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Bautista A - - 2003
Newborn rabbits compete vigorously for the mother's milk, and survivors benefit from littermate deaths. Here we report that rabbit pups also may benefit from littermate presence in terms of increased thermal efficiency. Pups nursed normally once a day by their mother but otherwise raised alone had a lower probability of ...
Hammami Mouhanad - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fan beam dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (FB DXA) has recently been validated for the measurement of body composition in small subjects. This study represents the first report of body composition (bone mineral content, fat mass, and lean mass) in human neonates measured by FB DXA. METHODS: FB DXA measurements ...
Valois Sandra - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate malabsorption in infants has been found to increase nutrient losses. However, the effect of this alteration on daily metabolic rate is unknown. We assessed daily metabolic rates in infants with asymptomatic carbohydrate malabsorption (ACM) after a single fruit juice load. METHODS: Sixteen healthy infants with ACM (63.3 +/- ...
Reichman C A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A knowledge of energy expenditure in infancy is required for the estimation of recommended daily amounts of food energy, for designing artificial infant feeds, and as a reference standard for studies of energy metabolism in disease states. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to construct centile reference charts ...
Rehan V K - - 2003
AIM: Human neonatal diaphragm development has not been extensively studied. Previous work in children and adults suggests that diaphragm thickness (t(di)) is in scale with body size such that maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (P(dimax)) remains relatively constant. Such assessments have not been made in healthy term infants. This study was designed ...
Bekx M Tracy - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are hypotonic and underweight before the onset of childhood obesity. This study evaluates body composition in the PWS infant and its relationship to energy expenditure. STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen infants and toddlers with PWS (mean age, 12.4+/-6 months; eight female subjects) underwent analysis of body ...
Ryan M - - 2003
Normothermia must be established in drowning victims before death may be declared, as the myocardium may remain resistant to stimulation at subnormal temperatures, and complete neurological recovery from submersion associated hypothermia has been reported. A safe and effective method of external re-warming is described that may prove particularly useful in ...
Shine R - - 2003
The degree of offspring development at hatching (or birth) varies among species within most major vertebrate lineages; altricial vs. precocial birds offer the clearest example of a trade-off between early hatching and the degree of locomotor development of the hatchling. No such diversity has been reported for reptiles, but we ...
Callanan Deborah - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Fever in young infants frequently triggers a laboratory evaluation because of the increased likelihood of serious bacterial infections. Reported fever by methods other than rectal thermometry is of concern. This study evaluates the validity of perceived, pacifier, and temporal artery (TA) temperatures. METHODS: A convenience sample of 200 babies ...
Chatterton N Jerry - - 2003
Crested wheatgrass is an important cool-season grass that has become naturalized in many semiarid regions of the western U.S. It provides ground cover and reduces soil erosion caused by water and wind. Additionally, crested wheatgrass produces important forage for livestock and wildlife on 6 to 8 million hectars of western ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Compared with the older pencil-beam (PB) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the newer fan-beam (FB) DXA has the advantage of faster scan acquisition and greater accuracy of body-composition measurement in small subjects. However, no data exist on the relation between the measurements obtained with these techniques. OBJECTIVE: The objective of ...
Rising Russell - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of daily metabolic rate in infants were based on short-term unstandardized measurements of energy expenditure (EE). OBJECTIVE: Determine 24-hour metabolic profiles in infants. METHODS: Energy expenditure (kcal/min by indirect calorimetry) and physical activity (oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were measured in 10 healthy infants (5.0+/-0.8 months, 68+/-3 ...
- - 2003
Heat waves (i.e., >/=3 consecutive days of air temperatures >/=90 degrees F [>/=32.2 degrees C]) are meteorologic events that contribute significantly to heat-related deaths. Exposure to excessive heat can cause illness, injury, and death. This report describes four cases of heat-related deaths, as reported by the Office of the Medical ...
van Marken Lichtenbelt Wouter D - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic response in infants and several animal species. In adult humans, however, its ...
Itoh Shoichi - - 2003
Chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) are preserved materials from the early history of the Solar System, where they resulted from thermal processing of pre-existing solids during various flash heating episodes which lasted for several million years. CAIs are believed to have formed about two million years before the chondrules. Here ...
Rieger-Fackeldey Esther - - 2003
The optimum body temperature for infants <1000 g is unknown. We investigated body temperature effects on spontaneous breathing using proportional assist ventilation (PAV), because this mode supports spontaneous breathing such that all breathing pattern variables remain controlled by the infant. Minute volume (MV), respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (Vt), incidence ...
