Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 909
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Dollberg Shaul - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia is a known symptom of neonatal polycythemia (NP) and its pathophysiology is unclear. The effect of partial dilutional exchange transfusion (PET) upon resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that PET leads to an increase in REE. STUDY DESIGN: 11 patients with NP ...
Schmith Torben - - 2007
Rahmstorf (Reports, 19 January 2007, p. 368) used the observed relation between rates of change of global surface temperature and sea level to predict future sea-level rise. We revisit the application of the statistical methods used and show that estimation of the regression coefficient is not robust. Methods commonly used ...
Li Yan - - 2007
Mass mortality is often observed in cultured oysters during the period following spawning in the summer season. To examine the underlying causes leading to this phenomenon, thermotolerance of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was assessed using pre- and postspawning oysters that were sequentially treated with sublethal (37 degrees C) and ...
Anderson M E - - 2007
Two newborns at high risk for severe encephalopathy were passively cooled by discontinuing the supplied heat from a radiant warmer. Cooling was attempted in both babies (successfully in one) before the arrival of the neonatal transport team. Both infants had core temperatures of approximately 34 degrees C on arrival at ...
Diego Miguel A MA Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. - - 2008
Temperature was assessed in 72 preterm infants randomly assigned to a control or a massage therapy group. A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm infants receiving massage therapy versus a control group, even though the incubator portholes remained open during the 15 min massage therapy session but not ...
Lampe Joshua W - - 2007
The induction of mild hypothermia, lowering body temperature by 4 degrees C, is gaining acceptance as an acute therapy for the treatment of hypoxia and ischemia following cardiac arrest and many life-threatening injuries. When hypothermia is used following ischemia (as opposed to before ischemia), it needs to be performed rapidly ...
Head Jason J - - 2007
Body size is significantly correlated with number of vertebrae (pleomerism) in multiple vertebrate lineages, indicating that change in number of body segments produced during somitogenesis is an important factor in evolutionary change in body size, but the role of segmentation in the evolution of extreme sizes, including gigantism, has not ...
Nyberg Johan - - 2007
Hurricane activity in the North Atlantic Ocean has increased significantly since 1995 (refs 1, 2). This trend has been attributed to both anthropogenically induced climate change and natural variability, but the primary cause remains uncertain. Changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes in the past can provide insights into ...
Finkel Julia C - - 2007
Dexmedetomidine, an alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist, decreases lipolysis and thus prevents nonshivering thermogenesis in infants. We report the case of a two-day-old neonate who received dexmedetomidine for sedation and analgesia after undergoing primary repair of bladder exstrophy. After 9 hours, the patient developed bradycardia and profound hypothermia. The bradycardia was unresponsive to ...
Lin Li-Chun - - 2007
Invasive infections caused by Enterobacter sakazakii have occurred predominantly in low-birth-weight neonates and infants younger than 2 months of age. However, infections have also occurred in healthy infants up to 8 months of age and in immunocompromised children up to 4 years of age. The ability of E. sakazakii to ...
Escalona V H - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different gas compositions on quality attributes and shelf life of kohlrabi sticks stored in modified atmosphere up to 14 d at 0 degrees C. Two commercial films were tested: oriented polypropylene (OPP) and amide-polyethylene (amide-PE). As a control, a ...
Knobel Robin - - 2007
Extremely low-birthweight infants have inefficient thermoregulation due to immaturity and may exhibit cold body temperatures after birth and during their first 12 hours of life. Hypothermia in these infants can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Anecdotal notes made during our recent study revealed extremely low-birthweight infants' temperatures decreased with ...
Minakov A A - - 2007
To study phase transition kinetics on submillisecond time scale a sensitive ultrafast nanocalorimeter was constructed. Controlled ultrafast cooling, as well as heating, up to 10(6) K/s was attained. The method was applied for the measurements of the superheating phenomenon in a set of linear polymers: iPS, PBT, PET, and iPP. ...
Mathew Bobby - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of standard care vs. the use of vinyl bags (Vi-Drape (R) isolation bag) on admission temperature in extremely premature infants < or = 28 weeks gestational age at birth. METHODS: Twenty seven premature infants with similar baseline characteristics were assigned and placed in vinyl bags ...
Weintraub Valentin - - 2007
We aimed to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) of infants exposed to either one of two weaning methods and to confirm the increase in REE during weaning from incubator. The study was a prospective randomized clinical trial of weaning preterm infants using either of two methods. REE was measured at ...
Nunn C L - - 2007
Spondyloarthropathy is a painful arthritic affliction of humans that also occurs in wild mammals. Important questions remain concerning the underlying causes of spondyloarthropathy in mammals, particularly regarding whether it is infectious in origin or driven by genetic predisposition and environmental stressors. Moreover, spondyloarthropathy has negative effects on host fitness, leading ...
