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Blackburn S - - 2001
PURPOSE: Accurate management of infant temperature requires appropriate placement of temperature monitoring probes. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding placement of skin temperature probes and the effect on temperature monitoring of the infant's lying on the probe. The objective of this study was to compare abdomen and back ...
Greenes D S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of a new noninvasive temporal artery (TA) thermometer in infants; to compare the accuracy of the TA thermometer with that of a tympanic thermometer, using rectal thermometry as the criterion standard; and to compare the tolerability of the TA thermometer with that of the tympanic ...
Battin M R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants treated with head cooling with systemic hypothermia after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Infants >/=37 weeks' gestation, who had an umbilical artery pH </=7.09 or Apgar score </=6 at 5 minutes, plus clinical encephalopathy. Infants with major congenital abnormalities were excluded. TRIAL DESIGN: ...
Mellien A C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant difference between the temperatures of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants in the incubator and in the mothers' arms. DESIGN: Repeated measures, with random assignment to treatment order and the infants serving as their own controls. SETTING: A 40-bed tertiary-level nursery in a university ...
Denne S C - - 2001
The observed growth failure in infants with pulmonary insufficiency is postulated to be a consequence of elevated rates of energy expenditure. Assessment of energy expenditure by the classical technique of indirect calorimetry has yielded conflicting results. The adoption of the newer, doubly labeled water technique has provided evidence to support ...
Nauen J C - - 2001
Finlets, which are small non-retractable fins located on the body margins between the second dorsal and anal fins and the caudal fin of scombrid fishes, have been hypothesized to improve swimming performance. The kinematics of three posterior finlets of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were examined using three-dimensional measurement techniques ...
Bohnhorst B - - 2001
AIM: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and/or hypoxemia. METHODS: Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, ...
Dimitriou G - - 2001
The aim of this study was to assess if albumin infusion in hypotensive, preterm infants improved blood pressure (BP), metabolic acidosis and core peripheral temperature difference, indicating that such infants had been hypovolemic. Thirty-seven infants, median gestational age 27 weeks (range 23-34) were studied. Their mean BP, core-peripheral temperature difference, ...
Chan G M - - 2001
Small portable units using the dual X-ray absorptiometry method (pDEXA) are becoming available to evaluate a localized region of the body such as the forearm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between infant's forearm measurements of bone mineral, lean, and fat mass and total body composition. ...
Forte A M - - 2000
The tectosphere, namely the portions of Earth's mantle lying below cratons, has a thermochemical structure that differs from average suboceanic mantle. The tectosphere is thought to be depleted in its basaltic components and to have an intrinsic buoyancy that balances the mass increase associated with its colder temperature relative to ...
Butte N F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Differences in the growth pattern of breastfed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants are well-recognized and have been attributed to differences in nutrient intake. However, the impact of qualitative and quantitative differences in nutrient intake on the body composition of BF and FF infants has been unclear. Furthermore, it is ...
Weninger W J - - 2000
In the infant the region lateral to the sella turcica which is traditionally termed the 'cavernous sinus' is composed of 3 individual compartments. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a similar compartmentation of the adult cavernous sinus and to identify and quantify the adipose bodies which are located ...
Nako Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Because the risks and benefits of early bathing of newborn infants are not well established, we investigated the effects of bathing immediately after birth on rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, percutaneous arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and early neonatal morbidity. METHODS: The study was designed as ...
Perring J - - 2000
Our objective was to examine factors that affect the accuracy of energy expenditure measurements (EE), when using flow-through indirect calorimetry (IC), to determine the minimum length of time needed to measure 24- and 48-h EE and to compare cross-over and parallel designs as methods of investigation during energy balance collections ...
Makino K - - 2000
Association of school absence with air pollution from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide was analyzed in areas around arterial roads for five years, from 1993 to 1997. The prevalence of absence was calculated using the data for school absence in two schools around arterial roads, one of which ...
Andrews L S - - 2000
Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are natural inhabitants of estuarine environments and may be transmitted to humans by ingestion of raw oysters. This study focused on the use of low temperature pasteurization, to reduce these Vibrio spp. to nondetectable levels, thus reducing the risk of infection associated with raw oyster ...
Salazar G - - 2000
AIM: To evaluate the energy requirements of breast fed infants. METHODS: The study was conducted in 17 healthy exclusively breast fed infants of normal birth weight (mean (SD) 3332 (280) g). Energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method and milk intake by the dose to infant method were measured ...
