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de Almeida Maria Fernanda Branco - - 2013
To evaluate intervention practices associated with hypothermia at both 5 minutes after birth and at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and to determine whether hypothermia at NICU admission is associated with early neonatal death in preterm infants. This prospective cohort included 1764 inborn neonates of 22-33 weeks without malformations ...
Williams L Alison - - 2013
The review examines whether mode of feeding is associated with risk of hospitalisation for illness during infancy in developed countries. Databases were searched for published studies that included the terms "infant feeding" and "hospitalisation". Six studies were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation and adjusted analyses ...
Fischer Hendrik Stefan - - 2013
Nose and mouth leaks impair effective pressure transmission during neonatal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but little is known about how these leaks affect physiological parameters. This study investigated the influence of nose leaks and spontaneous mouth opening on peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR) using nasopharyngeal CPAP. ...
Milstone Aaron M - - 2013
Background:Chlorhexidine is a skin disinfectant that reduces skin and mucous membrane bacterial colonization and inhibits organism growth. Despite numerous studies assessing chlorhexidine safety in term infants, residual concerns have limited its use in hospitalized neonates, especially low birth weight, preterm infants. The aim of this study was to assess the ...
Toda Tomohisa - - 2013
Although the mechanisms underlying the spatial pattern formation of sensory maps have been extensively investigated, those triggering sensory map formation during development are largely unknown. Here we show that the birth of pups instructively and selectively regulates the initiation of barrel formation in the somatosensory cortex by reducing serotonin concentration. ...
Thomas Wolfgang - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a major sequel of extremely premature birth. Multiple ante- and postnatal factors act in concert to injure the immature lung in the pathogenesis of the disease. Among them, chorioamnionitis - according to current evidence - plays a pivotal role. Pulmonary inflammatory processes seen in animal models ...
Parker Leslie A - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease affecting premature infants with potentially devastating complications in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Inadequate knowledge regarding the underlying pathophysiology of this disease has contributed to the minimal progress made in decreasing the incidence and severity of NEC. Because of an improved survival rate ...
Edwards Joan E - - 2013
Significant strides have been made in recent years to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality rates around the world. But in the United States, maternal mortality rates have increased from 6.6/100,000 live births in the 1980s and 1990s to somewhere between 13.3/100,000 live births, as reported by the Centers for Disease ...
Vandevusse Leona - - 2013
The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, critique, and synthesize the maternal and neonatal evidence on the prenatal use of probiotics and prebiotics to inform perinatal health professionals. A comprehensive literature search resulted in 37 studies of prenatal probiotics and 1 on antepartal prebiotics published from 1990 through ...
Marshall Peter J PJ Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, United - - 2013
A leading question in developmental social-cognitive neuroscience concerns the nature and function of neural links between action perception and production in early human development. Here we document a somatotopic pattern of activity of the sensorimotor EEG mu rhythm in 14-month-old infants. EEG was recorded during interactive trials in which infants ...
Gomes Cristiane Faccio - - 2013
To analyze the development of a method for using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) to evaluate the suckling of premature infants and describe five case reports. The five premature infants who took part in the study were submitted to sEMG evaluation of the masseter and buccinator muscles during different feeding methods. Higher ...
Ochiai Shingo - - 2013
Increasing evidence supports that harmful chemicals accumulating in the human body may pose a significant threat to infant health through foetal exposure. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are thought to enhance the risk for later development of allergic disease like atopic dermatitis (AD). However, few studies have evaluated the effect of ...
Bizzarro M J - - 2013
Objective:To reduce exposure to hyperoxia and its associated morbidities in preterm neonates.Study design:A multidisciplinary group was established to evaluate oxygen exposure in our neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were assigned target saturation ranges and signal extraction technology implemented to temporally quantify achievement of these ranges. The outcomes bronchopulmonary dysplasia/death, retinopathy ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2013
Moderate preterm, late preterm, and early term deliveries represent a major and growing public health concern. These deliveries are associated with significant financial burden and pose serious risks to mothers and newborns. Women who deliver at moderate and late gestational ages in one pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering ...
Manthey Carolin F - - 2013
Breastfeeding reduces the risk of enteric bacterial infections in newborns in part due to human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), complex glycans that are present in human milk, but not in infant formula. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are attaching/effacing pathogens that cause serious diarrheal illness with potentially high mortality in infants. We ...
Song Shige - - 2013
Using the 1959-1961 Chinese Great Leap Forward Famine as a natural experiment, this study examines the relationship between mothers' prenatal exposure to acute malnutrition and their children's infant mortality risk. According to the results, the effect of mothers' prenatal famine exposure status on children's infant mortality risk depends on the ...
Eriksson Lena - - 2013
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious, chronic lung disease affecting preterm infants. To identify prenatal risk factors for BPD, focusing on inflammation. Observational cohort study including 106,339 preterm infants, live born before gestational week 37 + 0, from 1988 to 2009 in Sweden. A total of 2,115 infants were diagnosed with BPD, ...
