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Speer Christian P - - 2013
Surfactant replacement in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been a major therapeutic breakthrough and the most intensively studied intervention in neonatal medicine. Surfactant whether given prophylactically in the delivery room or in babies with established RDS reduces the severity of RDS, the incidence of air leaks and ...
Debien Elaine - - 2013
The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, ...
Johannes Christine C Evidence-Based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ) Evidence Review Group, Department of Pediatrics, Queen's University, Kingston, - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) can result in significant morbidity in preterm infants. Light exposure has been suggested to be a contributing factor. A systematic review was performed to determine whether reducing light exposure in the neonatal intensive care unit decreased the incidence of ROP in preterm infants. The literature was ...
Hartnett M Elizabeth ME Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA. - - 2013
In 1942, when retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) first manifested as retrolental fibroplasia, the technology to monitor or regulate oxygen did not exist, and a fundus examination of preterm infants was not routinely performed. Supplemental, uncontrolled oxygen at birth has since been found to cause retrolental fibroplasia. At the same time, ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is diagnosed frequently in preterm infants. Pharmacological treatment of GER has some potential side effects. Conservative treatment of GER should be the first-line approach and should include body positioning and diet modifications. Formula-fed preterm infants experience frequently symptoms of feeding intolerance. Hydrolyzed protein formula (HPF) is ...
Disantis Katherine Isselmann - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding modestly reduces obesity risk, yet the mechanisms are not well understood. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the association of breastfeeding duration with a wide range of maternal feeding approaches in late infancy and toddlerhood. METHODS: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from an ethnically-diverse ...
Kelleher Meredith A - - 2013
Background:Preterm birth is a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Allopregnanolone, a key metabolite of progesterone, has neuroprotective and developmental effects in the brain. The objectives of this study were to measure the neuroactive steroid concentrations following preterm delivery in a neonatal guinea pig model and assess the potential for postnatal ...
Ellsworth M A - - 2013
Objective:To determine whether an electronic data surveillance system, or Data Sniffer (DS), could reduce the rate of hyperoxic episodes (HEs) among premature neonates being managed by a standardized respiratory treatment protocol (RTP).Study Design:A total of 86 infants born at <29 weeks of gestation were included in the study. The rates ...
Deuber Charlene - - 2013
: Supplemental oxygen plays a critical role in the care of infants born at the lower limits of viability, but not without the risk of morbidity resulting from high levels or prolonged exposure. : The purpose of this quality improvement project was to reduce exposure to hyperoxia as evidenced by ...
Velez Edwards Digna R - - 2013
PURPOSE: Progestogen has been investigated as a preventive intervention among women with increased preterm birth risk. Our objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM), vaginal, and oral progestogens for preterm birth and neonatal death prevention. METHODS: We included articles published from January 1966 to January 2013 and ...
Siggers Jayda L - - 2013
Preterm neonates are susceptible to gastrointestinal disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Maternal milk and colostrum protects against NEC via growth promoting, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial factors. The fetal enteral diet, amniotic fluid (AF), contains similar components, and we hypothesized that postnatal AF administration reduces inflammatory responses and NEC in preterms ...
Sanz-Ramos Marta - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Maternally HIV-exposed (mHIV-EU) infants have poor health even without HIV-1 infection. The responses to vaccination are less well defined. Immunity to oral Poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was studied in Zambian infants participating in a randomised controlled trial of micronutrient fortification to improve child health. METHOD: Maternally HIV-unexposed and mHIV-EU infants ...
Montagnani Carlotta - - 2013
We report three cases of severe infections in infants caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus and evolved with a positive outcome. The literature of Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus infections in infants is reviewed. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a prompt identification of Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive Staphylococcus aureus and ...
Vinukonda Govindaiah - - 2013
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) results in white matter injury and hydrocephalus in premature infants. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs)--neuorcan, brevican, versican, aggrecan and phosphacan-are unregulated in the extracellular matrix after brain injury, and their degradation enhances plasticity of the brain. Therefore, we hypothesized that CSPG levels were elevated in the forebrain of ...
Imdad Aamer - - 2013
Globally, about 20 million infants are born with low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g). Of all LBW infants, approximately 95% are born in developing countries. The greatest incidence of LBW occurs in South-Central Asia; the second greatest is in Africa. The two main reasons for LBW are preterm birth (<37 ...
Ali Zarqa - - 2013
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most frequently occurring complications following preterm birth, is increasing due to increased survival of preterm infants. METHODS: Systematic literature review. CONCLUSION: The etiology is multifactorial, with prematurity being a prerequisite for the development of BPD. Over time, there have been ...