Lin Li-Chun - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii infections in preterm neonates and infants have been epidemiologically associated with consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. The bacterium has been isolated from grain, infant cereals, and cereal factory environments. A study was done to determine the survival characteristics of E. sakazakii initially at populations of 0.31 and ...
Laptook Abbot R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on the maintenance of body temperature at birth for low birth weight infants. OBJECTIVES: We examined the distribution of temperatures in low birth weight infants on admission to the NICUs in the Neonatal Research Network centers and determined whether admission temperature was associated ...
Wilson Patrick Chris - - 2007
Pesticide export from citrus production areas is a concern in the Indian River Lagoon drainage basin (Florida, USA). These studies evaluated nontarget deposition and losses of the insecticide oxamyl from typical flatwoods citrus production areas in South Florida. Deposition was estimated with the use of Teflon spray targets placed across ...
Genzel-Boroviczény Orsolya - - 2007
The optimal thermal environment for sick preterm infants is unknown. Incubator temperature can be regulated to an abdominal wall temperature of 36.5 degrees C [neutral temperature (NT)] or to a minimal temperature difference (<2 degrees C) between abdominal wall and extremities [comfort temperature (CT)]. This could affect the microcirculation, particularly ...
Ishiguro Shinichi - - 2007
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is divided into at least two ecotypes in Japan, the Shonai ecotype (SN) which is distributed in the northern part of Japan, and the Saigoku ecotype (SG) which is distributed in the southwestern region. Cold hardiness is positively correlated with the level of glycerol ...
Fischer H - - 2007
The whole-body counter of the Radiation Protection Unit at the ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH has two HP Ge-detectors for measuring radionuclides, which are internally deposited in the human body. The detector system has a scanning geometry, where one detector is placed below the bed and the other detector above the ...
Moreira Maria E L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare O2 consumption, CO2 production, respiratory quotient and resting metabolic rate in premature neonates measured for 5 and 10 min steady-state periods and 15 and 20 min non-steady-state periods versus a 2-h measurement period. METHODS: A prospective study with neonates evaluated by indirect calorimetry. The measurements from the ...
Ellis Kenneth J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Composition System) for the measurement of body composition in infants. DESIGN: ...
Laroia N - - 2007
Studies have shown improved survival of newborn infants maintained in the thermoneutral range. The concept of an incubator with additional insulation, a double plexiglass wall, is appealing for very low birth weight infants as it may help to provide a thermoneutral environment. To assess the effects of double walled incubator ...
Ellis Kenneth J - - 2007
A better understanding of the nutritional needs of both healthy and sick infants is important. Not only does too much or too little nutrition during early life have long-term effects on health, but periods of rapid growth during the first year of life also have long-term consequences. Knowledge of the ...
Hulzebos Christian V - - 2007
The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appropriate amount of energy to newborn ...
Meyer Michael P - - 2007
Sixty two infants <28 weeks were occlusively wrapped and randomised to radiant warmer or incubator transport to the neonatal unit. Median axillary temperature on arrival was 36.8 degrees C in both groups. Target temperatures (36.5-37.5 degrees C) were achieved in 60% of the incubator group compared to 75% in the ...
Mancinelli Giorgio - - 2007
The mechanisms regulating the build-up of invertebrate assemblages on ephemeral detritus patches are still poorly understood. Here, the daily colonization of decaying reed leaves by vagile macroinvertebrates was monitored in an brackish lake in Italy. The highly variable abundance patterns of dominant taxa were analysed by spectral and geostatistical techniques ...
Harvey N C NC MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, United - - 2007
The prevalence of both childhood and adult obesity is rising in the developed world, and there is increasing interest in its underlying causes. A number of studies suggest a positive relationship between birth weight and childhood body mass index, but less is known about specific prenatal environmental influences on more ...
Kasting James F - - 2006
Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks appear to suggest that the early Earth was significantly warmer than today, with estimates of surface temperatures between 45 and 85 degrees C. We argue, following others, that this interpretation is incorrect-the same data can be explained via a change in isotopic composition ...
Ginalski Maciej K - - 2007
The main objective of this study is to investigate the major physical processes taking place inside an infant incubator, before and after modifications have been made to its interior chamber. The modification involves the addition of an overhead screen to decrease radiation heat losses from the infant placed inside the ...
Jackson Lauren S - - 2006
Ricin is a potent protein toxin found in the seeds of the castor bean plant, Ricinus communis. Ricin specifically and irreversibly inactivates ribosomes, promoting cell death by inhibiting protein synthesis. It is composed of a ribosome-inactivating enzyme (A-chain) linked to a lectin (B-chain) by a single disulfide bond. Several reports ...
