Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 843
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Hartnoll G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk. AIM: To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth. ...
Ludington-Hoe S M - - 2000
Many preterm infants cared for in incubators do not experience Kangaroo Care (KC), skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, due to fear of body heat loss when being held outside the incubator. A randomized clinical trial of 16 KC and 13 control infants using a pretest-test-posttest design of three consecutive interfeeding ...
Thoresen M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of mild cooling to 35 degrees C or below in infants with early hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are under way. The objective of this study was to systematically document cardiovascular changes associated with mild therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in such infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine infants with gestational ages ...
Livingston E H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The measurement of burn surface area is important during the initial management of burn patients for estimating fluid requirements and determining hospital admission criteria. The "rule of nines" is commonly used for this purpose. However, the proportional contribution of various major body segments to the total body surface area ...
- - 2000
During the summer of 1999, a heat wave occurred in the midwestern and eastern United States. This period of hot and humid weather persisted from July 12 through August 1, 1999, and caused or contributed to 22 deaths among persons residing in Cincinnati (18 deaths) and Dayton (four deaths). A ...
Hewson P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To perform a multicentre follow-up study to determine if previously identified markers of serious illness in early infancy were robust and statistically reliable. METHODS: Infants aged 1 week to 26 weeks presenting to the Emergency Departments of the Royal Children's Hospital and two Melbourne metropolitan hospitals were seen over ...
Koo W W - - 2000
Infancy is the period of most rapid postnatal growth and is accompanied by major changes in body composition (BC). There are many challenges to successfully measuring BC of infants in vivo, which include the inherent limitations in the underlying assumptions for each technique. The small body mass and rapid nonuniform ...
Adams A K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Measurement of infant energy expenditure in the clinical setting is difficult and is rarely done. Both indirect and direct calorimetry require long measurement periods and frequent calibration. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate in infants a newly developed method of determining energy expenditure, infrared thermographic calorimetry ...
Nicholson D S - - 2000
Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured ...
Gaidos E J - - 2000
We report the results of deep observations at radio (3.6 cm) wavelengths of the nearby solar-type star pi 01 Ursa Majoris with the Very Large Array (VLA) intended to test an alternative theory of solar luminosity evolution. The standard model predicts a solar luminosity only 75% of the present value ...
Cheah F C - - 2000
Cleaning newborn infants with coconut oil shortly after birth is a common practice in Malaysian labour rooms. This study aimed: (1) to determine whether this practice was associated with a significant decrease in the core temperature of infants; and (2) to identify significant risk factors associated with neonatal hypothermia. The ...
Shapiro N L - - 2000
Pediatric foreign body management has become refined in recent years, both from a diagnostic and therapeutic standpoint. History, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation performed in a timely manner can lead to safe and successful foreign body retrieval. Advancement in videoendoscopic instrumentation and anesthetic techniques enable the airway surgeon to achieve ...
Lieberman E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Much of fever during term labor may not be infectious but rather a consequence of the use of epidural analgesia. Therefore, we investigated the association of elevated maternal intrapartum temperature with neonatal outcome when the infant does not develop an infection. METHODS: We studied 1218 nulliparous women with singleton, ...
Sinclair J C - - 2000
Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a ...
Bennett J - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Pakistan have shown that ghee (clarified butter) is commonly applied to umbilical wounds of neonates, and have documented that such applications are a risk factor for neonatal tetanus (NNT). In-use contamination of ghee with Clostridium tetani has been demonstrated, but mechanisms underlying the risk of ghee ...
Lafeber H N - - 1999
To compose an optimal nutrition for preterm infants, it is necessary to assess their body composition and metabolism. Much information on body composition has become known by carcass analysis of stillborn (pre)term infants, but these data do not inform us about the rapid alterations in body composition of surviving preterm ...
Baray J L - - 1999
Rayleigh¿Mie lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature and aerosol profiles have been carried out at Reunion Island (southern tropics) since 1993. Since June 1998, an operational extension of the system is permitting additional measurements of tropospheric ozone to be made by differential absorption lidar. The emission wavelengths (289 and 316 nm) ...
Wells J C - - 1999
Traditionally, infant energy requirements have been predicted from body size or age, whereas in older children and adults, physical activity is also taken into account. However, the extent to which body size determines energy use in individual infants has not been considered. Data on 232 measurements of total energy expenditure ...
