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Results 351 - 400 of 859
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Hammami Mouhanad - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A piglet model was used to determine the influence of frequently encountered situations in clinical studies of infants and young children on fan-beam dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. METHODS: DXA scans of piglets (640 g to 21,100 g) were acquired in the infant and adult mode and were analyzed ...
Pejaver Ranjan Kumar - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia is a common problem in newborns. This is more so in community environment especially in low-birth weight and preterm babies. METHODS: A simple liquid crystal temperature monitoring device was used in 20 infants on a continuous basis to monitor for hypothermia. This was compared with the measurement of ...
Elabbassi Elmountacer Billah - - 2004
Keeping premature newborns warm is crucial for their survival. Their ability to prevent excessive heat loss to the environment and to control their body temperature is limited. The risk of hypothermia is particularly important for low-birth-weight newborns with a large body surface area in relation to their mass of heat-producing ...
Peng Ying-Jie - - 2004
Carotid bodies are functionally immature at birth and exhibit poor sensitivity to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that continuous hypoxia at birth impairs hypoxic sensing at the carotid body. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is more frequently experienced in neonatal life. Previous studies on adult animals have shown that IH facilitates hypoxic ...
Houghton David C - - 2004
Despite the value of aquatic insects in aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring, few studies within North America have addressed relationships between aquatic insect assemblages and landscape-level environmental variables. In this study, over 300,000 adult caddisfly specimens representing 224 species were collected and analyzed from samples of 225 Minnesota aquatic habitats within 58 ...
Dollberg Shaul - - 2004
Small preterm infants usually require a heated environment to survive. After weaning, some infants become hypothermic, and eventually require external thermal support for an additional period. We hypothesized that preterm infants respond to weaning from an incubator by increasing their resting metabolic rate. Thermally stable infants were studied when they ...
Casellas J - - 2004
Eight physiological and vitality variables related to the first minutes of the life of Iberian x Meishan F2 piglets were analyzed. Variables included rectal temperature, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate (all were monitored at birth and 60 min later), time to reach the udder, and time to the first colostrum ...
Bines J E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The method for measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) using indirect calorimetry in adults is well established but is impractical in infants. METHODS: In this prospective study energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry in 14 infants when sleeping and when lying quietly awake. RESULTS: Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) ...
Maayan-Metzger A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of radiant warmers on skin barrier function in preterm infants. METHODOLOGY: Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration were measured in 30 preterm infants (birth weight 825 to 2220 g) in seven body areas: forehead, upper back, cubital fossa, palms, soles, abdomen, and inguinal ...
Hanna Colleen M - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We evaluate the hypothesis that pulse rate increases linearly with increased body temperature in infants and determine how much tachycardia in infants can be explained by a 1 degrees C (1.8 degrees F) increase in body temperature. METHODS: Infants younger than 1 year and presenting to a pediatric ...
Ma Guansheng - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The accurate measurement of body composition is useful in assessments of infant growth and nutritional status. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of a new air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) system for body-composition assessment in infants. DESIGN: Between- and within-day reliability was assessed by comparing the percentage body fat ...
Chapman J W - - 2004
Day and night sampling of windborne arthropods at a height of 200 m above ground was undertaken at Cardington, Bedfordshire, UK, during July 1999, 2000 and 2002, using a net supported by a tethered balloon. The results from this study are compared with those from the classic aerial sampling programmes ...
Gray P H - - 2004
AIMS: To evaluate the thermal responses and weight gain in preterm infants nursed in a cot on a heated, water-filled mattress (HWM) compared with infants receiving care in an air-heated incubator and to compare mothers' stress, anxiety levels and perceptions of their infants in the two groups. METHODS: Stable preterm ...
Chin Adrian - - 2004
At 10 degrees C, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (n = 13 per group) infected with Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951 became anorexic at 3 wk post-infection (w.p.i.), with feed-intake decreasing significantly from 1.33 to 0.94% body weight (b.w.). Anorexia was most severe at 4 w.p.i. (0.80% b.w.), coinciding with peak parasitemia ...
Jackson J A - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To assess the patterns of early postnatal physiological adaptation and maturation in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) infants by measuring changes in sleeping deep body temperature, heart rate, and concentrations of urinary cortisol. SETTING: At home. PATIENTS: Sixty five IUGR babies and 127 controls matched for sex, social class, and ...
Cottrell Serena M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Experimental data have suggested that early postoperative temperature management after cerebral ischemia may alter neurologic outcome. We explored whether minor deviations in early postoperative body temperature after infant heart surgery affects developmental outcome. METHODS: In a study of infants undergoing repair of congenital heart disease, 95% of whom had ...
