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Results 301 - 350 of 881
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Mancinelli Giorgio - - 2007
The mechanisms regulating the build-up of invertebrate assemblages on ephemeral detritus patches are still poorly understood. Here, the daily colonization of decaying reed leaves by vagile macroinvertebrates was monitored in an brackish lake in Italy. The highly variable abundance patterns of dominant taxa were analysed by spectral and geostatistical techniques ...
Harvey N C NC MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, United - - 2007
The prevalence of both childhood and adult obesity is rising in the developed world, and there is increasing interest in its underlying causes. A number of studies suggest a positive relationship between birth weight and childhood body mass index, but less is known about specific prenatal environmental influences on more ...
Kasting James F - - 2006
Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks appear to suggest that the early Earth was significantly warmer than today, with estimates of surface temperatures between 45 and 85 degrees C. We argue, following others, that this interpretation is incorrect-the same data can be explained via a change in isotopic composition ...
Ginalski Maciej K - - 2007
The main objective of this study is to investigate the major physical processes taking place inside an infant incubator, before and after modifications have been made to its interior chamber. The modification involves the addition of an overhead screen to decrease radiation heat losses from the infant placed inside the ...
Jackson Lauren S - - 2006
Ricin is a potent protein toxin found in the seeds of the castor bean plant, Ricinus communis. Ricin specifically and irreversibly inactivates ribosomes, promoting cell death by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is composed of a ribosome-inactivating enzyme (A-chain) linked to a lectin (B-chain) by a single disulfide bond. Several reports ...
Kosugi Yoshiko - - 2006
Seasonal fluctuations in leaf gas exchange parameters were investigated in three evergreen (Quercus glauca Thunb., Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. and Castanopsis cuspidata Schottky) and one deciduous (Quercus serrata Thunb.) co-occurring, dominant tree species in a temperate broad-leaved forest. Dark respiration rate (Rn), maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and stomatal coefficient (m), the ...
Chardon Karen - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test the thermoregulatory feeding control hypothesis in sleeping, premature infants. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In premature infants, the energy supply from food intake is crucial for (in order of importance): organ operation, body homeothermia, and optimal growth. The Himms-Hagen model of ...
Gursky Lucas J - - 2006
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL26 produces the antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) piscicolin 126, first isolated from C. maltaromaticum JG126, and carnobacteriocin BM1, first isolated from C. maltaromaticum LV17. C. maltaromaticum UAL26 is especially inhibitory to strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocin activity is not observable in the supernatant of cultures of UAL26 grown in ...
Darmstadt G L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Two-thirds of women globally give birth at home, yet little data are available on use of skin-to-skin care (STSC) in the community. We describe the acceptability of STSC in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, and measured maternal, newborn, and ambient temperature in the home in order to inform strategies for ...
Conti Susanna - - 2007
The effects of heat waves on health can be serious for elderly persons, especially those in urban areas. We investigated in-depth the mortality excess during the 2003 heat wave among elderly persons (>74 years) in the City of Genoa (Italy). The excess in general mortality was calculated for the period ...
- - 2006
Heat-related illnesses (e.g., heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, or heatstroke) can occur when high ambient temperatures overcome the body's natural ability to dissipate heat. Older adults, young children, and persons with chronic medical conditions are particularly susceptible to these illnesses and are at high risk for heat-related mortality. Previous ...
Sherman Tami Irwin - - 2006
Devices used to maintain thermal stability in preterm infants have advanced over time from the first incubator reported by Jean-Louis-Paul Denuce in 1857 to the latest Versalet Incuwarmer and Giraffe Omnibed devices today. Optimizing the thermal environment has proven significant for improving the chances of survival for small infants. Understanding ...
Brandt Ivan S - - 2006
Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any ...
Yang Bo - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of glycosylation at Asn302 of pro-urokinase (pro-UK) on the stability in culture supernatant. METHODS: Nonglycosylated pro-UK was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of Asn302 to Ala302. The pro-UK mutant and native pro-UK were transfected into dhfr(-)-CHO cells, and serum-free culture supernatant was harvested and incubated at ...
Dwyer C M - - 2006
To survive, the newborn lamb must be able to maintain body temperature and to stand and move to the udder to suck colostrum to fuel heat production. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neonatal lambs showing slow behavioral progress to standing and sucking also have an impaired ...
Dauvin Jean-Claude - - 2007
Using recent indices developed, in part, for use under the European Water Framework Directive (AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA, BQI, I2EC and the trophic index ITI), the ecological quality status of two highly contaminated environments--the Bay of Seine and the Seine estuary (Eastern English Channel)--was determined on several spatial and temporal scales. ...
Russell Jacob A - - 2006
Symbiosis is prevalent throughout the tree of life and has had a significant impact on the ecology and evolution of many bacteria and eukaryotes. The benevolence of symbiotic interactions often varies with the environment, and such variation is expected to play an important role in shaping the prevalence and distributions ...