De Aza P N - - 2000
In a previous study, a new ceramic material (Bioeutectic), prepared by slow solidification through the eutectic temperature region of the wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate system, was found to be reactive in a simulated body fluid. In the present study, the reactivity of the Bioeutectic was assessed in human parotid saliva. Samples of ...
Amirav I - - 2000
The Chemical Infant Protective System (CHIPS) is a special hood-like system into which a small battery-operated blower delivers filtered air. Because it is a semiclosed system, there is a risk of dangerous CO2 accumulation within the device, which particularly affects infants with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Eleven infants hospitalized ...
Jagger R - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate some important mechanical properties of an experimental silicone material (PM1) to assess its potential as a mouthguard material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hardness, tear strength, tensile properties, and energy absorption properties of the silicone material were determined and compared with ...
Marchini G - - 2000
Our goal was to investigate whether the normal birth process stimulated an acute phase response in healthy infants with physiological changes in the circulating levels of acute phase cytokines and acute phase proteins. We also monitored body temperature, body weight and behavioural state in order to investigate if clinical signs ...
Rajpal R C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of heat-related deaths in Wisconsin during the summer of 1999. METHODS: Review of death certificates indicating heat as an underlying or contributing cause of death. RESULTS: Heat-related illness led to 21 deaths during the summer of 1999 in Wisconsin. The rate of death was highest ...
Hartnoll G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk. AIM: To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth. ...
Ludington-Hoe S M - - 2000
Many preterm infants cared for in incubators do not experience Kangaroo Care (KC), skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, due to fear of body heat loss when being held outside the incubator. A randomized clinical trial of 16 KC and 13 control infants using a pretest-test-posttest design of three consecutive interfeeding ...
Thoresen M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of mild cooling to 35 degrees C or below in infants with early hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are under way. The objective of this study was to systematically document cardiovascular changes associated with mild therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in such infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine infants with gestational ages ...
Livingston E H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The measurement of burn surface area is important during the initial management of burn patients for estimating fluid requirements and determining hospital admission criteria. The "rule of nines" is commonly used for this purpose. However, the proportional contribution of various major body segments to the total body surface area ...
- - 2000
During the summer of 1999, a heat wave occurred in the midwestern and eastern United States. This period of hot and humid weather persisted from July 12 through August 1, 1999, and caused or contributed to 22 deaths among persons residing in Cincinnati (18 deaths) and Dayton (four deaths). A ...
Hewson P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To perform a multicentre follow-up study to determine if previously identified markers of serious illness in early infancy were robust and statistically reliable. METHODS: Infants aged 1 week to 26 weeks presenting to the Emergency Departments of the Royal Children's Hospital and two Melbourne metropolitan hospitals were seen over ...
Koo W W - - 2000
Infancy is the period of most rapid postnatal growth and is accompanied by major changes in body composition (BC). There are many challenges to successfully measuring BC of infants in vivo, which include the inherent limitations in the underlying assumptions for each technique. The small body mass and rapid nonuniform ...
Adams A K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Measurement of infant energy expenditure in the clinical setting is difficult and is rarely done. Both indirect and direct calorimetry require long measurement periods and frequent calibration. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate in infants a newly developed method of determining energy expenditure, infrared thermographic calorimetry ...
Nicholson D S - - 2000
Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured ...
Gaidos E J - - 2000
We report the results of deep observations at radio (3.6 cm) wavelengths of the nearby solar-type star pi 01 Ursa Majoris with the Very Large Array (VLA) intended to test an alternative theory of solar luminosity evolution. The standard model predicts a solar luminosity only 75% of the present value ...
Cheah F C - - 2000
Cleaning newborn infants with coconut oil shortly after birth is a common practice in Malaysian labour rooms. This study aimed: (1) to determine whether this practice was associated with a significant decrease in the core temperature of infants; and (2) to identify significant risk factors associated with neonatal hypothermia. The ...
Shapiro N L - - 2000
Pediatric foreign body management has become refined in recent years, both from a diagnostic and therapeutic standpoint. History, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation performed in a timely manner can lead to safe and successful foreign body retrieval. Advancement in videoendoscopic instrumentation and anesthetic techniques enable the airway surgeon to achieve ...
