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Results 201 - 250 of 861
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Rising Russell - - 2010
Background. Malnourished infants are small for age and weight. Objectives. Determine profiles in 24-hour energy metabolism in recovering malnourished infants and compare to similarly aged healthy controls. Methods. 10 malnourished infants (58.1 +/- 5.9 cm, 7.7 +/- 5.6 months) were healthy prior to spending 22 hours in the Enhanced Metabolic ...
Ibrahim C P Hafis - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Hypothermia at birth is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in pre-term infants. BACKGROUND: A local audit showed limited effectiveness of occlusive wrapping in preventing admission hypothermia in very pre-term infants. Self-heating acetate gel mattresses were introduced as a result to prevent hypothermia at birth in infants born at ...
Al-Nabulsi Anas A - - 2009
Cronobacter is a new genus containing 5 species previously known as Enterobacter sakazakii. The popularity of "natural" substances and alternative medicine has extended the use of natural antimicrobials and herbs to foods, and some herbs are claimed to relieve gastric disturbances in infants. The present study investigated the antimicrobial activity ...
Horn A R - - 2010
This study describes and evaluates a simple method of neuroprotective hypothermia for infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Five term infants with HIE were cooled by applying soft, cold gel bags to the head. A radiant warmer, set to 34 degrees C, servo-controlled the temperature measured at a probe between the ...
Knobel R B - - 2009
This study evaluated peripheral vasoconstriction in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants when body temperature decreased during the first 12 h of life. An exploratory, within-subjects design with 10 ELBW infants. Abdominal and foot temperatures were measured every minute. Peripheral vasoconstriction (abdominal>peripheral temperature by 2 degrees C) and abdominal-peripheral temperature ...
Goldman Ran D - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to characterize variations in treatment decisions for young febrile infants in pediatric emergency departments across Canada and to document the extent of practice variations among pediatric emergency department practitioners. METHODS: This was a prospective, concurrent, cohort study of consecutive infants up to 90 ...
Duran Ridvan - - 2009
AIM: Preterm infants are prone to temperature maintenance problems due to immature thermoregulatory mechanism and relatively large body surface area. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a new non-invasive infrared thermometer applied to the mid-forehead and temporal artery in comparison with axillary temperature recordings ...
Fennessy B G - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric foreign bodies may present with vague and nonspecific symptoms. It is important to have a high index of suspicion when managing such cases. METHOD: We report the case of a nine-month-old infant who presented with a wheeze, cough and fever following ingestion of a needle. RESULTS: This patient ...
Hallberg Boubou - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Induced mild hypothermia is an emerging therapy that has been shown to reduce the combined outcome of death or severe neurodevelopmental disabilities in asphyxiated full-term infants if started within 6 h after birth. AIM: To study the feasibility and safety of inducing hypothermia in asphyxiated infants already at the ...
Horn Alan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Several trials suggest that hypothermia is beneficial in selected infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, the cooling methods used required repeated interventions and were either expensive or reported significant temperature variation. The objective of this pilot study was to describe the use, efficacy, and physiologic impact of an inexpensive servo-controlled ...
Ammari Amer - - 2009
Low birth weight (LBW) infants sleeping prone are known to exhibit many physiological differences from those sleeping supine, including lower energy expenditure (heat production) and higher surface temperature. This apparent increase in heat storage suggests that heat loss may be inhibited in the prone position which, in turn, might influence ...
Abder-Rahman Hasan A - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: In stressful situations, people usually use finger sweep to remove pharyngeal foreign bodies from the mouth. This article reports on three cases of death of infants following the use of this technique. METHODS: A total of 26 cases of choking caused by foreign bodies aspiration in the upper and ...
Modi Neena N Section of Neonatal Medicine, Division of Medicine, Chelsca & Westminister Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London SW10 9NH, UK. - - 2009
Abdominal adiposity and metabolic ill health in Asian Indians are a growing public health concern. Causal pathways are unknown. Preventive measures in adults have had limited success. The aim of this observational case-control study was to compare adipose tissue partitioning in 69 healthy full term Asian Indian and white European ...
Goelz Rangmar - - 2009
Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, ...
Yu Xun - - 2009
This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the ...
Antonucci Roberto - - 2009
Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be ...
Stern Georgette - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature are interdependent in infants, where instabilities in thermoregulation can contribute to apneas or even life-threatening events. Identifying abnormalities in thermoregulation is particularly important in the first 6 months of life, where autonomic regulation undergoes critical development. Fluctuations in body temperature have ...