Hines Mary - - 2013
Intramuscular 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Makena(®)), a synthetic progestin, is indicated to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy who have a history of a singleton spontaneous preterm birth. Makena(®) reduces the risk of preterm birth in this patient population, and is associated with improvements in ...
Hollis NaTasha D ND Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, - - 2013
Both a lack of maternal folic acid supplementation and the presence of genetic variants that reduce enzyme activity in folate pathway genes have been linked to meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21; however, the findings in this area of research have been inconsistent. To better understand these inconsistencies, we asked whether ...
Merrill Lisa - - 2013
Advances in medical care of preterm infants, including the widespread use of surfactant and antenatal steroids, and improvements in ventilation management, have increased the survival rates of some of the most vulnerable infants. Yet, the risk of neurologic impairment and long-term medical complications remains a concern. Recently, the use of ...
Nogueira Arcanjo Francisco Plácido - - 2013
More than two billion people suffer from anemia worldwide, and it is estimated that more than 50 % of cases are caused by iron deficiency. In this community intervention trial, we evaluated infants aged 10 to 23 months of age (n = 171) from two public child day-care centers. Intervention ...
Resch Bernhard - - 2013
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory tract infections (RTI) in infants and young children throughout the world. Preterm infants are at increased risk for severe RSV lower respiratory tract infection due to small lung volumes, a reduced lung surface area, small airways and an ...
Imaizumi Yoko - - 2013
The infant mortality rate (IMR) among single and twin births from 1999 to 2008 was analyzed using Japanese Vital Statistics. The IMR was 5.3-fold higher in twins than in singletons in 1999 and decreased to 3.9-fold in 2008. The reduced risk of infant mortality in twins relative to singletons may ...
Ramani Manimaran M Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 176F Suite 9380, 619 South 19th Street, Birmingham, AL 35249-7335, - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk compared with formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous versus intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant ...
Lee Jennifer W - - 2013
Abstract Objective: To explore (1) whether extremely low gestational age newborns exposed to inflammation-associated pregnancy disorders differ in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) risk from infants exposed to placenta dysfunction-associated disorders, and (2) whether ROP risk associated with postnatal hyperoxemia and bacteremia differs among infants exposed to these disorders. Methods: Pregnancy ...
Malik Sabrina - - 2013
Premature infants exhibit neurodevelopmental delay and reduced growth of the cerebral cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Therefore, we hypothesized that neurogenesis in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortex would continue in the third trimester of pregnancy and that preterm birth would suppress neurogenesis. To ...
Shane Andi L - - 2013
Identifying neonates with sepsis is complicated by variability in clinical presentation. The incidence of early onset sepsis (EOS) resulting from invasive group B streptococcal (GBS) infections has been notably reduced by the widespread delivery of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Rates of EOS attributable to non-GBS etiologies have remained constant, and ampicillin-resistant ...
Blencowe H - - 2013
Reducing neonatal mortality remains a challenge with an estimated 3.0 million neonatal deaths in 2011, three-quarters of these in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. The leading causes of neonatal death globally are complications of preterm birth, intrapartum-related causes and infections. While post-neonatal, under-5 deaths fell by 47% between 1990 and 2011, ...
Ohlsson Arne - - 2013
Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) but is associated with reduced blood flow to several organs. Ibuprofen, another cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, may be as effective as indomethacin with fewer side effects. To determine the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen for closing a PDA in ...
O'Reilly Megan - - 2013
Although recent advances in neonatal care have improved survival rates, rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia remain unchanged. Although neonatologists are increasingly applying gentle ventilation strategies in the neonatal intensive care unit, the same emphasis has not been applied immediately after birth. A lung-protective strategy should start with the first breath to ...
Romero Roberto - - 2013
Abstract Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is the most important challenge to modern obstetrics. A major obstacle has been that preterm birth is treated (implicitly or explicitly) as a single condition. Two thirds of preterm births occur after the spontaneous onset of ...
Hallman Mikko - - 2013
Surfactant complex and its individual components decrease surface tension, silence inflammatory responses, bind and destroy air-borne microbes, facilitate phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and bind endogenous and exogenous molecules. Surfactant components generally decrease harmful inflammatory responses. New exogenous surfactants and new indications for surfactant therapy remain to be studied. At term ...
Stenson Ben J - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was first observed soon after the widespread introduction of oxygen therapy into neonatal care. Early trials suggested that restricting oxygen supplementation could reduce ROP without other consequences, but when oxygen restriction became widespread, increased mortality was observed. These observations were made before continuous monitoring of oxygenation ...
