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Results 451 - 500 of 889
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Kilani Ramzi A - - 2002
To evaluate the practicality and safety of selective head cooling in asphyxiated human newborn infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart analysis of asphyxiated neonates. SETTING, PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: During a period of 13 months (1st June 1998 to 30 June 1999) fourteen newborns (10 mild and 4 moderate PHIE) were managed by ...
Fomon Samuel J - - 2002
During infancy, especially early infancy, a substantial proportion of the requirements for energy and specific nutrients are those needed for growth. Knowledge of the body composition of a reference infant (body size and chemical composition at the 50th centile for age) permits an estimate of the growth needs of the ...
Harrington T A M - - 2002
The role of body fat content and distribution in infants is becoming an area of increasing interest, especially as perception of its function appears to be rapidly evolving. Although a number of methods are available to estimate body fat content in adults, many are of limited use in infants, especially ...
Hashimoto Kazumasa - - 2002
The objective of the study is to evaluate neonatal body composition determined by the isotope dilution method compared with the total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) method. An oral dose of 18O- and 2H-labeled water was given to 40 healthy term newborns, and 26 infants successfully completed the protocol. The isotope concentrations ...
Sinclair J C - - 2002
Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a ...
Flenady V J - - 2002
The provision of a thermoneutral environment is an essential component of the immediate and longer term care of newborn infants. A variety of methods are currently employed including incubators and open-care systems, with or without modifications such as heat shields and plastic wrap. The system used must allow ready access ...
Hackman P S - - 2001
Hypothermia is an important cause of morbidity--and occasionally mortality--in the newborn. This article explains the physiology of thermoregulation and thermogenesis in term infants. Subjects include the role of the hypothalamus in heat production, causes of and ways to prevent heat loss, and establishment of a neutral thermal environment. Complications associated ...
Smoyer-Tomic K E - - 2001
An increasing number of cities subject to hazardous summer weather in the United States and Canada have begun to develop and implement hot weather response plans to prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths. In this study we focus on heat-mortality relationships in Toronto, Ontario, between 1980 and 1996 and evaluate the ...
Samar M M - - 2001
The stability of naturally occurring DON was evaluated during the fermentation stage of the bread-making process on a pilot scale. Two different products, French bread and Vienna bread, were prepared with naturally contaminated wheat flour (150 mg kg(-1)) under controlled experimental conditions. Dough was fermented at 30, 40 and 50 ...
L'Herault J - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a thermal mattress in stabilizing and maintaining body temperature during the transport of newborns who weigh less than 1,500 g. We compared 91 infants who were transported without a thermal mattress from April 1995 to March 1996 with 100 ...
Jackson J A - - 2001
AIM: To investigate whether infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) experience different changes in temperature and cortisol excretion after routine immunization compared with normal healthy infants. METHODS: Overnight deep body temperature and urinary cortisol to creatinine ratios were measured on the night after immunization and a control night in normal ...
Leclère J - - 2001
The objective of this study was to determine whether in heat-treated milk-resembling models or milk there is a lag phase, before lactulosyllysine (LL) is converted into advanced Maillard products (AMP), and if there is a step during the heat treatment where LL is actively degraded into AMP. For that purpose, ...
Mouquet C - - 2001
Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate energy density and consistency of gruels for infants in developing countries. However, starch-rich gruels have a complex rheological behavior and their consistency is difficult to characterize. Many published gruel viscosity data are available, but the lack of standardized viscosity measurement procedures makes ...
Petersen S A - - 2001
Overnight patterns of rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded from 119 normal infants at weekly intervals from 7 to about 16 weeks of age. All data were collected in the infants' own homes. As previously reported, different infants developed an adult-like night time rectal temperature pattern abruptly at different ...
Sokoloff G - - 2001
Huddling is expressed by infant rats and continues to be an important behavior throughout adulthood. As a form of behavioral thermoregulation, huddling is thought to play an essential role in compensating for inadequate physiological thermoregulation early in development. Infant rats, however, are capable of heat production shortly after birth using ...
Meyer M P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare radiant warmer and incubator care for preterm infants from birth with respect to temperature control and weight gain. METHODS: Sixty preterm infants <33 weeks' gestation were randomized at birth to radiant warmer or incubator care. The initial goal was to maintain ...