Simbruner G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the physiological effects and adverse side-effects of induced hypothermia in asphyxiated newborn infants as a base for future controlled, randomized trials. DESIGN: Retrospective chart analysis with historical controls. SETTING: Tertiary neonatal intensive care unit of the University of Cape Town, South Africa. PATIENTS: Twenty-one asphyxiated newborns treated ...
Lim-Dunham J E - - 1999
The objective is to describe the characteristic features of the interrupted bronchus sign and to determine the value of this sign in detection of bronchial foreign bodies. The interrupted bronchus sign refers to disruption of the air column in the main bronchi seen by fluoroscopy. The interrupted bronchus sign has ...
Serdarevich C - - 1999
Failure to autoresuscitate by hypoxic gasping during prolonged sleep apnea has been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death. Furthermore, thermal stress brought about by a contribution of infection, overwrapping, or excessive environmental heating has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death, ...
El-Radhi A S - - 1999
Little attention has been given to the relation between fever and the severity of bronchiolitis. Therefore, the relation between fever and the clinical course of 90 infants (59 boys, 31 girls) hospitalised during one season with bronchiolitis was studied prospectively. Fever (defined as a single recording > 38.0 degrees C ...
Drewett R F - - 1999
Energy intake in infancy depends on the infant's appetite, which, in turn, depends to a considerable extent on the infant's size, as size is an important determinant of energy expenditure. Previous work on six-week old breast-fed infants has suggested that, at this age, milk intake in infants is proportional to ...
Grover G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the degree of difference between rectal temperature and peripheral skin temperature [rectal-skin temperature difference (RSTD)] is predictive of serious illness in young infants. The authors sought to determine the clinical utility of the RSTD in the outpatient evaluation of infants up to 2 months ...
Atkinson S - - 1999
In cell-free Yersinia pseudotuberculosis culture supernatants, we have chemically characterized three N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules, N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). We have identified, cloned and sequenced two pairs of LuxR/I homologues termed YpsR/I and YtbR/I. In Escherichia coli at 37 degrees C, ...
Monterosso L - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether absorbent liners used in posturally supportive cloth nappies influence temperature stability in infants < 31 weeks gestation. METHODOLOGY: Randomized cross-over trial conducted at King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women, Perth, Western Australia. Twenty-three infants nursed in incubators on Infant Servo Control were randomly assigned to wear ...
Cole C R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Current methods for energy expenditure (EE) measurements in term infants do not include simultaneous measurements of basal and sleeping metabolic rates (BMR and SMR) or a measure of physical activity (PA). Furthermore, prediction equations for calculating EE are not appropriate for use in infants with metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE: To ...
Richard C A - - 1999
This study addressed the effect of mother-infant bed-sharing on infant body temperature and possible mediating mechanisms. Axillary temperatures were recorded for the entire night in 26 infants on both a bed-sharing night and a solitary sleeping night, accompanied by polysomnography and video-taping to allow assignment of sleep stages and behavioral ...
Thomas K A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. STUDY DESIGN: Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences ...
Kirby R F - - 1999
Cardiovascular function during cold exposure is dependent on effective thermoregulation. This dependence is particularly apparent in infants. For example, we have previously demonstrated that in infant rats during cold exposure, cardiac rate is directly related to their ability to produce heat endogenously. The primary source of endogenous heat production for ...
Cooke R J - - 1999
AIMS: To examine body composition in preterm infants. METHODS: Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at hospital discharge, term, 12 weeks, and at 6 and 12 months corrected age in 125 infants (birthweight < or = 1750 g, gestational age < or = 34 weeks). RESULTS: ...
Flygare A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound technique for measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue in infants. METHODS: Twenty infants were investigated at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. All measurements were made by the same investigator in triplicate on the left side of the body at ...
Vohra S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Significant evaporative heat loss in the very low birth weight infant can occur in the delivery room. We investigated the effect of polyethylene wrap applied immediately at birth (without drying) on rectal temperature measured at nursery admission. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-two consecutive infants delivered at <32 weeks' gestation were stratified ...
Wilshaw R - - 1999
This study examined the relationship between three instruments used in measuring tympanic, axillary, and rectal temperatures in infants less than 1 year of age. Temperatures were measured by Oto-temp Pedi Q tympanic thermometers, Becton Dickinson axillary thermometer, and rectal thermometers. A convenience sample of 5 infants less than 90 day ...
Kern W H WH - - 1999
In north-central Florida, cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouché, larvae survived outdoors year round. Their survival was greatest (up to 84.6%) outdoors in the fall, from September to November, when both temperatures and relative humidities were moderate. Female cat fleas developed faster than males. Development times for flea larvae were ...
