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Results 101 - 150 of 1869
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Jablonska Beata B Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010-2970, - - 2012
Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) caused by hypoxia is associated with permanent neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants. The cellular and molecular mechanisms producing DWMI are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of neonatal hypoxia, we demonstrate a biphasic effect on oligodendrocyte development, resulting in hypomyelination. Oligodendrocyte death and oligodendrocyte progenitor ...
Rautava Samuli - - 2012
Probiotics have shown promising potential in reducing the risk of eczema in infants. Optimal probiotic intervention regimen remains to be determined. We investigated whether maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of developing eczema in high-risk infants. This was a parallel, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of 241 mother-infant ...
McMullen Sherri L - - 2012
ABSTRACT: Safe infant sleep has been the focus of two decades of research. Improving supine sleep position in infants has coincided with a reduction in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Premature infants spend time prone while hospitalized to promote appropriate growth and development; however, after hospitalization, infants should be positioned ...
Whitelaw Andrew - - 2012
Periventricular hemorrhage (PVH) is the result of "temporary" fragile blood vessels and unstable circulation in the brain of very premature infants. Antenatal corticosteroids have substantially reduced PVH. Avoidance of intrapartum hypoxia and birth trauma has probably helped as has better cardio-respiratory stabilization after delivery. Increased survival of the highest risk ...
Tang Shifang - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in neonates. METHODS: Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Standard search strategy for the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was performed. The participants were both preterm and term infants suffering ...
Greenough Anne - - 2012
Infants born at term frequently require mechanical ventilation and suffer significant mortality and morbidity. Yet, there have been few randomised trials (RCTs) exclusively of term born infants and when term born infants have been included in studies, a sub-analysis of their results has rarely been undertaken. The limited evidence demonstrates ...
Chiandotto Valeria - - 2012
Non invasive ventilation plays a key role in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) activity and several instruments have recently been developed that are designed to maintain positive pressure in order to improve functional residual capacity of the lung. However, devices used to provide non-invasive respiratory assistance are frequently a cause ...
Nyarko Kwame A - - 2012
Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) and preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation) rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB ...
Hoggatt Katherine J - - 2012
The "Latina epidemiologic paradox" refers to the observation that despite socioeconomic disadvantages, Latina mothers in the United States (US) have a similar or lower risk for delivering an infant with low birth weight (LBW) compared to non-Latina White mothers. An analogous paradox may exist between foreign-born (FB) and US-born (USB) ...
Sullivan Elizabeth A - - 2012
Do births following single embryo transfers (SET) have a reduced risk of perinatal mortality compared with those following double embryo transfers (DET)? SET is associated with reduced risk of perinatal mortality compared with DET. Fetal, neonatal and perinatal mortality are important indicators for monitoring pregnancy and childbirth, particularly for births ...
Pearson R M RM School of Social & Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Clifton, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom. - - 2012
Both prenatal and postnatal maternal depression are independently associated with an increased risk of adverse infant development. The impact of postnatal depression on infants may be mediated through the effect of depression in reducing maternal responsiveness. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of prenatal depression are unclear. Using longitudinal data ...
Herrington Carolyn J CJ College of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Electronic address: - - 2014
This was a feasibility pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of the nonpharmacologic pain management technique of gentle human touch (GHT) in reducing pain response to heel stick in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Eleven premature infants ranging from 27 to 34 weeks' gestational age, in ...
Blyth Christopher C - - 2012
Aim:  To review the use of antifungal chemoprophylaxis to prevent neonatal invasive fungal infections (IFI) in very low birthweight infants (VLBW <1500 g). Method:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Results:  Nine trials were identified (2029 infants), with six comparing fluconazole with placebo/no treatment (840 infants), three comparing nystatin with placebo/no ...
Basic Ejub - - 2012
The rate of attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery has decreased, while the success rate of such births increased. Advances in surgical techniques, the development of anesthesiology services, particularly endotracheal anesthesia, very quality postoperative care with cardiovascular, respiratory and biochemical resuscitation, significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity after cesarean ...
Trembath Andrea A Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, 11000 Euclid Avenue, RBC Suite 3100, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2012
Although significant advances in respiratory care have been made in neonatal medicine, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains the most common serious pulmonary morbidity in premature infants. The development of BPD is the result of the complex interactions between multiple perinatal and postnatal factors. Early identification of infants at the most risk ...
Enomoto Masahiro - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Early-onset hyperkalemia often occurs in extremely preterm infants during a few days after birth. While there are several treatments for hyperkalemia, calcium infusion to reduce plasma potassium concentrations remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a high dosage of calcium reduces early-onset hyperkalemia. METHODS: Extremely ...
Sandberg Kenneth L - - 2012
Background: Lung development and function is compromised at term in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), characterized by reduced functional residual capacity (FRC) and impaired gas-mixing efficiency in distal airways. Objective: To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves FRC, ventilation, distal airway function, and gas exchange in spontaneously breathing ...
