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Results 251 - 300 of 881
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Minobe Shoshiro - - 2008
The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects ...
Clarkin Patrick F - - 2008
This study investigated whether historical proxies for poor nutrition early in life were associated with differences in body composition and height among adult Hmong refugees. Life history and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of 279 Hmong aged 18-51 years who were born in Laos or Thailand and resettled ...
Toulemon Laurent - - 2008
In August 2003, Western Europe experienced a deadly heat wave. It is estimated that 15,000 people died in France from its direct effects. Applying an indirect estimation technique to the monthly number of deaths by sex, age, and place of residence for the period 1996-2003, we estimate the number of ...
Laine Loren - - 2008
Few data inform decisions on the optimal bipolar electrocoagulation (BPEC) technique. To assess how technical factors influence energy delivery and coagulation. Prospective, randomized study in experimental models: meat, live pig mesenteric arteries. Standard and prototype BPEC probes were applied at varying durations (2, 10, and 20 seconds), application forces (5, ...
Currano Ellen D - - 2008
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8 Ma), an abrupt global warming event linked to a transient increase in pCO2, was comparable in rate and magnitude to modern anthropogenic climate change. Here we use plant fossils from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming to document the combined effects of temperature and pCO2 ...
Mance Martha J - - 2008
Hypothermia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants; therefore, maintaining normal body temperatures in the delivery room is crucial. An understanding of how infants produce heat and what can be done to maintain normal body temperatures in full-term and preterm infants is essential for the preservation of ...
Raj Phani K - - 2008
A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3m x 3m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by ...
Kent Alison L - - 2008
AIM: To improve admission temperatures of preterm infants < or =31 weeks gestation by increasing the ambient temperature in the operating theatre and wrapping in polyethylene wrap at caesarean section. METHODS: A review of admission temperature of infants with gestational age < or =31 weeks from January 2000 to July ...
Museux Nathanaëlle - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to validate the measurement of metabolic heat production using partitional calorimetry (PC) in preterm neonates exposed to a near-thermoneutral environment in an incubator. In order to reduce experimental uncertainty (due to the different variables involved in the calculation of body heat exchanges between ...
Hendrickson L - - 2008
The activation of Rubisco in vivo requires the presence of the regulatory protein Rubisco activase. This enzyme facilitates the release of sugar phosphate inhibitors from Rubisco catalytic sites thereby influencing carbamylation. T(1) progeny of transgenic Flaveria bidentis (a C(4) dicot) containing genetically reduced levels of Rubisco activase were used to ...
Li Jia - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Cardiopulmonary bypass in infants results in a hypermetabolic response. Energy requirements of these patients have not been well studied. We assessed energy expenditure and caloric and protein intake during the first 3 days following the Norwood procedure. DESIGN: Clinical investigation. SETTING: Children's hospital. PATIENTS: Seventeen infants (15 boys, age ...
Jetz Walter - - 2008
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has far-reaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being ...
Kozer Eran - - 2007
The objective of this study consisting of a prospective cohort of febrile infants was to describe the correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acetaminophen (paracetamol) concentrations and changes in body temperature in febrile infants. Infants, one week to one year of age, with rectal temperature >or=38.0 degrees C, treated with acetaminophen ...
Katz B D - - 2007
AIM: To compare the inactivation rates of male-specific bacteriophage-2 (MS2), hepatitis A HM-175/18f (HM-175) and reovirus T1 Lang (T1 L) during alkaline stabilization of wastewater residues. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bench scale alkaline stabilization model was used to evaluate the inactivation of MS2 seeded into raw sludge simultaneously with HM-175 ...
Adams Dean C - - 2008
The tendency for organisms to be larger in cooler climates (Bergmann's rule) is widely observed in endotherms, and has been reputed to apply to some ectotherms including amphibians. However, recent reports provide conflicting support for the pattern, questioning whether Bergmann's clines are generally present in amphibians. In this study, we ...
Stralka John P JP Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, - - 2007
To develop a scanner-independent dosimeter for measuring the average radio frequency (RF) power deposition and specific absorption rates (SAR) for human MRI exposure. A prototype dosimeter has a transducer with orthogonal conducting loops surrounding a small signal-generating MRI sample. The loops contain resistors whose values are adjusted to load the ...
Daubenspeck J Andrew - - 2008
Measurement of breathing volumes in neonatal mice is of growing importance in order to characterize the influence of development and genetic modifications on respiratory control to evaluate hypotheses concerned with human infant deficits that may affect sudden infant death syndrome, for example. Current techniques require undesirable physical constraints or incur ...
McKechnie Andrew E - - 2008
Comparative analyses of avian energetics often involve the implicit assumption that basal metabolic rate (BMR) is a fixed, taxon-specific trait. However, in most species that have been investigated, BMR exhibits phenotypic flexibility and can be reversibly adjusted over short time scales. Many non-migrants adjust BMR seasonally, with the winter BMR ...