Azzopardi D D Division of Clinical Sciences, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College, London W12 0NN, UK. - - 2009
This is a phase 4 study of infants registered with the UK TOBY Cooling Register from December 2006 to February 2008. The registry was established on completion of enrolLment to the TOBY randomised trial of treatment with whole body hypothermia following perinatal asphyxia at the end of November 2006. We ...
Konopova P - - 2009
We report a case of a profoundly hypothermic newborn with a core temperature of 25 degrees C with a successful recovery and normal neurological outcome at 3 and 6 months. This term male infant had been exposed to a temperature of -3 degrees C for approximately 30 min. Slow re-warming, ...
Kroth Julia - - 2008
Changes in microcirculation have been recognized as central to many disease processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors, which influence the microcirculation of the skin during the first month of life in premature infants. Red blood cell (RBC) velocity, vessel diameter, and functional small vessel density (FSVD) ...
Ibrahim C P H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia at birth is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Occlusive wrapping of preterm infants during resuscitation, including polythene bags have been shown to prevent hypothermia. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the introduction of polythene bags at resuscitation of infants born below 30 weeks gestation ...
Corea-Téllez Kira S - - 2008
Phthalates are additives commonly used to convert hard polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resins into flexible and workable plastics employed in the production of chewable rubber toys and other soft-plastic products. In theory, phthalates can diffuse in small quantities to the surface of a product, and from there they can enter the ...
Lachenmeier Dirk W - - 2008
A survey of benzene contamination of 451 beverage samples, using headspace sampling combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) with a quantification limit of 0.13 microg l(-1), was conducted. Artefactual benzene formation during headspace sampling was excluded by gentle heating at 50 degrees C only and adjustment of sample ...
Bitz Cecilia M - - 2008
Arctic sea ice and snow on land have retreated polewards at an alarming pace in the past few decades. Such retreat locally amplifies surface warming through a positive feedback, which causes the Arctic surface to warm faster than the rest of the globe. In contrast, ice and snow retreat causes ...
Shaker R R - - 2008
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from powdered infant milk formula. This study determined the effect of desiccation, starvation, heat and cold stresses on the thermal inactivation of E. sakazakii in rehydrated infant milk formula (RIMF). Stressed cells were mixed with RIMF at 52, 54, ...
Guilfoy Veronica M - - 2008
To test the hypothesis that total energy expenditure is significantly higher in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants compared with healthy term infants near the time of discharge. This study was designed to determine total energy expenditure and body composition in a group of ELBW infants nearing discharge receiving full-volume ...
- - 2008
Workers employed in outdoor occupations such as farming are exposed to hot and humid environments that put them at risk for heat-related illness or death. This report describes one such death and summarizes heat-related fatalities among crop production workers in the United States during 1992--2006. During this 15-year period, 423 ...
Kooijman S A L M - - 2009
The energy cost of offspring is important in the conversion of resources allocated to reproduction to numbers of offspring, and in obtaining energy budget parameters from quantities that are easy to measure. An efficient numerical procedure is presented to obtain this cost for eggs and foetusses in the context of ...
Soll R F - - 2008
Maintaining a neutral thermal environment is one of the key physiologic challenges a newborn infant faces after delivery. Attention to detail regarding the management of an infant's neutral thermal environment may lead to improvement in clinical outcome, including improved survival. The details of this management cover a broad spectrum of ...
Ranganath L - - 2008
There are currently no simple tests in clinical use to detect acute placental damage. A case is described to demonstrate that a routinely used measurement such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can be employed to detect acute damage to the placenta. Seventeen serial blood samples, three pre-delivery, were collected from a ...
Minobe Shoshiro - - 2008
The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects ...
Clarkin Patrick F - - 2008
This study investigated whether historical proxies for poor nutrition early in life were associated with differences in body composition and height among adult Hmong refugees. Life history and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of 279 Hmong aged 18-51 years who were born in Laos or Thailand and resettled ...
Toulemon Laurent - - 2008
In August 2003, Western Europe experienced a deadly heat wave. It is estimated that 15,000 people died in France from its direct effects. Applying an indirect estimation technique to the monthly number of deaths by sex, age, and place of residence for the period 1996-2003, we estimate the number of ...
Laine Loren - - 2008
Few data inform decisions on the optimal bipolar electrocoagulation (BPEC) technique. To assess how technical factors influence energy delivery and coagulation. Prospective, randomized study in experimental models: meat, live pig mesenteric arteries. Standard and prototype BPEC probes were applied at varying durations (2, 10, and 20 seconds), application forces (5, ...
Currano Ellen D - - 2008
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.8 Ma), an abrupt global warming event linked to a transient increase in pCO2, was comparable in rate and magnitude to modern anthropogenic climate change. Here we use plant fossils from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming to document the combined effects of temperature and pCO2 ...