Arboleya Silvia - - 2012
During recent years there has been an increasing interest on the development of strategies for modulating the process of microbiota establishment in preterm infants. For successfully developing of such strategies, a detailed knowledge of the microbiota establishment process in these infants is needed. In a previous study we evidenced clear ...
Vinekar Anand - - 2012
Purpose: To report the first-year results of the Red Card for Retinopathy of Prematurity (REDROP) study, a low-cost interim strategy to enroll infants into retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening where limited expertise exists, piloted at a multi-specialty general hospital. Methods: Red "warning" cards were placed alongside green "congratulations" cards above ...
Vajzovic Lejla - - 2012
To correlate human foveal development visualized by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) with histologic specimens. Retrospective, observational case series. Morphology and layer thickness of retinal SDOCT images from 1 eye each of 22 premature infants, 30 term infants, 16 children, and 1 adult without macular disease were compared to light ...
Liao Adelene Y - - 2012
The substantial risks of button battery ingestion in children have been known to clinicians for some time. Modern button batteries are twice as large (20 mm rather than 10 mm) and twice as powerful (3 V rather than 1.5 V) as older batteries. Ingestion of modern batteries causes earlier and more severe tissue injury, ...
Rijlaarsdam Jolien - - 2012
The present paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of a brief observational assessment of home environments for use in large-scale investigations with young infants. We generated observational items conceptually relevant for child development by two methods. First, we adapted the Infant Toddler Home Observation for Measurement of ...
da Graça André Laboreiro Ferreira Mendes - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clinical assessment of gestational age (GA) in preterm infants can be challenging. Several ultrasound approaches for estimating GA using cerebellar measurements are reported, claiming to be simpler and more accurate than clinical assessment, but they are not widely used. We aimed to compare the accuracy of four ...
Yamashita Wakayo - - 2012
Eye gaze is an important tool for social contact. In this study, we investigated whether direct gaze facilitates the recognition of three-dimensional face images in infants. We presented artificially produced face images in rotation to 6 to 8 month-old infants. The eye gaze of the face images was either direct ...
Dennington Debra - - 2012
Background: The placement of the endotracheal tube (ETT) in neonates is a challenging procedure that currently requires timely confirmation of tip placement by radiographic imaging. Objective: We sought to determine if bedside ultrasound (US) could demonstrate ETT tip location in preterm and term newborns and offer a quick alternative method ...
Neumann Katrin - - 2012
Abstract Objective: Because newborn hearing screening (NHS) programs are currently implemented in an increasing number of countries, physiological NHS technologies have to be continuously optimized. This study validates a new TEOAE-AABR screening device. Design: TEOAE and AABR screenings were performed in 299 ears with both the new NHS device and ...
Winter Harland - - 2012
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is present in pediatric patients when reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. The present study evaluates the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in infants ages 1 to 11 months with GERD. In this multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, treatment-withdrawal study, infants received open-label, ...
Boss R D - - 2012
When discussing the benefits and burdens of medical interventions for critically ill infants, clinicians and families are challenged to weigh the uncertainties of treatment success with infant pain and suffering. Concrete measures of infant suffering or quality of life, which could inform infant care and decision-making are lacking. Although consistent ...
Vouloumanos Athena - - 2012
The ability to decode atypical and degraded speech signals as intelligible is a hallmark of speech perception. Human adults can perceive sounds as speech even when they are generated by a variety of nonhuman sources including computers and parrots. We examined how infants perceive the speech-like vocalizations of a parrot. ...
Gage H - - 2012
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Infant feeding decisions made by new parents have significant health implications. The study aimed to investigate: influences on infant feeding decisions; characteristics of mothers reporting reliance on alternative information sources; associations between reliance on different sources and intentions to exclusively breastfeed and introduce complementary foods later; and subsequent breastfeeding and ...
Morris Nicholas - - 2012
Background:  For measurement of cerebral regional oxygen saturation (crSO2) in neonates, one of the frequently used near-infrared spectroscopy devices is the INVOS 5100 with either the neonatal or pediatric sensor. Measurements between adult and pediatric sensors use different algorithms and differ by 10%. There are no published data comparing neonatal ...
Blencowe Hannah - - 2012
Preterm birth is the second largest direct cause of child deaths in children younger than 5 years. Yet, data regarding preterm birth (<37 completed weeks of gestation) are not routinely collected by UN agencies, and no systematic country estimates nor time trend analyses have been done. We report worldwide, regional, ...
Roggero Paola - - 2012
Background:Adiposity may contribute to the future risk of disease. The aim was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of an air-displacement plethysmography system (ADP) to estimate percentage fat mass (%FM) in preterm infants and to evaluate inter-device reliability in infants.Methods:70 preterm and 9 full term infants were assessed. The accuracy ...