- - 2001
Heat-related deaths typically occur during summer months. Many of these deaths are preventable. This report describes four cases of heat-related deaths in Los Angeles County, California, during 1999-2000, compares age-, sex-, and race-specific rates in Los Angeles County and the United States during 1979-1998, and summarizes trends in the United ...
Raichur D V - - 2001
Capillary refill time (CRT) is yet to be established as a specific clinical sign of peripheral circulation in neonates. This study was conducted to assess the influence of four body sites used for measurement, interobserver variability, sex, birth weight, age at assessment and room temperature on CRT recorded in healthy ...
Russell M J - - 2001
The promotion of supine sleeping position in young infants has resulted in significant declines in the incidence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome although little is understood in terms of mechanisms. We hypothesize that supine sleeping position promotes appropriate thermal regulation via the face and head which is the major source ...
Elabbassi E B - - 2001
A dramatic decrease of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been noted following the issuance of recommendations to adopt the supine sleeping position for infants. It has been suggested that the increased risk could be related to heat stress associated with body position. In the present study, the dry heat ...
Thomas K A - - 2001
Twenty-six preterm infants, postconceptional age from 28 to 35 weeks and postnatal age approximately 14 days, were included in a study of the development of temperature circadian rhythm. Insulated abdominal skin temperature and incubator air temperature were recorded continuously at 1-min intervals for 24 hr. Using cosinor analysis, cycle mesor, ...
Hammami M M Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, - - 2001
The objective was to compare dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured body composition between large (LGA) and appropriate (AGA) birth weight for gestational age neonates. LGA term infants (n = 47) with birth weights > or =4000 g were compared with 47 gestational age-matched AGA infants; 11 LGA infants were born to mothers ...
Mirmiran M - - 2001
We measured body temperature continuously using telemetry to determine the development of circadian rhythmicity in neonatal baboons after birth. Twelve fetal baboons (nine males and three females) of known gestational age ranging from 167 to 193 d were studied. We eliminated the influence of maternal factors by hand rearing these ...
Wells J C - - 2001
Previous research has shown that physical activity in early infancy does not predict later fatness, whereas in preschool children, such a relationship is found. The objective of this study was to investigate whether total energy expenditure (TEE) and behavior in late infancy are related to subcutaneous and total fatness in ...
Blackburn S - - 2001
PURPOSE: Accurate management of infant temperature requires appropriate placement of temperature monitoring probes. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding placement of skin temperature probes and the effect on temperature monitoring of the infant's lying on the probe. The objective of this study was to compare abdomen and back ...
Greenes D S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of a new noninvasive temporal artery (TA) thermometer in infants; to compare the accuracy of the TA thermometer with that of a tympanic thermometer, using rectal thermometry as the criterion standard; and to compare the tolerability of the TA thermometer with that of the tympanic ...
Battin M R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants treated with head cooling with systemic hypothermia after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Infants >/=37 weeks' gestation, who had an umbilical artery pH </=7.09 or Apgar score </=6 at 5 minutes, plus clinical encephalopathy. Infants with major congenital abnormalities were excluded. TRIAL DESIGN: ...
Mellien A C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant difference between the temperatures of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants in the incubator and in the mothers' arms. DESIGN: Repeated measures, with random assignment to treatment order and the infants serving as their own controls. SETTING: A 40-bed tertiary-level nursery in a university ...
Denne S C - - 2001
The observed growth failure in infants with pulmonary insufficiency is postulated to be a consequence of elevated rates of energy expenditure. Assessment of energy expenditure by the classical technique of indirect calorimetry has yielded conflicting results. The adoption of the newer, doubly labeled water technique has provided evidence to support ...
Nauen J C - - 2001
Finlets, which are small non-retractable fins located on the body margins between the second dorsal and anal fins and the caudal fin of scombrid fishes, have been hypothesized to improve swimming performance. The kinematics of three posterior finlets of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were examined using three-dimensional measurement techniques ...
Bohnhorst B - - 2001
AIM: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and/or hypoxemia. METHODS: Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, ...
Dimitriou G - - 2001
The aim of this study was to assess if albumin infusion in hypotensive, preterm infants improved blood pressure (BP), metabolic acidosis and core peripheral temperature difference, indicating that such infants had been hypovolemic. Thirty-seven infants, median gestational age 27 weeks (range 23-34) were studied. Their mean BP, core-peripheral temperature difference, ...
Chan G M - - 2001
Small portable units using the dual X-ray absorptiometry method (pDEXA) are becoming available to evaluate a localized region of the body such as the forearm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between infant's forearm measurements of bone mineral, lean, and fat mass and total body composition. ...