Isenring E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of total body water (TBW) predicted by foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance compared with a deuterium oxide dilution technique in oncology outpatients receiving radiotherapy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Two private Australian radiation oncology facilities. SUBJECTS: In all, 27 subjects (23 males; four females); mean age 62 (+/-15) ...
Slaughter Virginia - - 2004
As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body ...
Hamajima Takashi T Department of Pediatrics, Seirei Hamamatsu Hospital, Hamamatsu, Japan ; Department of Endocrinology, Aichi Children's Health and Medical Center, Aichi, - - 2004
The biochemical diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is difficult in preterm infants. To date, no marker for the biochemical diagnosis of 21-OHD has been found. Seventeen α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), is not useful because of interference by delta 5 steroids from the fetal adrenal cortex. A 5-d-old female infant, born at 31 ...
Thomas Karen A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of caregiving on preterm infant and incubator temperature and to investigate incubator control mode in thermal responses to caregiving. STUDY DESIGN: The intensive within-subject design involved continuous recording of infant and incubator temperature and videotaping throughout a 24-hour period in 40 hospitalized preterm infants. Temperature ...
Wailoo M P - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To assess the pattern of postnatal physiological maturation in economically deprived infants by measuring the age-related changes in deep body temperature during night-time sleep. SETTING: Inner city Leicester, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight infants aged 6-21 weeks from economically deprived areas and 87 control infants from more affluent areas. OUTCOME MEASURES: ...
Thomas Karen A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To describe infant temperature in the home environment and explore factors, particularly weight and gestational age at birth, associated with maintenance of thermal neutral temperatures in the home. DESIGN: Continuous abdominal skin temperature was recorded at 1-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in both full-term and preterm infants, using ...
Bautista A - - 2003
Newborn rabbits compete vigorously for the mother's milk, and survivors benefit from littermate deaths. Here we report that rabbit pups also may benefit from littermate presence in terms of increased thermal efficiency. Pups nursed normally once a day by their mother but otherwise raised alone had a lower probability of ...
Hammami Mouhanad - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Fan beam dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (FB DXA) has recently been validated for the measurement of body composition in small subjects. This study represents the first report of body composition (bone mineral content, fat mass, and lean mass) in human neonates measured by FB DXA. METHODS: FB DXA measurements ...
Valois Sandra - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Carbohydrate malabsorption in infants has been found to increase nutrient losses. However, the effect of this alteration on daily metabolic rate is unknown. We assessed daily metabolic rates in infants with asymptomatic carbohydrate malabsorption (ACM) after a single fruit juice load. METHODS: Sixteen healthy infants with ACM (63.3 +/- ...
Reichman C A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A knowledge of energy expenditure in infancy is required for the estimation of recommended daily amounts of food energy, for designing artificial infant feeds, and as a reference standard for studies of energy metabolism in disease states. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to construct centile reference charts ...
Rehan V K - - 2003
AIM: Human neonatal diaphragm development has not been extensively studied. Previous work in children and adults suggests that diaphragm thickness (t(di)) is in scale with body size such that maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (P(dimax)) remains relatively constant. Such assessments have not been made in healthy term infants. This study was designed ...
Bekx M Tracy - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are hypotonic and underweight before the onset of childhood obesity. This study evaluates body composition in the PWS infant and its relationship to energy expenditure. STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen infants and toddlers with PWS (mean age, 12.4+/-6 months; eight female subjects) underwent analysis of body ...
Ryan M - - 2003
Normothermia must be established in drowning victims before death may be declared, as the myocardium may remain resistant to stimulation at subnormal temperatures, and complete neurological recovery from submersion associated hypothermia has been reported. A safe and effective method of external re-warming is described that may prove particularly useful in ...
Shine R - - 2003
The degree of offspring development at hatching (or birth) varies among species within most major vertebrate lineages; altricial vs. precocial birds offer the clearest example of a trade-off between early hatching and the degree of locomotor development of the hatchling. No such diversity has been reported for reptiles, but we ...
Callanan Deborah - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Fever in young infants frequently triggers a laboratory evaluation because of the increased likelihood of serious bacterial infections. Reported fever by methods other than rectal thermometry is of concern. This study evaluates the validity of perceived, pacifier, and temporal artery (TA) temperatures. METHODS: A convenience sample of 200 babies ...
Chatterton N Jerry - - 2003
Crested wheatgrass is an important cool-season grass that has become naturalized in many semiarid regions of the western U.S. It provides ground cover and reduces soil erosion caused by water and wind. Additionally, crested wheatgrass produces important forage for livestock and wildlife on 6 to 8 million hectars of western ...