Raets M M A - - 2013
Abstract The germinal matrix (GM) is a richly vascularized, transient layer near the ventricles. It produces neurons and glial cells, and is present in the foetal brain between 8 and 36 weeks of gestation. At 25 weeks, it reaches its maximum volume and subsequently withers. The GM is vulnerable to ...
Hegyi Thomas - - 2013
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) infants have poor outcomes, often compromised by bilirubin neurotoxicity. We measured unbound bilirubin (Bf) and unbound free fatty acid (FFAu) levels in 5 ELBW infants in a trial examining the effects of pharmacologic ductal closure on infants treated with Intralipid infusion (3 g/kg/day). ...
- - 2013
Infant mortality is defined as the death of an infant before his or her first birthday. The infant mortality rate (IMR) measures this occurrence per 1,000 live births. In addition to being a key marker of maternal and child health, the IMR has been called the most sensitive indicator of ...
Jakobsson Hedvig E - - 2013
The early intestinal microbiota exerts important stimuli for immune development, and a reduced microbial exposure as well as caesarean section (CS) has been associated with the development of allergic disease. Here we address how microbiota development in infants is affected by mode of delivery, and relate differences in colonisation patterns ...
McIntosh Christine G - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that a foam plastic insert that allows the infant head to rest in a neutral position in sleep may prevent obstruction of the upper airway and thus reduce episodes of reduced oxygenation in term infants in car seats.METHODS:Healthy full-term babies were randomized to be studied during ...
Fischer Doris - - 2013
Objective Therapeutic hypothermia is an established therapeutic regimen in severely asphyxiated term neonates. The amount of cerebral injury is reduced resulting in an improved neurologic outcome. Therapeutic hypothermia-induced side effects mostly affect the circulatory system, kidney, and liver. However, asphyxia and hypothermia in itself reduce the hemostatic capacity of each ...
Kato Toru - - 2013
Background and objectives: Conventional electroencephalogram (cEEG) is a reliable predictor of outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Early therapeutic hypothermia initiated within 6h after birth is a beneficial treatment in these infants. However, a classification system with reduced cEEG recording time to determine early intervention has not ...
Mawson Anthony R - - 2013
Postpartum depression (PPD) is an international public health problem affecting at least 1 in 8 mothers. Known risk factors include: giving birth to a preterm or low birth weight infant, babies with greater symptoms of illness at age 4-6 weeks, formula feeding, younger maternal age, smoking, and fatigue. Prolonged breastfeeding ...
Dasanayake Ananda P - - 2013
Scaling and root planing treatment for periodontitis to reduce preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Kim AJ, Lo AJ, Pullin DA, Thornton-Johnson DS, Karimbux NY. J Periodontol 2012;83:1508-19. Ananda P. Dasanayake, BDS, MPH, PhD, FACE PURPOSE/QUESTION: Authors perform an updated systematic ...
Speer Christian P - - 2013
Surfactant replacement in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been a major therapeutic breakthrough and the most intensively studied intervention in neonatal medicine. Surfactant whether given prophylactically in the delivery room or in babies with established RDS reduces the severity of RDS, the incidence of air leaks and ...
Debien Elaine - - 2013
The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, ...
Hartnett M Elizabeth ME Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA. - - 2013
In 1942, when retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) first manifested as retrolental fibroplasia, the technology to monitor or regulate oxygen did not exist, and a fundus examination of preterm infants was not routinely performed. Supplemental, uncontrolled oxygen at birth has since been found to cause retrolental fibroplasia. At the same time, ...
Johannes Christine C Evidence-Based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ) Evidence Review Group, Department of Pediatrics, Queen's University, Kingston, - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can result in significant morbidity in preterm infants. Light exposure has been suggested to be a contributing factor. A systematic review was performed to determine whether reducing light exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit decreased the incidence of ROP in preterm infants. The literature was ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is diagnosed frequently in preterm infants. Pharmacological treatment of GER has some potential side effects. Conservative treatment of GER should be the first-line approach and should include body positioning and diet modifications. Formula-fed preterm infants experience frequently symptoms of feeding intolerance. Hydrolyzed protein formula (HPF) is ...
Disantis Katherine Isselmann - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding modestly reduces obesity risk, yet the mechanisms are not well understood. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the association of breastfeeding duration with a wide range of maternal feeding approaches in late infancy and toddlerhood. METHODS: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from an ethnically-diverse ...
Kelleher Meredith A - - 2013
Background:Preterm birth is a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Allopregnanolone, a key metabolite of progesterone, has neuroprotective and developmental effects in the brain. The objectives of this study were to measure the neuroactive steroid concentrations following preterm delivery in a neonatal guinea pig model and assess the potential for postnatal ...