Forte A M - - 2000
The tectosphere, namely the portions of Earth's mantle lying below cratons, has a thermochemical structure that differs from average suboceanic mantle. The tectosphere is thought to be depleted in its basaltic components and to have an intrinsic buoyancy that balances the mass increase associated with its colder temperature relative to ...
Butte N F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Differences in the growth pattern of breastfed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants are well-recognized and have been attributed to differences in nutrient intake. However, the impact of qualitative and quantitative differences in nutrient intake on the body composition of BF and FF infants has been unclear. Furthermore, it is ...
Weninger W J - - 2000
In the infant the region lateral to the sella turcica which is traditionally termed the 'cavernous sinus' is composed of 3 individual compartments. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a similar compartmentation of the adult cavernous sinus and to identify and quantify the adipose bodies which are located ...
Nako Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Because the risks and benefits of early bathing of newborn infants are not well established, we investigated the effects of bathing immediately after birth on rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, percutaneous arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and early neonatal morbidity. METHODS: The study was designed as ...
Perring J - - 2000
Our objective was to examine factors that affect the accuracy of energy expenditure measurements (EE), when using flow-through indirect calorimetry (IC), to determine the minimum length of time needed to measure 24- and 48-h EE and to compare cross-over and parallel designs as methods of investigation during energy balance collections ...
Makino K - - 2000
Association of school absence with air pollution from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide was analyzed in areas around arterial roads for five years, from 1993 to 1997. The prevalence of absence was calculated using the data for school absence in two schools around arterial roads, one of which ...
Andrews L S - - 2000
Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are natural inhabitants of estuarine environments and may be transmitted to humans by ingestion of raw oysters. This study focused on the use of low temperature pasteurization, to reduce these Vibrio spp. to nondetectable levels, thus reducing the risk of infection associated with raw oyster ...
Salazar G - - 2000
AIM: To evaluate the energy requirements of breast fed infants. METHODS: The study was conducted in 17 healthy exclusively breast fed infants of normal birth weight (mean (SD) 3332 (280) g). Energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method and milk intake by the dose to infant method were measured ...
De Aza P N - - 2000
In a previous study, a new ceramic material (Bioeutectic), prepared by slow solidification through the eutectic temperature region of the wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate system, was found to be reactive in a simulated body fluid. In the present study, the reactivity of the Bioeutectic was assessed in human parotid saliva. Samples of ...
Amirav I - - 2000
The Chemical Infant Protective System (CHIPS) is a special hood-like system into which a small battery-operated blower delivers filtered air. Because it is a semiclosed system, there is a risk of dangerous CO2 accumulation within the device, which particularly affects infants with acute or chronic respiratory disorders. Eleven infants hospitalized ...
Jagger R - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate some important mechanical properties of an experimental silicone material (PM1) to assess its potential as a mouthguard material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hardness, tear strength, tensile properties, and energy absorption properties of the silicone material were determined and compared with ...
Marchini G - - 2000
Our goal was to investigate whether the normal birth process stimulated an acute phase response in healthy infants with physiological changes in the circulating levels of acute phase cytokines and acute phase proteins. We also monitored body temperature, body weight and behavioural state in order to investigate if clinical signs ...
Rajpal R C - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of heat-related deaths in Wisconsin during the summer of 1999. METHODS: Review of death certificates indicating heat as an underlying or contributing cause of death. RESULTS: Heat-related illness led to 21 deaths during the summer of 1999 in Wisconsin. The rate of death was highest ...
Hartnoll G - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk. AIM: To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth. ...
Ludington-Hoe S M - - 2000
Many preterm infants cared for in incubators do not experience Kangaroo Care (KC), skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, due to fear of body heat loss when being held outside the incubator. A randomized clinical trial of 16 KC and 13 control infants using a pretest-test-posttest design of three consecutive interfeeding ...
Thoresen M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of mild cooling to 35 degrees C or below in infants with early hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are under way. The objective of this study was to systematically document cardiovascular changes associated with mild therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming in such infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Nine infants with gestational ages ...
Livingston E H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The measurement of burn surface area is important during the initial management of burn patients for estimating fluid requirements and determining hospital admission criteria. The "rule of nines" is commonly used for this purpose. However, the proportional contribution of various major body segments to the total body surface area ...
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