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Results 451 - 500 of 909
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Triche Elizabeth W - - 2002
This study examined the effects of indoor heating sources on infant respiratory symptoms during the heating season of the first year of life. Mothers delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia were enrolled. Daily symptom and heating source use information about their infant was ...
Schulze Andreas - - 2002
There is a strong physiological rationale for delivering the inspiratory gas at or close to core body temperature and saturated with water vapour to infants with an artificial airway undergoing long-term mechanical ventilatory assistance. Cascade humidifiers with heated wire ventilatory circuitry may achieve this goal safely. Whenever saturated air leaves ...
Sokoloff Greta - - 2002
Infant Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) do not exhibit endogenous heat production before 3 weeks of age and do not huddle effectively during cold exposure, gaining little thermoregulatory benefit from the presence of multiple littermates. In contrast, infant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) produce heat endogenously and are effective at maintaining ...
Kambarami R - - 2002
Thermal care is a critical part of caring for neonates. The need to identify simple, affordable and effective tools for detecting hypothermia in newborn infants that can be used by mothers and other caregivers in resource-poor countries remains crucial in our efforts to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. ...
Ball H L - - 2002
The effects on infants of sleeping with their parents is currently the subject of much debate. One concern regarding infants who sleep in their parents' bed involves the possibility of overheating. Previous research reported a significantly greater core temperature of 0.1 degrees C among a cohort of bed-sharing infants compared ...
Shankaran Seetha - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Modest reduction in brain temperature is a promising therapy to reduce brain damage after neonatal encephalopathy as a result of acute perinatal asphyxia. The efficacy of modest hypothermia may in part be dependent on the stability of the desired brain temperature. The objective of this study was 1) to ...
- - 2002
Each year in the United States, approximately 400 deaths are attributed to excessive natural heat; these deaths are preventable. This report describes heat-related deaths in Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas when elevated temperatures were recorded for several consecutive days during July-August 2001; summarizes heat-related deaths in the United States ...
Hahn Martin E - - 2002
There has been a revival of interest recently in the ultrasonic calls of infant rodents as investigators are using them to assess neurobehavioral development and animal models of anxiety. We compared the rates of ultrasonic calling of infant mice of two genotypes in two situations, cold and rotation. The subjects ...
Watkins Beth - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest that adults with anorexia nervosa are more likely to be born in spring and early summer. This study examines whether this pattern of birth is true of early-onset anorexia nervosa, and whether there is a relationship between environmental temperature at assumed time of conception and a ...
Bhattacharjee Gautam - - 2002
Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata ...
Horns Kimberly M - - 2002
PURPOSE: This study tested a novel bioinstrumented radiant warmer (RW), designed to provide a reduced-intervention nursing caregiving environment (RINCE) on the ambient and body surface temperature stability of extremely low birth-weight (ELBW) infants (< 1,000 g) during caregiver disruptions. The RINCE was compared with a control bed consisting of a ...
Chwo Miao-Ju - - 2002
Kangaroo care (KC) has been the intervention for preterm infants in numerous published studies. However, most well designed studies to date have used a one-group repeated measure design. This methodology is not as definitive as an experimental design. Because of the absence of a comparable control group, change between pretest ...
DeRoche Michael E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Episodic hypothermia with hyperhidrosis is a disorder of thermoregulation, believed to be secondary to a hypothalamic dysfunction, which affects the body's thermoregulatory centers. During this rare condition, the body may sweat profusely in an attempt to maintain a lowered body temperature set point. The exact cause of episodic hypothermia ...
Bines Julie E - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a defect in energy metabolism exists in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). DESIGN: Unselected, newly-diagnosed subjects with CF (n = 46) and 24 healthy infants aged <20 weeks had measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE), total energy expenditure (TEE) (n = 25), and body composition. Metabolizable ...
Rissmann A - - 2002
Thermoregulatory response to Finnish sauna bath was investigated in 47 infants (age 3 - 14 month). Before taking a short sauna bath lasting 3 min, the infants stayed in a swimming pool for 15 min. Under these conditions sauna bathing did not increase the rectal temperature. Unexpectedly rectal temperature even ...
Gerten Dieter - - 2002
Impacts of climate warming on freshwater ecosystems have been documented recently for a variety of sites around the globe. Here we provide a review of studies that report long-term (multidecadal) effects of warming trends on thermal properties and plankton dynamics in northern hemispheric lakes. We show that higher lake temperatures, ...
Pettis Chris R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Both microgravity and simulated microgravity models, such as the 45HDT (45 degrees head-down tilt), cause a redistribution of body fluids indicating a possible adaptive process to the microgravity stressor. Understanding the physiological processes that occur in microgravity is a first step to developing countermeasures to stop its harmful effects, ...
