despite few success stories majority of the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are still struggling to reduce neonatal mortality due to neonatal tetanus. We conducted a systematic review to understand the interventions that have had a substantial ...
Randive Bharat - - 2013
India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) through promotion of institutional births. JSY is the largest CCT in the world. In the ...
Stets Manuela - - 2013
Infant ERP studies often feature high attrition rates with large numbers of trials excluded from statistical analyses. The number of experimental conditions is conventionally limited to reduce the test-sessions' durations and to ensure that reasonable trial-numbers will be obtained for each condition. Here, we designed an ERP study involving eight ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2013
Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) is very common among preterm infants, due to several physiological mechanisms. Although GOR should not be usually considered a pathological condition, its therapeutic management still represents a controversial issue among neonatologists; pharmacological overtreatment, often unuseful and potentially harmful, is increasingly widespread. Hence, a stepwise approach, firstly promoting ...
Berry Mary M Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New - - 2013
Globally, 11% of infants are born preterm. In adulthood, individuals born preterm are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic basis of this remains unknown. Clinically overt cardiovascular disease may be preceded by altered cardiac autonomic activity characterised by increased sympathetic activity and/or reduced parasympathetic activity. ...
Lamberti Laura M - - 2013
Suboptimal breastfeeding practices among infants and young children <24 months of age are associated with elevated risk of pneumonia morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the protective effects of breastfeeding exposure against pneumonia incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations and mortality. We conducted a systematic literature review ...
Nair Manisha M National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (NPEU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United - - 2013
Analyse the effect of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), a wage-for-employment policy of the Indian Government, on infant malnutrition and delineate the pathways through which MGNREGA affects infant malnutrition. MGNREGA could reduce infant malnutrition through positive effects on household food security and infant feeding. Mixed methods ...
Romero Roberto R Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA. - - 2013
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is the most important challenge to modern obstetrics. A major obstacle has been that preterm birth is treated (implicitly or explicitly) as a single condition. Two thirds of preterm births occur after the spontaneous onset of labor, ...
Scorza Fulvio Alexandre - - 2012
The present paper highlighted the importance of the recommended levels of fish consumption or omega-3 supplementation in order to minimize the frequency of seizures in people with uncontrolled epilepsy and, especially, to reduce the occurrence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).
O'Donnell Colm P F - - 2012
Despite advances in neonatal care, the rate of oxygen dependence at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age or bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not fallen. Neonatologists are increasingly careful to apply ventilation strategies that are gentle to the lung in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, there has not been the same emphasis applying ...
Hageman Jeske H J - - 2012
Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnancy, lactation, and early postnatal years on allergic and infectious ...
Tripathi Nidhi N Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27705, - - 2012
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Even if successfully treated, IC can cause significant neurodevelopmental impairment. Preterm infants are at increased risk for hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis owing to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, so antifungal treatment should have adequate central nervous ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2012
Background: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) occurs frequently in preterm infants and a variable proportion of AOP can be induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Conservative treatment, including dietary modifications, should be the first-line approach for both GER and GER-related apneas in this population. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a starch-thickened ...
King Thomas F J - - 2012
Context:Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.Objective:Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in ...
Bozzetti Valentina - - 2012
Abstract Preterm infants are often considered too unstable to be fed enterally so they are exposed to complications related to a prolonged enteral fasting. Our study aims to compare feeding tolerance of AGA versus SGA infants and to evaluate which perinatal factors affect feeding tolerance (measured as time to achieve ...
Dieterich Christine M CM Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, - - 2013
Worldwide, breastfeeding saves the lives of infants and reduces their disease burden. Breastfeeding also reduces the disease burden for mothers. This article examines who chooses to breastfeed and for how long in the United States. It also reviews the latest evidence about the consequences of breastfeeding for the health of ...
Jablonska Beata B Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010-2970, - - 2012
Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia is associated with permanent neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. The cellular and molecular mechanisms producing DWMI are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia, we demonstrate a biphasic effect on oligodendrocyte development, resulting in hypomyelination. Oligodendrocyte death and oligodendrocyte progenitor ...
Rautava Samuli - - 2012
Probiotics have shown promising potential in reducing the risk of eczema in infants. Optimal probiotic intervention regimen remains to be determined. We investigated whether maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of developing eczema in high-risk infants. This was a parallel, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 241 mother-infant ...
McMullen Sherri L - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Safe infant sleep has been the focus of two decades of research. Improving supine sleep position in infants has coincided with a reduction in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Premature infants spend time prone while hospitalized to promote appropriate growth and development; however, after hospitalization, infants should be positioned ...