Kosugi Yoshiko - - 2006
Seasonal fluctuations in leaf gas exchange parameters were investigated in three evergreen (Quercus glauca Thunb., Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. and Castanopsis cuspidata Schottky) and one deciduous (Quercus serrata Thunb.) co-occurring, dominant tree species in a temperate broad-leaved forest. Dark respiration rate (Rn), maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and stomatal coefficient (m), the ...
Chardon Karen - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test the thermoregulatory feeding control hypothesis in sleeping, premature infants. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In premature infants, the energy supply from food intake is crucial for (in order of importance): organ operation, body homeothermia, and optimal growth. The Himms-Hagen model of ...
Gursky Lucas J - - 2006
Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL26 produces the antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) piscicolin 126, first isolated from C. maltaromaticum JG126, and carnobacteriocin BM1, first isolated from C. maltaromaticum LV17. C. maltaromaticum UAL26 is especially inhibitory to strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Bacteriocin activity is not observable in the supernatant of cultures of UAL26 grown in ...
Darmstadt G L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Two-thirds of women globally give birth at home, yet little data are available on use of skin-to-skin care (STSC) in the community. We describe the acceptability of STSC in rural Uttar Pradesh, India, and measured maternal, newborn, and ambient temperature in the home in order to inform strategies for ...
Conti Susanna - - 2007
The effects of heat waves on health can be serious for elderly persons, especially those in urban areas. We investigated in-depth the mortality excess during the 2003 heat wave among elderly persons (>74 years) in the City of Genoa (Italy). The excess in general mortality was calculated for the period ...
- - 2006
Heat-related illnesses (e.g., heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat syncope, or heatstroke) can occur when high ambient temperatures overcome the body's natural ability to dissipate heat. Older adults, young children, and persons with chronic medical conditions are particularly susceptible to these illnesses and are at high risk for heat-related mortality. Previous ...
Sherman Tami Irwin - - 2006
Devices used to maintain thermal stability in preterm infants have advanced over time from the first incubator reported by Jean-Louis-Paul Denuce in 1857 to the latest Versalet Incuwarmer and Giraffe Omnibed devices today. Optimizing the thermal environment has proven significant for improving the chances of survival for small infants. Understanding ...
Brandt Ivan S - - 2006
Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any ...
Yang Bo - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of glycosylation at Asn302 of pro-urokinase (pro-UK) on the stability in culture supernatant. METHODS: Nonglycosylated pro-UK was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of Asn302 to Ala302. The pro-UK mutant and native pro-UK were transfected into dhfr(-)-CHO cells, and serum-free culture supernatant was harvested and incubated at ...
Dwyer C M - - 2006
To survive, the newborn lamb must be able to maintain body temperature and to stand and move to the udder to suck colostrum to fuel heat production. The objective of this study was to investigate whether neonatal lambs showing slow behavioral progress to standing and sucking also have an impaired ...
Dauvin Jean-Claude - - 2007
Using recent indices developed, in part, for use under the European Water Framework Directive (AMBI, BENTIX, BOPA, BQI, I2EC and the trophic index ITI), the ecological quality status of two highly contaminated environments--the Bay of Seine and the Seine estuary (Eastern English Channel)--was determined on several spatial and temporal scales. ...
Russell Jacob A - - 2006
Symbiosis is prevalent throughout the tree of life and has had a significant impact on the ecology and evolution of many bacteria and eukaryotes. The benevolence of symbiotic interactions often varies with the environment, and such variation is expected to play an important role in shaping the prevalence and distributions ...
Seifert John G - - 2006
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ad libitum water ingestion, using a back-mounted hydration system (BMHS), on fluid balance during alpine skiing. Fourteen skiers skied on two different days. On one day, seven skiers ingested water during skiing via the BMHS and the other seven ...
Raichlen David A - - 2006
Many researchers have suggested that cursorial mammals concentrate limb muscle mass proximally to reduce energy costs during locomotion. Although supported by experiments where mass is added to an individual's limbs, mammals with naturally occurring distally heavy limbs such as primates have similar energy costs compared with other mammals. This study ...
Duman Nuray - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Thermal management of the very low-birthweight (VLBW) infant is a cornerstone of neonatology because thermal stress is an important determinant of survival. This prospective study was designed to determine the effects of polyethylene occlusive skin wrapping on heat loss in VLBW infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit ...
Bowsher J G - - 2006
The wear generation of double-heat-treated and as-cast large-diameter metal-on-metal (MOM) hip bearings was investigated using standard- and 'severe'-gait simulations. The test hypothesis was that double heat treatment would change MOM hip wear compared with the as-cast condition. Two groups of high-carbon MOM bearings of 40 mm diameter were manufactured and ...
Kim Kangmin - - 2006
The effect of temperature, O(2) and Mg(++) on the kinetic characteristics of the slow inactivation (fallover) of Rubisco isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was determined. Comparing 25 and 45 degrees C, the rate of activity decline of Rubisco increased by 20-fold, but the final ratio of steady state to ...
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