Madge Bethany A - - 2002
The present study explored the application of a 20-kHz ultrasound unit for the disinfection of domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in batch with an ultrasound probe. The disinfection efficiency of fecal coliform increased with ultrasound power input from 0.003 log kill/min at 70 W/L to 1.8 log kill/min at 1250 ...
Grünhagen Dirk J - - 2002
Among preterm infants there is a relationship between skin blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The aim of this study was to assess whether halogen spotlight phototherapy without significant heat stress increases TEWL and affects maintenance fluid requirements in preterm infants. TEWL was measured noninvasively before the start and ...
Furuya T - - 2002
Naphtho[2,1-b]thiophene (NTH) is an asymmetric structural isomer of dibenzothiophene (DBT), and NTH derivatives can be detected in diesel oil following hydrodesulfurization treatment, in addition to DBT derivatives. Mycobacterium phlei WU-F1, which possesses high desulfurizing ability toward DBT and its derivatives over a wide temperature range (20-50 degrees C), could also ...
Kilani Ramzi A - - 2002
To evaluate the practicality and safety of selective head cooling in asphyxiated human newborn infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart analysis of asphyxiated neonates. SETTING, PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: During a period of 13 months (1st June 1998 to 30 June 1999) fourteen newborns (10 mild and 4 moderate PHIE) were managed by ...
Fomon Samuel J - - 2002
During infancy, especially early infancy, a substantial proportion of the requirements for energy and specific nutrients are those needed for growth. Knowledge of the body composition of a reference infant (body size and chemical composition at the 50th centile for age) permits an estimate of the growth needs of the ...
Harrington T A M - - 2002
The role of body fat content and distribution in infants is becoming an area of increasing interest, especially as perception of its function appears to be rapidly evolving. Although a number of methods are available to estimate body fat content in adults, many are of limited use in infants, especially ...
Hashimoto Kazumasa - - 2002
The objective of the study is to evaluate neonatal body composition determined by the isotope dilution method compared with the total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) method. An oral dose of 18O- and 2H-labeled water was given to 40 healthy term newborns, and 26 infants successfully completed the protocol. The isotope concentrations ...
Sinclair J C - - 2002
Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a ...
Flenady V J - - 2002
The provision of a thermoneutral environment is an essential component of the immediate and longer term care of newborn infants. A variety of methods are currently employed including incubators and open-care systems, with or without modifications such as heat shields and plastic wrap. The system used must allow ready access ...
Hackman P S - - 2001
Hypothermia is an important cause of morbidity--and occasionally mortality--in the newborn. This article explains the physiology of thermoregulation and thermogenesis in term infants. Subjects include the role of the hypothalamus in heat production, causes of and ways to prevent heat loss, and establishment of a neutral thermal environment. Complications associated ...
Smoyer-Tomic K E - - 2001
An increasing number of cities subject to hazardous summer weather in the United States and Canada have begun to develop and implement hot weather response plans to prevent heat-related illnesses and deaths. In this study we focus on heat-mortality relationships in Toronto, Ontario, between 1980 and 1996 and evaluate the ...
Samar M M - - 2001
The stability of naturally occurring DON was evaluated during the fermentation stage of the bread-making process on a pilot scale. Two different products, French bread and Vienna bread, were prepared with naturally contaminated wheat flour (150 mg kg(-1)) under controlled experimental conditions. Dough was fermented at 30, 40 and 50 ...
L'Herault J - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a thermal mattress in stabilizing and maintaining body temperature during the transport of newborns who weigh less than 1,500 g. We compared 91 infants who were transported without a thermal mattress from April 1995 to March 1996 with 100 ...
Jackson J A - - 2001
AIM: To investigate whether infants with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) experience different changes in temperature and cortisol excretion after routine immunization compared with normal healthy infants. METHODS: Overnight deep body temperature and urinary cortisol to creatinine ratios were measured on the night after immunization and a control night in normal ...
Leclère J - - 2001
The objective of this study was to determine whether in heat-treated milk-resembling models or milk there is a lag phase, before lactulosyllysine (LL) is converted into advanced Maillard products (AMP), and if there is a step during the heat treatment where LL is actively degraded into AMP. For that purpose, ...
Mouquet C - - 2001
Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate energy density and consistency of gruels for infants in developing countries. However, starch-rich gruels have a complex rheological behavior and their consistency is difficult to characterize. Many published gruel viscosity data are available, but the lack of standardized viscosity measurement procedures makes ...