Mance Martha J - - 2008
Hypothermia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants; therefore, maintaining normal body temperatures in the delivery room is crucial. An understanding of how infants produce heat and what can be done to maintain normal body temperatures in full-term and preterm infants is essential for the preservation of ...
Raj Phani K - - 2008
A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3m x 3m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by ...
Kent Alison L - - 2008
AIM: To improve admission temperatures of preterm infants < or =31 weeks gestation by increasing the ambient temperature in the operating theatre and wrapping in polyethylene wrap at caesarean section. METHODS: A review of admission temperature of infants with gestational age < or =31 weeks from January 2000 to July ...
Museux Nathanaëlle - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to validate the measurement of metabolic heat production using partitional calorimetry (PC) in preterm neonates exposed to a near-thermoneutral environment in an incubator. In order to reduce experimental uncertainty (due to the different variables involved in the calculation of body heat exchanges between ...
Hendrickson L - - 2008
The activation of Rubisco in vivo requires the presence of the regulatory protein Rubisco activase. This enzyme facilitates the release of sugar phosphate inhibitors from Rubisco catalytic sites thereby influencing carbamylation. T(1) progeny of transgenic Flaveria bidentis (a C(4) dicot) containing genetically reduced levels of Rubisco activase were used to ...
Li Jia - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Cardiopulmonary bypass in infants results in a hypermetabolic response. Energy requirements of these patients have not been well studied. We assessed energy expenditure and caloric and protein intake during the first 3 days following the Norwood procedure. DESIGN: Clinical investigation. SETTING: Children's hospital. PATIENTS: Seventeen infants (15 boys, age ...
Jetz Walter - - 2008
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) represents the minimum maintenance energy requirement of an endotherm and has far-reaching consequences for interactions between animals and their environments. Avian BMR exhibits considerable variation that is independent of body mass. Some long-distance migrants have been found to exhibit particularly high BMR, traditionally interpreted as being ...
Kozer Eran - - 2007
The objective of this study consisting of a prospective cohort of febrile infants was to describe the correlation between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acetaminophen (paracetamol) concentrations and changes in body temperature in febrile infants. Infants, one week to one year of age, with rectal temperature >or=38.0 degrees C, treated with acetaminophen ...
Katz B D - - 2007
AIM: To compare the inactivation rates of male-specific bacteriophage-2 (MS2), hepatitis A HM-175/18f (HM-175) and reovirus T1 Lang (T1 L) during alkaline stabilization of wastewater residues. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bench scale alkaline stabilization model was used to evaluate the inactivation of MS2 seeded into raw sludge simultaneously with HM-175 ...
Adams Dean C - - 2008
The tendency for organisms to be larger in cooler climates (Bergmann's rule) is widely observed in endotherms, and has been reputed to apply to some ectotherms including amphibians. However, recent reports provide conflicting support for the pattern, questioning whether Bergmann's clines are generally present in amphibians. In this study, we ...
Stralka John P - - 2007
To develop a scanner-independent dosimeter for measuring the average radio frequency (RF) power deposition and specific absorption rates (SAR) for human MRI exposure. A prototype dosimeter has a transducer with orthogonal conducting loops surrounding a small signal-generating MRI sample. The loops contain resistors whose values are adjusted to load the ...
Daubenspeck J Andrew - - 2008
Measurement of breathing volumes in neonatal mice is of growing importance in order to characterize the influence of development and genetic modifications on respiratory control to evaluate hypotheses concerned with human infant deficits that may affect sudden infant death syndrome, for example. Current techniques require undesirable physical constraints or incur ...
McKechnie Andrew E - - 2008
Comparative analyses of avian energetics often involve the implicit assumption that basal metabolic rate (BMR) is a fixed, taxon-specific trait. However, in most species that have been investigated, BMR exhibits phenotypic flexibility and can be reversibly adjusted over short time scales. Many non-migrants adjust BMR seasonally, with the winter BMR ...
Chinnathambi Sathivel - - 2008
We examined how young and old keratinocytes died from heat stress in vitro. We found that keratinocyte cell death was not due to oxidative stress as neither Mn-SOD nor Cu-Zn-SOD was produced in either young or old heated keratinocytes. Instead, analysis of the anti-apoptotic factors, Bcl2 and HSP70, and the ...
Oksanen Tuula A - - 2007
Body size at birth has implications for the quality of individuals throughout their life. Although large body size is generally considered an advantage, the relationship between body size at birth and long-term fitness is often complicated. Under spatial or temporal variation in environmental conditions, such as the seasonally changing densities ...
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