Bauer Karl - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to measure energy expenditure (EE) in a contemporary population of preterm neonates <30 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study in 26 consecutive preterm neonates (gestational age, 27 weeks [23-29] [median, range]; birth weight, 980 g [554-1592]). EE was measured by indirect ...
Manji K P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hypothermia among neonates on admission to the Neonatal Care Unit. Hypothermia in newborn babies is a problem in tropical countries despite warm environmental conditions and it contributes to a high neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY: A study was undertaken to determine ...
Battin Malcolm R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of selective head cooling in birth-asphyxiated term newborn infants while maintaining the rectal temperature at 35.0 degrees C or 34.5 degrees C. METHODS: Twenty-six term infants with Apgar <or=6 at 5 minutes or cord/first arterial pH <7.1, plus evidence of encephalopathy, were studied. After parental ...
de Boer Rob - - 2003
It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in ...
Debillon Thierry - - 2003
In order to test the practicability and safety of whole-body cooling in term neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and to report outcomes, a prospective pilot study was carried out in 25 term infants (median postmenstrual age 38 weeks, range 36 to 41 weeks; 20 males, five females). Whole-body cooling, ...
Cermáková Eleonora - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF), namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia ...
Behring Anne - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects on thermoregulation of bathing a healthy newborn within the first hour of life compared to bathing four to six hours after birth. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. SETTING: Newborn nursery of a 30-bed obstetric unit in an urban university hospital. SAMPLE: Fifty-one healthy term newborns with a minimum ...
Picaud Jean-Charles - - 2003
Manufacturer-supplied lumbar spine phantoms are normally used for quality control of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments. Presently, there is no pediatric phantom for whole-body mineralization and softtissue composition DXA measurements. We designed blocks of acrylic (for fat mass), polyvinyl chloride (for lean mass), and aluminum (for bone mass) whose combination ...
Flenady V J - - 2003
The provision of a thermoneutral environment is an essential component of the immediate and longer term care of newborn infants. A variety of methods are currently employed including incubators and open-care systems, with or without modifications such as heat shields and plastic wrap. The system used must allow ready access ...
Gray P H - - 2003
An optimal thermal environment is desirable for preterm infants. These infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. Measures to assist the maintenance of body temperature for smaller infants in open cots include extra clothing/bedding, warming up the nursery and heating the cot mattress. Recently a ...
Schmelzle Hansjörg Rudolf - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There is an interest in noninvasive measurement of body fat in newborns and infants. Measurement of skinfold thickness (SFT) is a simple clinical method. OBJECTIVE: We correlated fat mass (FM) values of neonates and infants predicted from SFT measurements and compared them with FM values measured by dual-energy X-ray ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2002
Low birth weight, a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, is caused by different factors in Western and developing-country populations. In addition to differing in terms of ethnicity, maternal size, maternal nutritional status, and disease load, developing-country and Western populations are also characterized by different environmental heat loads. Thermodynamic ...
Triche Elizabeth W - - 2002
This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was ...
Schulze Andreas - - 2002
There is a strong physiological rationale for delivering the inspiratory gas at or close to core body temperature and saturated with water vapour to infants with an artificial airway undergoing long-term mechanical ventilatory assistance. Cascade humidifiers with heated wire ventilatory circuitry may achieve this goal safely. Whenever saturated air leaves ...
Sokoloff Greta - - 2002
Infant Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) do not exhibit endogenous heat production before 3 weeks of age and do not huddle effectively during cold exposure, gaining little thermoregulatory benefit from the presence of multiple littermates. In contrast, infant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) produce heat endogenously and are effective at maintaining ...
Kambarami R - - 2002
Thermal care is a critical part of caring for neonates. The need to identify simple, affordable and effective tools for detecting hypothermia in newborn infants that can be used by mothers and other caregivers in resource-poor countries remains crucial in our efforts to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. ...
Ball H L - - 2002
The effects on infants of sleeping with their parents is currently the subject of much debate. One concern regarding infants who sleep in their parents' bed involves the possibility of overheating. Previous research reported a significantly greater core temperature of 0.1 degrees C among a cohort of bed-sharing infants compared ...
Shankaran Seetha - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Modest reduction in brain temperature is a promising therapy to reduce brain damage after neonatal encephalopathy as a result of acute perinatal asphyxia. The efficacy of modest hypothermia may in part be dependent on the stability of the desired brain temperature. The objective of this study was 1) to ...