Seifert John G - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ad libitum water ingestion, using a back-mounted hydration system (BMHS), on fluid balance during alpine skiing. Fourteen skiers skied on two different days. On one day, seven skiers ingested water during skiing via the BMHS and the other seven ...
Raichlen David A - - 2006
Many researchers have suggested that cursorial mammals concentrate limb muscle mass proximally to reduce energy costs during locomotion. Although supported by experiments where mass is added to an individual's limbs, mammals with naturally occurring distally heavy limbs such as primates have similar energy costs compared with other mammals. This study ...
Duman Nuray - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Thermal management of the very low-birthweight (VLBW) infant is a cornerstone of neonatology because thermal stress is an important determinant of survival. This prospective study was designed to determine the effects of polyethylene occlusive skin wrapping on heat loss in VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit ...
Bowsher J G - - 2006
The wear generation of double-heat-treated and as-cast large-diameter metal-on-metal (MOM) hip bearings was investigated using standard- and 'severe'-gait simulations. The test hypothesis was that double heat treatment would change MOM hip wear compared with the as-cast condition. Two groups of high-carbon MOM bearings of 40 mm diameter were manufactured and ...
Kim Kangmin - - 2006
The effect of temperature, O(2) and Mg(++) on the kinetic characteristics of the slow inactivation (fallover) of Rubisco isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was determined. Comparing 25 and 45 degrees C, the rate of activity decline of Rubisco increased by 20-fold, but the final ratio of steady state to ...
McMaster Marianne E - - 2006
Evidence reported in an earlier paper suggests that infants introduced to indoor heated swimming pools in the first year of life show an association with spinal asymmetries including progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in normal subjects vertical spinous process asymmetry. Indoor heated swimming pools may contain a risk factor ...
Chen Ren-sheng - - 2006
Atmospheric CO2 concentration (CC) near land surface and meteorological variables have been measured at four sites, named Yeniugou (alpine meadow and permafrost), Xishui (mountainous forest), Linze (oasis edge) and Ejina (lower desert), respectively, in Heihe River Basin, northwest China. The results showed that, the half hourly CC at night was ...
Sedin Gunnar - - 2006
Maintaining fluid and heat balance is of vital importance to the newborn infant. At birth, the infant is exposed to a cold and dry environment, and preterm neonates in particular, are then at risk of dehydration and hypothermia. These conditions may have serious consequences and significantly influence mortality and morbidity. ...
Seguí-Simarro J M - - 2006
We analysed the presence of nuclear bodies and particularly Cajal bodies during representative stages of gametophytic and haploid embryogenic development in isolated microspore and anther cultures of a model system (Brassica napus cv. Topas) and a recalcitrant species (Capsicum annuum L. var. Yolo Wonder B). The nuclear bodies domain is ...
Hildenbrand D L - - 2005
The mole fractions of AgBr and Ag3Br3 in the saturated vapor at 840 K have been evaluated from the vapor mass spectrum, by comparison with the corresponding spectrum of AgCl vapor, where the monomer/trimer ratio is known accurately from vapor molecular weight measurements. Combination of these results with new measurements ...
Bredemeyer Sandie - - 2005
AIM: This paper reports an audit of the effect on admission temperatures of using occlusive polyethylene wrap applied immediately after the birth of extremely premature infants. BACKGROUND: Use of occlusive polyethylene wrap during the early postnatal management of the premature infant reduces evaporative and convective heat loss. METHOD: Retrospective pre-intervention ...
Perlman Jeffrey - - 2005
The current treatment approach to an infant at risk for progression to neonatal encephalopathy after intrapartum hypoxia-ischemia is threefold: 1) early identification of the infant at highest risk for evolving brain injury based on the criteria of a sentinel event during labor, prolonged depression at birth with the need for ...
Keatinge William R - - 2006
We used graphic analysis and generalized additive modeling to assess whether mortality that is often attributed to ozone and sometimes to < 10-microm particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide in hot weather results from confounding by neglected weather factors. When mean daily air temperatures exceeded 18 degrees C, mortality at ...
Ken Tan - - 2005
Defensiveness of honeybee colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera (actively balling the wasps but reduction of foraging) against predatory wasps, Vespa velutina, and false wasps was assessed. There were significantly more worker bees in balls of the former than latter. Core temperatures in a ball around a live wasp ...
McBain Matthew C - - 2005
Micrometeorological measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were made at the decommissioned Park Road Landfill in Grimsby, Ontario, Canada between June and August 2002. The influence of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and barometric pressure on the temporal variability of landfill biogas emissions was assessed. Gas flux ...
Butte Nancy F - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the energy requirements of infants from total energy expenditure and energy deposition during growth. DESIGN: Energy requirements during infancy were estimated from total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labelled water method and energy deposition based on measured protein and fat gains. SETTING: Database on the total ...