Singh Aditya - - 2013
Background. Despite the growing share of neonatal mortality in under-5 mortality in the recent decades in India, most studies have focused on infant and child mortality putting neonatal mortality on the back seat. The development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal mortality warrants an examination of factors ...
Hackam David J - - 2013
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a challenging disease to treat, and caring for patients afflicted by it remains both frustrating and difficult. While NEC may develop quickly and without warning, it may also develop slowly, insidiously, and appear to take the caregiver by surprise. In seeking to understand the molecular and ...
Khan Adeel Ahmed - - 2013
In 1988, WHO estimated around 787,000 newborns deaths due to neonatal tetanus. Despite few success stories majority of the Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are still struggling to reduce neonatal mortality due to neonatal tetanus. We conducted a systematic review to understand the interventions that have had a substantial ...
Randive Bharat - - 2013
India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) through promotion of institutional births. JSY is the largest CCT in the world. In the ...
Stets Manuela - - 2013
Infant ERP studies often feature high attrition rates with large numbers of trials excluded from statistical analyses. The number of experimental conditions is conventionally limited to reduce the test-sessions' durations and to ensure that reasonable trial-numbers will be obtained for each condition. Here, we designed an ERP study involving eight ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2013
Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) is very common among preterm infants, due to several physiological mechanisms. Although GOR should not be usually considered a pathological condition, its therapeutic management still represents a controversial issue among neonatologists; pharmacological overtreatment, often unuseful and potentially harmful, is increasingly widespread. Hence, a stepwise approach, firstly promoting ...
Nair Manisha - - 2013
Analyse the effect of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), a wage-for-employment policy of the Indian Government, on infant malnutrition and delineate the pathways through which MGNREGA affects infant malnutrition. Hypothesis: MGNREGA could reduce infant malnutrition through positive effects on household food security and infant feeding. Mixed ...
Berry Mary M Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New - - 2013
Globally, 11% of infants are born preterm. In adulthood, individuals born preterm are at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanistic basis of this remains unknown. Clinically overt cardiovascular disease may be preceded by altered cardiac autonomic activity characterised by increased sympathetic activity and/or reduced parasympathetic activity. ...
Lamberti Laura M - - 2013
Suboptimal breastfeeding practices among infants and young children <24 months of age are associated with elevated risk of pneumonia morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the protective effects of breastfeeding exposure against pneumonia incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations and mortality. We conducted a systematic literature review ...
Goldenberg Robert L - - 2012
Infection-related neonatal mortality due to omphalitis in developing country home births is an important public health problem. Three cluster randomized trials of 4% chlorhexidine applied to the umbilical cord stump from once to multiple times in the days following a home birth have evaluated this intervention compared with other types ...
Scorza Fulvio Alexandre - - 2012
The present paper highlighted the importance of the recommended levels of fish consumption or omega-3 supplementation in order to minimize the frequency of seizures in people with uncontrolled epilepsy and, especially, to reduce the occurrence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).
O'Donnell Colm P F - - 2012
Despite advances in neonatal care, the rate of oxygen dependence at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age or bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not fallen. Neonatologists are increasingly careful to apply ventilation strategies that are gentle to the lung in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, there has not been the same emphasis applying ...
Hageman Jeske H J - - 2012
Increasing evidence suggests that intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially omega-3 LCPUFA, improves respiratory health early in life. This review summarizes publications from 2009 through July 2012 that evaluated effects of fish, fish oil or LCPUFA intake during pregnancy, lactation, and early postnatal years on allergic and infectious ...
Tripathi Nidhi N Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27705, - - 2012
Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Even if successfully treated, IC can cause significant neurodevelopmental impairment. Preterm infants are at increased risk for hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis owing to increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, so antifungal treatment should have adequate central nervous ...
Corvaglia Luigi - - 2012
Background: Apnea of prematurity (AOP) occurs frequently in preterm infants and a variable proportion of AOP can be induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Conservative treatment, including dietary modifications, should be the first-line approach for both GER and GER-related apneas in this population. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a starch-thickened ...
King Thomas F J - - 2012
Context:Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.Objective:Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in ...
Bozzetti Valentina - - 2012
Abstract Preterm infants are often considered too unstable to be fed enterally so they are exposed to complications related to a prolonged enteral fasting. Our study aims to compare feeding tolerance of AGA versus SGA infants and to evaluate which perinatal factors affect feeding tolerance (measured as time to achieve ...
Dieterich Christine M CM Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, - - 2013
Worldwide, breastfeeding saves the lives of infants and reduces their disease burden. Breastfeeding also reduces the disease burden for mothers. This article examines who chooses to breastfeed and for how long in the United States. It also reviews the latest evidence about the consequences of breastfeeding for the health of ...
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