Lieberman E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Much of fever during term labor may not be infectious but rather a consequence of the use of epidural analgesia. Therefore, we investigated the association of elevated maternal intrapartum temperature with neonatal outcome when the infant does not develop an infection. METHODS: We studied 1218 nulliparous women with singleton, ...
Sinclair J C - - 2000
Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a ...
Bennett J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Pakistan have shown that ghee (clarified butter) is commonly applied to umbilical wounds of neonates, and have documented that such applications are a risk factor for neonatal tetanus (NNT). In-use contamination of ghee with Clostridium tetani has been demonstrated, but mechanisms underlying the risk of ghee ...
Lafeber H N - - 1999
To compose an optimal nutrition for preterm infants, it is necessary to assess their body composition and metabolism. Much information on body composition has become known by carcass analysis of stillborn (pre)term infants, but these data do not inform us about the rapid alterations in body composition of surviving preterm ...
Baray J L - - 1999
Rayleigh¿Mie lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature and aerosol profiles have been carried out at Reunion Island (southern tropics) since 1993. Since June 1998, an operational extension of the system is permitting additional measurements of tropospheric ozone to be made by differential absorption lidar. The emission wavelengths (289 and 316 nm) ...
Wells J C - - 1999
Traditionally, infant energy requirements have been predicted from body size or age, whereas in older children and adults, physical activity is also taken into account. However, the extent to which body size determines energy use in individual infants has not been considered. Data on 232 measurements of total energy expenditure ...
Simbruner G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the physiological effects and adverse side-effects of induced hypothermia in asphyxiated newborn infants as a base for future controlled, randomized trials. DESIGN: Retrospective chart analysis with historical controls. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. PATIENTS: Twenty-one asphyxiated newborns treated ...
Lim-Dunham J E - - 1999
The objective is to describe the characteristic features of the interrupted bronchus sign and to determine the value of this sign in detection of bronchial foreign bodies. The interrupted bronchus sign refers to disruption of the air column in the main bronchi seen by fluoroscopy. The interrupted bronchus sign has ...
Serdarevich C - - 1999
Failure to autoresuscitate by hypoxic gasping during prolonged sleep apnea has been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death. Furthermore, thermal stress brought about by a contribution of infection, overwrapping, or excessive environmental heating has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death, ...
El-Radhi A S - - 1999
Little attention has been given to the relation between fever and the severity of bronchiolitis. Therefore, the relation between fever and the clinical course of 90 infants (59 boys, 31 girls) hospitalised during one season with bronchiolitis was studied prospectively. Fever (defined as a single recording > 38.0 degrees C ...
Drewett R F - - 1999
Energy intake in infancy depends on the infant's appetite, which, in turn, depends to a considerable extent on the infant's size, as size is an important determinant of energy expenditure. Previous work on six-week old breast-fed infants has suggested that, at this age, milk intake in infants is proportional to ...
Grover G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the degree of difference between rectal temperature and peripheral skin temperature [rectal-skin temperature difference (RSTD)] is predictive of serious illness in young infants. The authors sought to determine the clinical utility of the RSTD in the outpatient evaluation of infants up to 2 months ...
Atkinson S - - 1999
In cell-free Yersinia pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants, we have chemically characterized three N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules, N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). We have identified, cloned and sequenced two pairs of LuxR/I homologues termed YpsR/I and YtbR/I. In Escherichia coli at 37 degrees C, ...
Monterosso L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether absorbent liners used in posturally supportive cloth nappies influence temperature stability in infants < 31 weeks gestation. METHODOLOGY: Randomized cross-over trial conducted at King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Perth, Western Australia. Twenty-three infants nursed in incubators on Infant Servo Control were randomly assigned to wear ...
Cole C R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Current methods for energy expenditure (EE) measurements in term infants do not include simultaneous measurements of basal and sleeping metabolic rates (BMR and SMR) or a measure of physical activity (PA). Furthermore, prediction equations for calculating EE are not appropriate for use in infants with metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE: To ...
Richard C A - - 1999
This study addressed the effect of mother-infant bed-sharing on infant body temperature and possible mediating mechanisms. Axillary temperatures were recorded for the entire night in 26 infants on both a bed-sharing night and a solitary sleeping night, accompanied by polysomnography and video-taping to allow assignment of sleep stages and behavioral ...
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