Petersen S A - - 2001
Overnight patterns of rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded from 119 normal infants at weekly intervals from 7 to about 16 weeks of age. All data were collected in the infants' own homes. As previously reported, different infants developed an adult-like night time rectal temperature pattern abruptly at different ...
Sokoloff G - - 2001
Huddling is expressed by infant rats and continues to be an important behavior throughout adulthood. As a form of behavioral thermoregulation, huddling is thought to play an essential role in compensating for inadequate physiological thermoregulation early in development. Infant rats, however, are capable of heat production shortly after birth using ...
Meyer M P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare radiant warmer and incubator care for preterm infants from birth with respect to temperature control and weight gain. METHODS: Sixty preterm infants <33 weeks' gestation were randomized at birth to radiant warmer or incubator care. The initial goal was to maintain ...
- - 2001
Heat-related deaths typically occur during summer months. Many of these deaths are preventable. This report describes four cases of heat-related deaths in Los Angeles County, California, during 1999-2000, compares age-, sex-, and race-specific rates in Los Angeles County and the United States during 1979-1998, and summarizes trends in the United ...
Raichur D V - - 2001
Capillary refill time (CRT) is yet to be established as a specific clinical sign of peripheral circulation in neonates. This study was conducted to assess the influence of four body sites used for measurement, interobserver variability, sex, birth weight, age at assessment and room temperature on CRT recorded in healthy ...
Russell M J - - 2001
The promotion of supine sleeping position in young infants has resulted in significant declines in the incidence of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome although little is understood in terms of mechanisms. We hypothesize that supine sleeping position promotes appropriate thermal regulation via the face and head which is the major source ...
Elabbassi E B - - 2001
A dramatic decrease of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been noted following the issuance of recommendations to adopt the supine sleeping position for infants. It has been suggested that the increased risk could be related to heat stress associated with body position. In the present study, the dry heat ...
Thomas K A - - 2001
Twenty-six preterm infants, postconceptional age from 28 to 35 weeks and postnatal age approximately 14 days, were included in a study of the development of temperature circadian rhythm. Insulated abdominal skin temperature and incubator air temperature were recorded continuously at 1-min intervals for 24 hr. Using cosinor analysis, cycle mesor, ...
Hammami M M Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, - - 2001
The objective was to compare dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured body composition between large (LGA) and appropriate (AGA) birth weight for gestational age neonates. LGA term infants (n = 47) with birth weights > or =4000 g were compared with 47 gestational age-matched AGA infants; 11 LGA infants were born to mothers ...
Mirmiran M - - 2001
We measured body temperature continuously using telemetry to determine the development of circadian rhythmicity in neonatal baboons after birth. Twelve fetal baboons (nine males and three females) of known gestational age ranging from 167 to 193 d were studied. We eliminated the influence of maternal factors by hand rearing these ...
Wells J C - - 2001
Previous research has shown that physical activity in early infancy does not predict later fatness, whereas in preschool children, such a relationship is found. The objective of this study was to investigate whether total energy expenditure (TEE) and behavior in late infancy are related to subcutaneous and total fatness in ...
Blackburn S - - 2001
PURPOSE: Accurate management of infant temperature requires appropriate placement of temperature monitoring probes. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding placement of skin temperature probes and the effect on temperature monitoring of the infant's lying on the probe. The objective of this study was to compare abdomen and back ...
Greenes D S - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of a new noninvasive temporal artery (TA) thermometer in infants; to compare the accuracy of the TA thermometer with that of a tympanic thermometer, using rectal thermometry as the criterion standard; and to compare the tolerability of the TA thermometer with that of the tympanic ...
Battin M R - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants treated with head cooling with systemic hypothermia after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Infants >/=37 weeks' gestation, who had an umbilical artery pH </=7.09 or Apgar score </=6 at 5 minutes, plus clinical encephalopathy. Infants with major congenital abnormalities were excluded. TRIAL DESIGN: ...
Mellien A C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant difference between the temperatures of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants in the incubator and in the mothers' arms. DESIGN: Repeated measures, with random assignment to treatment order and the infants serving as their own controls. SETTING: A 40-bed tertiary-level nursery in a university ...
Denne S C - - 2001
The observed growth failure in infants with pulmonary insufficiency is postulated to be a consequence of elevated rates of energy expenditure. Assessment of energy expenditure by the classical technique of indirect calorimetry has yielded conflicting results. The adoption of the newer, doubly labeled water technique has provided evidence to support ...
Nauen J C - - 2001
Finlets, which are small non-retractable fins located on the body margins between the second dorsal and anal fins and the caudal fin of scombrid fishes, have been hypothesized to improve swimming performance. The kinematics of three posterior finlets of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, were examined using three-dimensional measurement techniques ...
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