Whitelaw Andrew - - 2012
Periventricular hemorrhage (PVH) is the result of "temporary" fragile blood vessels and unstable circulation in the brain of very premature infants. Antenatal corticosteroids have substantially reduced PVH. Avoidance of intrapartum hypoxia and birth trauma has probably helped as has better cardio-respiratory stabilization after delivery. Increased survival of the highest risk ...
Tang Shifang - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in neonates. METHODS: Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Standard search strategy for the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was performed. The participants were both preterm and term infants suffering ...
Greenough Anne - - 2012
Infants born at term frequently require mechanical ventilation and suffer significant mortality and morbidity. Yet, there have been few randomised trials (RCTs) exclusively of term born infants and when term born infants have been included in studies, a sub-analysis of their results has rarely been undertaken. The limited evidence demonstrates ...
Chiandotto Valeria - - 2012
Non invasive ventilation plays a key role in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) activity and several instruments have recently been developed that are designed to maintain positive pressure in order to improve functional residual capacity of the lung. However, devices used to provide non-invasive respiratory assistance are frequently a cause ...
Hoggatt Katherine J - - 2012
The "Latina epidemiologic paradox" refers to the observation that despite socioeconomic disadvantages, Latina mothers in the United States (US) have a similar or lower risk for delivering an infant with low birth weight (LBW) compared to non-Latina White mothers. An analogous paradox may exist between foreign-born (FB) and US-born (USB) ...
Nyarko Kwame A KA Department of Health Management and Policy, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, 5233 Westlawn, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2012
Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation) rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB ...
Sullivan Elizabeth A - - 2012
Do births following single embryo transfers (SET) have a reduced risk of perinatal mortality compared with those following double embryo transfers (DET)? SET is associated with reduced risk of perinatal mortality compared with DET. Fetal, neonatal and perinatal mortality are important indicators for monitoring pregnancy and childbirth, particularly for births ...
Pearson R M RM School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Clifton, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Both prenatal and postnatal maternal depression are independently associated with an increased risk of adverse infant development. The impact of postnatal depression on infants may be mediated through the effect of depression in reducing maternal responsiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of prenatal depression are unclear. Using longitudinal data ...
Herrington Carolyn J CJ College of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Electronic address: - - 2014
This was a feasibility pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of the nonpharmacologic pain management technique of gentle human touch (GHT) in reducing pain response to heel stick in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eleven premature infants ranging from 27 to 34 weeks' gestational age, in ...
Blyth Christopher C - - 2012
Aim:  To review the use of antifungal chemoprophylaxis to prevent neonatal invasive fungal infections (IFI) in very low birthweight infants (VLBW <1500 g). Method:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Results:  Nine trials were identified (2029 infants), with six comparing fluconazole with placebo/no treatment (840 infants), three comparing nystatin with placebo/no ...
Basic Ejub - - 2012
The rate of attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery has decreased, while the success rate of such births increased. Advances in surgical techniques, the development of anesthesiology services, particularly endotracheal anesthesia, very quality postoperative care with cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical resuscitation, significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity after cesarean ...
Trembath Andrea A Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, 11000 Euclid Avenue, RBC Suite 3100, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2012
Although significant advances in respiratory care have been made in neonatal medicine, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains the most common serious pulmonary morbidity in premature infants. The development of BPD is the result of the complex interactions between multiple perinatal and postnatal factors. Early identification of infants at the most risk ...
Enomoto Masahiro - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Early-onset hyperkalemia often occurs in extremely preterm infants during a few days after birth. While there are several treatments for hyperkalemia, calcium infusion to reduce plasma potassium concentrations remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a high dosage of calcium reduces early-onset hyperkalemia. METHODS: Extremely ...
Sandberg Kenneth L - - 2012
Background: Lung development and function is compromised at term in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by reduced functional residual capacity (FRC) and impaired gas-mixing efficiency in distal airways. Objective: To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves FRC, ventilation, distal airway function, and gas exchange in spontaneously breathing ...
Arboleya Silvia - - 2012
During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear ...
Vinekar Anand - - 2012
Purpose: To report the first-year results of the Red Card for Retinopathy of Prematurity (REDROP) study, a low-cost interim strategy to enroll infants into retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening where limited expertise exists, piloted at a multi-specialty general hospital. Methods: Red "warning" cards were placed alongside green "congratulations" cards above ...
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