Weaver Daniel T - - 2012
To demonstrate the feasibility of telemedicine screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) by summarizing the results of our experience screening premature infants at a distant hospital in a rural location. Records of all premature infants remotely screened for ROP at a neonatal intensive care unit in Great Falls, Montana, from ...
Bagner Daniel M - - 2012
Behavioral and emotional problems are highly prevalent in early childhood and represent an important focus of practice for clinical child and pediatric psychologists. Although psychological or psychiatric disorders are not typically diagnosed in children under the age of 2 years, recent research has demonstrated the appropriateness of assessing behavioral and ...
- - 2012
Newborn screening is the practice of testing every newborn for certain harmful or potentially fatal conditions, such as hearing loss and certain genetic, endocrine, and metabolic disorders that typically are not otherwise apparent at birth. Newborn screening in the United States began in the 1960s. Universal newborn screening has become ...
Freeman Danielle - - 2012
: Safe and effective functioning of nasogastric and orogastric tubes in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is achieved by ensuring their correct placement within the stomach. Insertion length has traditionally been estimated using morphological measures, but studies have indicated that these are frequently inaccurate. This study aimed to evaluate ...
Bondagji Nabeel S - - 2012
To determine the corrected perinatal mortality rate (PMR) in a single tertiary care center, and to test the effect of unbooked pregnancies on the PMR, and amalgamate the 2 to develop a new terminology known as the extended corrected PMR. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women who ...
Spiller Henry A - - 2012
Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. Toxic effects reported from amlodipine include hypotension, reflex tachycardia, metabolic acidosis, and pulmonary edema. We report a rare fatality in an infant after ingestion of amlodipine with benazepril, with postmortem blood concentrations. An 11-month-old, ...
Capilouto Gilson J - - 2012
Novel uses of ultrasound include obtaining images of intra-oral structures to further research in speech production and feeding. In this technical note we describe a noninvasive, cost-effective, and reliable method for measuring infant tongue muscle thickness. The current pilot study demonstrates high reliability of a trained ultrasonographer to obtain adequate ...
Johnson Leigh F LF Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. - - 2012
Guidelines for treatment of pediatric HIV have recently changed to recommend that all infants who are identified as HIV-infected should start antiretroviral treatment (ART) immediately, regardless of their immunologic or clinical status. This study aims to assess the likely impact of this change in guideline in South Africa. A mathematical ...
Barker Melinda J - - 2012
Aim:  Targeted newborn hearing screening for infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) may be considered when resources preclude universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). However, process outcomes have not been compared between stand-alone NICU hearing screening programs and NICU screening within a full UNHS program. Methods:  Comparison of two consecutive ...
Tanno L K - - 2012
Undernotification is well recognized as a key challenge to the study of anaphylaxis mortality, but it is seldom mentioned that one of its reasons is the difficult coding of the condition under the tenth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-10), given that there are no anaphylaxis-specific ICD-10, which ...
Huynh Trang K - - 2012
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the two-thumb technique is superior to the two-finger technique for administering chest compressions using the floor surface and the preferred location for performing infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (ie, floor, table, or radiant warmer). STUDY DESIGN: Twenty Neonatal Resuscitation Program trained medical personnel performed CPR on a ...
Kato Toru - - 2012
Introduction:To assess differences in amplitude among electrode locations on amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms (aEEGs) in preterm infants and change therein between preterm age and term-equivalent age (TEA), we investigated aEEGs in preterm infants at both 30-32 weeks post-conceptional age (PCA) and TEA.Methods:The median values of upper- and lower-margin amplitudes were quantitatively calculated ...
Liu Lichuan - - 2012
Infant incubators are widely used in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for the pre-term or sick babies. In this paper, we propose an active noise control (ANC) system integrated with infant cry detection and classification function for infant incubators. The incubator ANC system reduces the high noise level which results ...
Karkee R - - 2012
Nepal reportedly reduced the maternal mortality ratio by 48% within one decade between 1996-2005 and received the Millennium development goal award for this. However, there is debate regarding the accuracy of this figure. On the basis of framework of determinants of maternal mortality proposed by McCarthy and Maine in 1992 ...
Woo Jessica G - - 2012
Serum adiponectin (APN) is associated with lower childhood obesity, and APN concentration in human milk is associated with slower growth during active breast-feeding. We examined infant weight gain in the second year of life after exposure to high or low levels of mother's milk APN. Breast-feeding mother-infant pairs were recruited ...
Forsyth Stewart - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes states that governments, non-governmental organizations, experts, consumers and industry need to cooperate in activities aimed at improving infant nutrition. However, the evidence from the last three decades is that of a series of disputes, legal proceedings and boycotts. ...
Pina D R - - 2012
Purpose: The main purpose of the present study was to determine the amounts of different tissues in the chest of the newborn patient (age ≤1 year), with the aim of developing a homogeneous phantom chest equivalent. This type of phantom is indispensable in the development of optimization procedures for radiographic ...
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