- - 2002
Each year in the United States, approximately 400 deaths are attributed to excessive natural heat; these deaths are preventable. This report describes heat-related deaths in Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas when elevated temperatures were recorded for several consecutive days during July-August 2001; summarizes heat-related deaths in the United States ...
Hahn Martin E - - 2002
There has been a revival of interest recently in the ultrasonic calls of infant rodents as investigators are using them to assess neurobehavioral development and animal models of anxiety. We compared the rates of ultrasonic calling of infant mice of two genotypes in two situations, cold and rotation. The subjects ...
Watkins Beth - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest that adults with anorexia nervosa are more likely to be born in spring and early summer. This study examines whether this pattern of birth is true of early-onset anorexia nervosa, and whether there is a relationship between environmental temperature at assumed time of conception and a ...
Bhattacharjee Gautam - - 2002
Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata ...
Horns Kimberly M - - 2002
PURPOSE: This study tested a novel bioinstrumented radiant warmer (RW), designed to provide a reduced-intervention nursing caregiving environment (RINCE) on the ambient and body surface temperature stability of extremely low birth-weight (ELBW) infants (< 1,000 g) during caregiver disruptions. The RINCE was compared with a control bed consisting of a ...
Chwo Miao-Ju - - 2002
Kangaroo care (KC) has been the intervention for preterm infants in numerous published studies. However, most well designed studies to date have used a one-group repeated measure design. This methodology is not as definitive as an experimental design. Because of the absence of a comparable control group, change between pretest ...
DeRoche Michael E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Episodic hypothermia with hyperhidrosis is a disorder of thermoregulation, believed to be secondary to a hypothalamic dysfunction, which affects the body's thermoregulatory centers. During this rare condition, the body may sweat profusely in an attempt to maintain a lowered body temperature set point. The exact cause of episodic hypothermia ...
Bines Julie E - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a defect in energy metabolism exists in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). DESIGN: Unselected, newly-diagnosed subjects with CF (n = 46) and 24 healthy infants aged <20 weeks had measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), total energy expenditure (TEE) (n = 25), and body composition. Metabolizable ...
Rissmann A - - 2002
Thermoregulatory response to Finnish sauna bath was investigated in 47 infants (age 3 - 14 month). Before taking a short sauna bath lasting 3 min, the infants stayed in a swimming pool for 15 min. Under these conditions sauna bathing did not increase the rectal temperature. Unexpectedly rectal temperature even ...
Gerten Dieter - - 2002
Impacts of climate warming on freshwater ecosystems have been documented recently for a variety of sites around the globe. Here we provide a review of studies that report long-term (multidecadal) effects of warming trends on thermal properties and plankton dynamics in northern hemispheric lakes. We show that higher lake temperatures, ...
Pettis Chris R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Both microgravity and simulated microgravity models, such as the 45HDT (45 degrees head-down tilt), cause a redistribution of body fluids indicating a possible adaptive process to the microgravity stressor. Understanding the physiological processes that occur in microgravity is a first step to developing countermeasures to stop its harmful effects, ...
Madge Bethany A - - 2002
The present study explored the application of a 20-kHz ultrasound unit for the disinfection of domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in batch with an ultrasound probe. The disinfection efficiency of fecal coliform increased with ultrasound power input from 0.003 log kill/min at 70 W/L to 1.8 log kill/min at 1250 ...
Grünhagen Dirk J - - 2002
Among preterm infants there is a relationship between skin blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The aim of this study was to assess whether halogen spotlight phototherapy without significant heat stress increases TEWL and affects maintenance fluid requirements in preterm infants. TEWL was measured noninvasively before the start and ...
Furuya T - - 2002
Naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene (NTH) is an asymmetric structural isomer of dibenzothiophene (DBT), and NTH derivatives can be detected in diesel oil following hydrodesulfurization treatment, in addition to DBT derivatives. Mycobacterium phlei WU-F1, which possesses high desulfurizing ability toward DBT and its derivatives over a wide temperature range (20-50 degrees C), could also ...
Kilani Ramzi A - - 2002
To evaluate the practicality and safety of selective head cooling in asphyxiated human newborn infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart analysis of asphyxiated neonates. SETTING, PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: During a period of 13 months (1st June 1998 to 30 June 1999) fourteen newborns (10 mild and 4 moderate PHIE) were managed by ...
Fomon Samuel J - - 2002
During infancy, especially early infancy, a substantial proportion of the requirements for energy and specific nutrients are those needed for growth. Knowledge of the body composition of a reference infant (body size and chemical composition at the 50th centile for age) permits an estimate of the growth needs of the ...
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