Chinnathambi Sathivel - - 2008
We examined how young and old keratinocytes died from heat stress in vitro. We found that keratinocyte cell death was not due to oxidative stress as neither Mn-SOD nor Cu-Zn-SOD was produced in either young or old heated keratinocytes. Instead, analysis of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl2 and HSP70, and the ...
Oksanen Tuula A - - 2007
Body size at birth has implications for the quality of individuals throughout their life. Although large body size is generally considered an advantage, the relationship between body size at birth and long-term fitness is often complicated. Under spatial or temporal variation in environmental conditions, such as the seasonally changing densities ...
Latzin P - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Assessment of lung volume (FRC) and ventilation inhomogeneities with ultrasonic flowmeter and multiple breath washout (MBW) has been used to provide important information about lung disease in infants. Sub-optimal adjustment of the mainstream molar mass (MM) signal for temperature and external deadspace may lead to analysis errors in infants ...
Kavitha E Selina - - 2007
Anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste slurry carried out in the laboratory using 2.5L capacity bottle reactors for 60 days at ambient temperature conditions resulted in a biogas yield of 0.391 L/g of VS fed. The methane content of the biogas generated from the reactors was in the range of 67%-70%. ...
Dollberg Shaul - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia is a known symptom of neonatal polycythemia (NP) and its pathophysiology is unclear. The effect of partial dilutional exchange transfusion (PET) upon resting energy expenditure (REE) is unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that PET leads to an increase in REE. STUDY DESIGN: 11 patients with NP ...
Schmith Torben - - 2007
Rahmstorf (Reports, 19 January 2007, p. 368) used the observed relation between rates of change of global surface temperature and sea level to predict future sea-level rise. We revisit the application of the statistical methods used and show that estimation of the regression coefficient is not robust. Methods commonly used ...
Li Yan - - 2007
Mass mortality is often observed in cultured oysters during the period following spawning in the summer season. To examine the underlying causes leading to this phenomenon, thermotolerance of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was assessed using pre- and postspawning oysters that were sequentially treated with sublethal (37 degrees C) and ...
Anderson M E - - 2007
Two newborns at high risk for severe encephalopathy were passively cooled by discontinuing the supplied heat from a radiant warmer. Cooling was attempted in both babies (successfully in one) before the arrival of the neonatal transport team. Both infants had core temperatures of approximately 34 degrees C on arrival at ...
Diego Miguel A MA Touch Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA. - - 2008
Temperature was assessed in 72 preterm infants randomly assigned to a control or a massage therapy group. A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm infants receiving massage therapy versus a control group, even though the incubator portholes remained open during the 15 min massage therapy session but not ...
Lampe Joshua W - - 2007
The induction of mild hypothermia, lowering body temperature by 4 degrees C, is gaining acceptance as an acute therapy for the treatment of hypoxia and ischemia following cardiac arrest and many life-threatening injuries. When hypothermia is used following ischemia (as opposed to before ischemia), it needs to be performed rapidly ...
Head Jason J - - 2007
Body size is significantly correlated with number of vertebrae (pleomerism) in multiple vertebrate lineages, indicating that change in number of body segments produced during somitogenesis is an important factor in evolutionary change in body size, but the role of segmentation in the evolution of extreme sizes, including gigantism, has not ...
Nyberg Johan - - 2007
Hurricane activity in the North Atlantic Ocean has increased significantly since 1995 (refs 1, 2). This trend has been attributed to both anthropogenically induced climate change and natural variability, but the primary cause remains uncertain. Changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes in the past can provide insights into ...
Finkel Julia C - - 2007
Dexmedetomidine, an alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist, decreases lipolysis and thus prevents nonshivering thermogenesis in infants. We report the case of a two-day-old neonate who received dexmedetomidine for sedation and analgesia after undergoing primary repair of bladder exstrophy. After 9 hours, the patient developed bradycardia and profound hypothermia. The bradycardia was unresponsive to ...
Lin Li-Chun - - 2007
Invasive infections caused by Enterobacter sakazakii have occurred predominantly in low-birth-weight neonates and infants younger than 2 months of age. However, infections have also occurred in healthy infants up to 8 months of age and in immunocompromised children up to 4 years of age. The ability of E. sakazakii to ...
Escalona V H - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different gas compositions on quality attributes and shelf life of kohlrabi sticks stored in modified atmosphere up to 14 d at 0 degrees C. Two commercial films were tested: oriented polypropylene (OPP) and amide-polyethylene (amide-PE). As a control, a ...
Knobel Robin - - 2007
Extremely low-birthweight infants have inefficient thermoregulation due to immaturity and may exhibit cold body temperatures after birth and during their first 12 hours of life. Hypothermia in these infants can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Anecdotal notes made during our recent study revealed extremely low-birthweight infants' temperatures decreased with ...