Sampson Russell D - - 2005
The variability of the astronomical refraction of the setting Sun as measured from Holetown, Barbados, West Indies, is compared to sunset refraction measured from Edmonton, Alberta, during the same time of year. At about 13 degrees N latitude, Holetown experiences a marine tropical climate, while Edmonton (53 degrees N) has ...
Thomas P C - - 2005
The accretion of bodies in the asteroid belt was halted nearly 4.6 billion years ago by the gravitational influence of the newly formed giant planet Jupiter. The asteroid belt therefore preserves a record of both this earliest epoch of Solar System formation and variation of conditions within the solar nebula. ...
Hunter Ted - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The effects of low-flow anesthesia on the temperature and humidity of the inspired gas in infants during mechanical ventilation is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the temperature and humidity of the inspired gas in infants using a pediatric circle absorber system with high and low fresh gas ...
Hoffmann Heinz - - 2005
The validity of the published description of Hyla rufitela is questioned because the origin of the described tadpoles does not correspond to the distribution of this species. The present description, based on tadpoles that were hatched from two egg masses from the Caribbean lowland of Costa Rica, includes tadpoles raised ...
Zayeri Farid - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence rate and factors associated with hypothermia in Iranian newborns and to discover the effect of hypothermia on neonatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We selected a random sample of 1952 neonates using a multistage sampling technique from February 2004 to February 2005 in University Teaching Hospitals ...
Hajat Shakoor - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Mortality increases with hot weather, although the extent to which lives are shortened is rarely quantified. We compare the extent to which short-term mortality displacement can explain heat deaths in Delhi, São Paulo, and London given contrasting demographic and health profiles. METHODS: We examined time-series of daily mortality data ...
Foskey Gary G - - 2005
Infants with an aspirated foreign body who present with acute onset of obstructed airflow should be readily diagnosed. When aspirated foreign body is overlooked, patients may present with recurrent inspiratory, biphasic, or expiratory stridor. We report an infant who repeatedly presented with varying degrees of inspiratory stridor. The diagnosis of ...
Johnson Kevin P - - 2005
Large-bodied species of hosts often harbor large-bodied parasites, a pattern known as Harrison's rule. Harrison's rule has been documented for a variety of animal parasites and herbivorous insects, yet the adaptive basis of the body-size correlation is poorly understood. We used phylogenetically independent methods to test for Harrison's rule across ...
Boo N Y - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the proportions of normothermic infants who remained normothermic, and hypothermic infants who became normothermic following the use of a heated water-filled mattress (HWM) in the labour room. METHODS: A prospective observational study carried out in the labour room over a 2.5 month period on ...
Nogueira P J - - 2005
During the first two weeks of August 2003, Portugal was affected by a severe heat wave. Following the identification in Portugal of the influence of heat waves on mortality in 1981 and 1991 (estimated excess of about 1900 and 1000 deaths respectively), the Observatorio Nacional de Saude (ONSA) - Instituto ...
Shalak Lina F - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the incidence and the time course of elevated temperature following delivery in term infants with clinical chorioamnionitis (CHORIO) and (2) to determine if the extent of temperature elevation at birth is associated with increased likelihood of NICU Admissions, birth depression, or with short-term neurological abnormalities. DESIGN/METHODS: ...
Johnson H - - 2005
This paper describes a retrospective analysis of the impact of the 2003 heat wave on mortality in England and Wales, and compares this with rapid estimates based on the Office for National Statistics routine weekly deaths reporting system. Daily mortality data for 4 to 13 August 2003, when temperatures were ...
Tretyak Anna - - 2005
Secular changes in the body dimensions of newborns from three different geographical localities are compared. Anthropometrical data of infants born in 1987 and in 2002 as a result of singleton full-term non-pathological postpartum were collected from medical records of children's out-patient clinics in three geographical localities: two big cities-Moscow and ...
Ferrer Emilia - - 2005
Free and total fluorescent compounds, browning index, and color formation were measured in milk-based powdered infant formulas (IF) during 2 years of storage at 20 and 37 degrees C. The excitation spectra from 415 nm emission show three peaks (ex lambda1 = 270 nm, lambda2 = 325/315 nm, lambda3 = ...
Orgill Richard D - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: Aspirated objects generally represent items accessible to children. When metallic candy wrapper aspiration is questioned, radiographic studies may aid diagnosis. An infant with repeated chest radiographs negative for a metallic foreign body was found to have a multi-layer metallic candy wrapper in the left main bronchus. The purpose of ...
Kussman Barry D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to measure changes in plasma fentanyl concentrations during infant cardiac surgery using a bypass circuit with low priming volume and to examine the relation of plasma fentanyl concentration and temperature to Bispectral Index (BIS) as an index of conscious level during infant cardiac ...
Guazzato Massimiliano - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of sandblasting, grinding, grinding orientation and polishing before and after heat treatment, on the flexural strength of a glass-infiltrated alumina/zirconia-reinforced dental ceramic (In-Ceram Zirconia). METHODS: The uniaxial flexural strength was calculated on 160 bar-shaped specimens (20 x 4 x ...
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