Ellsworth M A - - 2013
Objective:To determine whether an electronic data surveillance system, or Data Sniffer (DS), could reduce the rate of hyperoxic episodes (HEs) among premature neonates being managed by a standardized respiratory treatment protocol (RTP).Study Design:A total of 86 infants born at <29 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The rates ...
Deuber Charlene - - 2013
: Supplemental oxygen plays a critical role in the care of infants born at the lower limits of viability, but not without the risk of morbidity resulting from high levels or prolonged exposure. : The purpose of this quality improvement project was to reduce exposure to hyperoxia as evidenced by ...
Velez Edwards Digna R DR Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Institute for Medicine and Public Health, 2525 West End Ave., Suite 600 6th Floor, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. - - 2013
Progestogen has been investigated as a preventive intervention among women with increased preterm birth risk. Our objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM), vaginal, and oral progestogens for preterm birth and neonatal death prevention. We included articles published from January 1966 to January 2013 and found 27 ...
Siggers Jayda L - - 2013
Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet, amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we hypothesized that postnatal AF administration reduces inflammatory responses and NEC in preterms ...
Montagnani Carlotta - - 2013
We report three cases of severe infections in infants caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus and evolved with a positive outcome. The literature of Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus infections in infants is reviewed. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a prompt identification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus and ...
Sanz-Ramos Marta M Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, - - 2013
Maternally HIV-exposed (mHIV-EU) infants have poor health even without HIV-1 infection. The responses to vaccination are less well defined. Immunity to oral Poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was studied in Zambian infants participating in a randomised controlled trial of micronutrient fortification to improve child health. Maternally HIV-unexposed and mHIV-EU infants were recruited ...
Vinukonda Govindaiah G Department of Pediatrics, New York Medical College-Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY 10595, - - 2013
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) results in white matter injury and hydrocephalus in premature infants. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs)-neuorcan, brevican, versican, aggrecan and phosphacan-are unregulated in the extracellular matrix after brain injury, and their degradation enhances plasticity of the brain. Therefore, we hypothesized that CSPG levels were elevated in the forebrain of ...
Imdad Aamer - - 2013
Globally, about 20 million infants are born with low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g). Of all LBW infants, approximately 95% are born in developing countries. The greatest incidence of LBW occurs in South-Central Asia; the second greatest is in Africa. The two main reasons for LBW are preterm birth (<37 ...
Ali Zarqa - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most frequently occurring complications following preterm birth, is increasing due to increased survival of preterm infants. METHODS: Systematic literature review. CONCLUSION: The etiology is multifactorial, with prematurity being a prerequisite for the development of BPD. Over time, there have been ...
Hines Mary - - 2013
Intramuscular 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Makena(®)), a synthetic progestin, is indicated to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy who have a history of a singleton spontaneous preterm birth. Makena(®) reduces the risk of preterm birth in this patient population, and is associated with improvements in ...
Hollis NaTasha D ND Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2013
Both a lack of maternal folic acid supplementation and the presence of genetic variants that reduce enzyme activity in folate pathway genes have been linked to meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21; however, the findings in this area of research have been inconsistent. To better understand these inconsistencies, we asked whether ...
Merrill Lisa - - 2013
Advances in medical care of preterm infants, including the widespread use of surfactant and antenatal steroids, and improvements in ventilation management, have increased the survival rates of some of the most vulnerable infants. Yet, the risk of neurologic impairment and long-term medical complications remains a concern. Recently, the use of ...
Nogueira Arcanjo Francisco Plácido - - 2013
More than two billion people suffer from anemia worldwide, and it is estimated that more than 50 % of cases are caused by iron deficiency. In this community intervention trial, we evaluated infants aged 10 to 23 months of age (n = 171) from two public child day-care centers. Intervention ...
Resch Bernhard - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) in infants and young children throughout the world. Preterm infants are at increased risk for severe RSV lower respiratory tract infection due to small lung volumes, a reduced lung surface area, small airways and an ...
Imaizumi Yoko - - 2013
The infant mortality rate (IMR) among single and twin births from 1999 to 2008 was analyzed using Japanese Vital Statistics. The IMR was 5.3-fold higher in twins than in singletons in 1999 and decreased to 3.9-fold in 2008. The reduced risk of infant mortality in twins relative to singletons may ...
Ramani Manimaran M Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 176F Suite 9380, 619 South 19th Street, Birmingham, AL 35249-7335, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk compared with formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous versus intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant ...
Lee Jennifer W - - 2013
Abstract Objective: To explore (1) whether extremely low gestational age newborns exposed to inflammation-associated pregnancy disorders differ in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) risk from infants exposed to placenta dysfunction-associated disorders, and (2) whether ROP risk associated with postnatal hyperoxemia and bacteremia differs among infants exposed to these disorders. Methods: Pregnancy ...
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