Brandt H C - - 1999
This study was performed to establish which factors related to the hot application of bitumen products are relevant to worker exposure to benzene-soluble matter (as part of the total fume emission) and to the polycyclic aromatic compound (PAH) content of bitumen fume. Because personal exposure measurements in field surveys can ...
Raju N V - - 1999
We measured capillary refill time (CRT) in a convenience sample of 137 healthy newborns between 1 and 120 hours of age and 36-42 weeks gestation in the well-baby nursery of a large community hospital. CRT was measured by applying moderate pressure to the dorsum of the right hand and right ...
Lapillonne A - - 1999
The complexity of nutritional support in infants now makes it necessary to use body-composition methods for accurate nutritional assessment. For this goal a variety of methods of determining body composition have been introduced in research on human nutrition. The purpose of this paper is to review the background and to ...
Herpin P - - 1999
The effect of acute asphyxia at birth on subsequent ability to produce heat was investigated in 30 newborn pigs. A model of experimentally induced asphyxia consisting of the prevention of breathing within the first four minutes of life was used. Blood was sampled from an umbilical artery catheter within the ...
Sulakvelidze A - - 1999
Yersinia bercovieri, a recently identified Y. enterocolitica-like species, produces a heat-stable enterotoxin (designated YbST) which has biologic activity in infant mice and increases short circuit current in Ussing chambers. Although YbST has some properties in common with the heat-stable enterotoxins of Y. enterocolitica (YST I and YST II), it appears ...
Blumberg M S - - 1999
Prolonged maternal separation inhibits endogenous heat production in infant mammals exposed to cold. This inhibition of thermogenesis occurs many hours before energy stores have been fully depleted. The need to protect energy resources during separation-induced starvation may be signaled by declining levels of leptin, a hormone that acts as a ...
Seguin J - - 1999
The authors compared axillary skin temperatures (AT) measured with an infrared (IR) thermometer (Lightouch Neonate, Exergen Corp) with rectal temperatures (RT) in 16 newly born term infants under radiant warmers (RW) and in cribs. Twelve stable, growing premature infants in incubators were also studied. This new device may be useful ...
Ku H S - - 1999
The wide range of applications of microwave technology in manufacturing industries has been well documented (NRC, 1994; Thuery, 1992). In this paper, a new way of joining fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites with or without primers is presented. The microwave facility used is also discussed. The effect of power input and ...
Stefanov R - - 1999
A case of a male infant at the age of 3 months with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, diagnosed 40 days after the first symptoms, was discussed. While the right dosage and schedule during the initial treatment with ganciclovir (Cymevene) were agreed on, the right time of further application of anti-CMV IgG ...
Leitch C A - - 1998
Infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) often have reduced weight gain compared with infants in control groups. Our purpose was to conduct a longitudinal study of energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), and total energy expenditure (TEE) of a group of infants with CCHD. We hypothesized that increased REE ...
Frappell P B - - 1998
The metabolic response to reduction in ambient temperature was studied in healthy, full-term, 1-d-old infants in Lima (50 m altitude, n = 20) and Cerro de Pasco (4,330 m, barometric pressure approximately 450 mm Hg, n = 20), Peru. Oxygen consumption (V O2) and carbon dioxide production (V CO2) were ...
Agren J - - 1998
The rate of evaporation of water from the skin of 13 infants born at 24 (n=3) and 25 (n=10) weeks of gestation was measured on the first day after birth and at postnatal ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 d, using the gradient method. Transepidermal water loss was estimated ...
Ackerman I L - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of left-to-right shunting on the resting energy expenditure (REE), total energy expenditure (TEE), and energy intake in a group of 3- to 5-month-old infants with moderate to large unrepaired ventricular septal defects (VSDs) compared with age-matched, healthy infants. METHODS: ...
Olhager E - - 1998
Information about body fatness is important during nutritional assessment of infants, but current methods to estimate body composition in vivo are often not applicable in infants. Therefore, a new method based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was developed. This method, which can assess the volume and distribution of adipose tissue ...
Gunn A J - - 1998
AIMS: To determine the practicality and safety of head cooling with mild or minimal systemic hypothermia in term neonates with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Study group infants >/=37 weeks' gestation, who had an umbilical artery pH </=7. 09 or Apgars </=6 at 5 minutes, plus evidence of encephalopathy. ...
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