Koo Winston W K - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Compared with the older pencil-beam (PB) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the newer fan-beam (FB) DXA has the advantage of faster scan acquisition and greater accuracy of body-composition measurement in small subjects. However, no data exist on the relation between the measurements obtained with these techniques. OBJECTIVE: The objective of ...
Rising Russell - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of daily metabolic rate in infants were based on short-term unstandardized measurements of energy expenditure (EE). OBJECTIVE: Determine 24-hour metabolic profiles in infants. METHODS: Energy expenditure (kcal/min by indirect calorimetry) and physical activity (oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were measured in 10 healthy infants (5.0+/-0.8 months, 68+/-3 ...
- - 2003
Heat waves (i.e., >/=3 consecutive days of air temperatures >/=90 degrees F [>/=32.2 degrees C]) are meteorologic events that contribute significantly to heat-related deaths. Exposure to excessive heat can cause illness, injury, and death. This report describes four cases of heat-related deaths, as reported by the Office of the Medical ...
van Marken Lichtenbelt Wouter D - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic response in infants and several animal species. In adult humans, however, its ...
Itoh Shoichi - - 2003
Chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) are preserved materials from the early history of the Solar System, where they resulted from thermal processing of pre-existing solids during various flash heating episodes which lasted for several million years. CAIs are believed to have formed about two million years before the chondrules. Here ...
Rieger-Fackeldey Esther - - 2003
The optimum body temperature for infants <1000 g is unknown. We investigated body temperature effects on spontaneous breathing using proportional assist ventilation (PAV), because this mode supports spontaneous breathing such that all breathing pattern variables remain controlled by the infant. Minute volume (MV), respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (Vt), incidence ...
Bauer Karl - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to measure energy expenditure (EE) in a contemporary population of preterm neonates <30 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study in 26 consecutive preterm neonates (gestational age, 27 weeks [23-29] [median, range]; birth weight, 980 g [554-1592]). EE was measured by indirect ...
Manji K P - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for hypothermia among neonates on admission to the Neonatal Care Unit. Hypothermia in newborn babies is a problem in tropical countries despite warm environmental conditions and it contributes to a high neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY: A study was undertaken to determine ...
Battin Malcolm R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of selective head cooling in birth-asphyxiated term newborn infants while maintaining the rectal temperature at 35.0 degrees C or 34.5 degrees C. METHODS: Twenty-six term infants with Apgar <or=6 at 5 minutes or cord/first arterial pH <7.1, plus evidence of encephalopathy, were studied. After parental ...
de Boer Rob - - 2003
It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in ...
Debillon Thierry - - 2003
In order to test the practicability and safety of whole-body cooling in term neonates with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and to report outcomes, a prospective pilot study was carried out in 25 term infants (median postmenstrual age 38 weeks, range 36 to 41 weeks; 20 males, five females). Whole-body cooling, ...
Cermáková Eleonora - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF), namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia ...
Behring Anne - - 2003
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects on thermoregulation of bathing a healthy newborn within the first hour of life compared to bathing four to six hours after birth. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. SETTING: Newborn nursery of a 30-bed obstetric unit in an urban university hospital. SAMPLE: Fifty-one healthy term newborns with a minimum ...
Picaud Jean-Charles - - 2003
Manufacturer-supplied lumbar spine phantoms are normally used for quality control of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments. Presently, there is no pediatric phantom for whole-body mineralization and softtissue composition DXA measurements. We designed blocks of acrylic (for fat mass), polyvinyl chloride (for lean mass), and aluminum (for bone mass) whose combination ...
Flenady V J - - 2003
The provision of a thermoneutral environment is an essential component of the immediate and longer term care of newborn infants. A variety of methods are currently employed including incubators and open-care systems, with or without modifications such as heat shields and plastic wrap. The system used must allow ready access ...
Gray P H - - 2003
An optimal thermal environment is desirable for preterm infants. These infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. Measures to assist the maintenance of body temperature for smaller infants in open cots include extra clothing/bedding, warming up the nursery and heating the cot mattress. Recently a ...
Schmelzle Hansjörg Rudolf - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There is an interest in noninvasive measurement of body fat in newborns and infants. Measurement of skinfold thickness (SFT) is a simple clinical method. OBJECTIVE: We correlated fat mass (FM) values of neonates and infants predicted from SFT measurements and compared them with FM values measured by dual-energy X-ray ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2002
Low birth weight, a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, is caused by different factors in Western and developing-country populations. In addition to differing in terms of ethnicity, maternal size, maternal nutritional status, and disease load, developing-country and Western populations are also characterized by different environmental heat loads. Thermodynamic ...
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