Minakov A A - - 2007
To study phase transition kinetics on submillisecond time scale a sensitive ultrafast nanocalorimeter was constructed. Controlled ultrafast cooling, as well as heating, up to 10(6) K/s was attained. The method was applied for the measurements of the superheating phenomenon in a set of linear polymers: iPS, PBT, PET, and iPP. ...
Mathew Bobby - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of standard care vs. the use of vinyl bags (Vi-Drape (R) isolation bag) on admission temperature in extremely premature infants < or = 28 weeks gestational age at birth. METHODS: Twenty seven premature infants with similar baseline characteristics were assigned and placed in vinyl bags ...
Weintraub Valentin - - 2007
We aimed to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) of infants exposed to either one of two weaning methods and to confirm the increase in REE during weaning from incubator. The study was a prospective randomized clinical trial of weaning preterm infants using either of two methods. REE was measured at ...
Nunn C L - - 2007
Spondyloarthropathy is a painful arthritic affliction of humans that also occurs in wild mammals. Important questions remain concerning the underlying causes of spondyloarthropathy in mammals, particularly regarding whether it is infectious in origin or driven by genetic predisposition and environmental stressors. Moreover, spondyloarthropathy has negative effects on host fitness, leading ...
Lin Li-Chun - - 2007
Enterobacter sakazakii infections in preterm neonates and infants have been epidemiologically associated with consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. The bacterium has been isolated from grain, infant cereals, and cereal factory environments. A study was done to determine the survival characteristics of E. sakazakii initially at populations of 0.31 and ...
Laptook Abbot R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on the maintenance of body temperature at birth for low birth weight infants. OBJECTIVES: We examined the distribution of temperatures in low birth weight infants on admission to the NICUs in the Neonatal Research Network centers and determined whether admission temperature was associated ...
Wilson Patrick Chris - - 2007
Pesticide export from citrus production areas is a concern in the Indian River Lagoon drainage basin (Florida, USA). These studies evaluated nontarget deposition and losses of the insecticide oxamyl from typical flatwoods citrus production areas in South Florida. Deposition was estimated with the use of Teflon spray targets placed across ...
Genzel-Boroviczény Orsolya - - 2007
The optimal thermal environment for sick preterm infants is unknown. Incubator temperature can be regulated to an abdominal wall temperature of 36.5 degrees C [neutral temperature (NT)] or to a minimal temperature difference (<2 degrees C) between abdominal wall and extremities [comfort temperature (CT)]. This could affect the microcirculation, particularly ...
Ishiguro Shinichi - - 2007
The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is divided into at least two ecotypes in Japan, the Shonai ecotype (SN) which is distributed in the northern part of Japan, and the Saigoku ecotype (SG) which is distributed in the southwestern region. Cold hardiness is positively correlated with the level of glycerol ...
Fischer H - - 2007
The whole-body counter of the Radiation Protection Unit at the ARC Seibersdorf research GmbH has two HP Ge-detectors for measuring radionuclides, which are internally deposited in the human body. The detector system has a scanning geometry, where one detector is placed below the bed and the other detector above the ...
Moreira Maria E L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare O2 consumption, CO2 production, respiratory quotient and resting metabolic rate in premature neonates measured for 5 and 10 min steady-state periods and 15 and 20 min non-steady-state periods versus a 2-h measurement period. METHODS: A prospective study with neonates evaluated by indirect calorimetry. The measurements from the ...
Ellis Kenneth J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Composition System) for the measurement of body composition in infants. DESIGN: ...
Laroia N - - 2007
Studies have shown improved survival of newborn infants maintained in the thermoneutral range. The concept of an incubator with additional insulation, a double plexiglass wall, is appealing for very low birth weight infants as it may help to provide a thermoneutral environment. To assess the effects of double walled incubator ...
Ellis Kenneth J - - 2007
A better understanding of the nutritional needs of both healthy and sick infants is important. Not only does too much or too little nutrition during early life have long-term effects on health, but periods of rapid growth during the first year of life also have long-term consequences. Knowledge of the ...
Hulzebos Christian V - - 2007
The determination of the appropriate energy and nutritional requirements of a newborn infant requires a clear goal of the energy and other compounds to be administered, valid methods to measure energy balance and body composition, and knowledge of the neonatal metabolic capacities. Providing an appropriate amount of energy to newborn ...
Meyer Michael P - - 2007
Sixty two infants <28 weeks were occlusively wrapped and randomised to radiant warmer or incubator transport to the neonatal unit. Median axillary temperature on arrival was 36.8 degrees C in both groups. Target temperatures (36.5-37.5 degrees C) were achieved in 60% of the incubator group compared to 75% in the ...
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