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Longe A C - - 1984
53 Nigerian infants with neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied. The striking features were: (a) the higher predisposition (26.7-fold) of LBW infants to developing meningitis than has been previously reported in the literature; (b) the predominant role of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus; and (c) the rarity of salmonella organisms and ...
Fisher R M - - 1984
Real-time ultrasonography was performed, utilising the patent anterior fontanelle, on 82 infants with viral or bacterial meningitis. One third of the cases had normal ultrasonic appearances. The other two thirds demonstrated abnormalities of the subdural space, parenchyma and ventricles. Ventricular dilatation was the commonest abnormality and was present in 57% ...
Marchant C D - - 1984
We determined the course of otitis media in a prospective, longitudinal study of infants who were enrolled at birth and followed to age 1 year. Bilateral chronic otitis media with effusion developed in eight of 24 (33%) with onset of otitis media before age 2 months, compared to two of ...
Peltola H - - 1984
Twenty-eight bacteriologically proved episodes of purulent meningitis in 27 infants and children were monitored prospectively with sequential determinations of serum C-reactive protein. Except in one rapidly fatal case, all the patients showed decreasing CRP values for about 1 week. In five patients the CRP values than returned to a high ...
Knoop F C - - 1984
The effect of lodoxamide tromethamine, a calcium antagonist, on intestinal fluid accumulation induced by Escherichia coli heat-stable (ST) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) enterotoxins in infant mice was investigated. The simultaneous administration of lodoxamide with ST or CT enterotoxin resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) inhibition of the intestinal ...
Law B J - - 1984
A model of overwhelming E. coli K1 sepsis and early meningitis was developed in infant rabbits and used to compare clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of ampicillin, moxalactam, cephalothin and chloramphenicol. Intraperitoneal injection of 10(7) E. coli K1 into 1- or 2-wk-old rabbits produced a rapidly progressive infection which, if left ...
Brown B S - - 1984
Five infants with meningitis and ventriculitis, and a sixth patient with meningitis only are reported. In one hydrocephalic infant, infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was not suspected until cerebral ultrasonography revealed features of ventriculitis. It appears that in non-communicating hydrocephalus managed with a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt, infection may ...
Berant M - - 1984
Three young infants with protracted diarrhea and malnutrition were successfully treated by means of intravenous nutrition, which included infusions of fat emulsion (Intralipid) and of fresh frozen plasma. Three to five weeks after termination of intravenous feeding, and after full recovery, they developed pneumococcal septicemia and meningitis. One infant died, ...
Sutter V L - - 1984
The human mouth provides a suitable habitat for numerous bacterial genera. Anaerobic genera or genera that include anaerobic members found in the oral cavity are Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Leptotrichia, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium, Selenomonas, Treponema, and Veillonella. The incidence of anaerobes varies with age of the individual ...
Michelsson K - - 1984
Altogether 248 cries from 62 infants with hydrocephalus were analysed by sound spectrography: 92 cries from infants with congenital hydrocephalus and 52 cries from each of the groups with cerebral malformations, hydrocephalus as sequelae of meningitis, and after closure of a meningomyelocele. The cries were compared with 104 cries of ...
Hutchison C P - - 1984
A 27-year-old woman died from pneumococcal meningitis associated with pneumococcal endometritis two days after being delivered of a .1.75-kg infant. The infant also had pneumococcal septicemia and died six days after birth. The pneumococcus isolated from the mother and the baby was type 8. The membranes had ruptured 21 hours ...
Klein J O - - 1984
The current incidence of neonatal sepsis in the United States varies from less than 1 to 8.1 per 1000 live births. The incidence of bacterial meningitis is about one-third of the number of infants with sepsis. The mortality is 20 to 30% and many survivors are severely impaired. Group B ...
Schaad U B - - 1984
The new cephalosporin compounds have increased in vitro activity against gram-negative enteric bacilli and penetrate well into cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, their pharmacokinetic properties are favorable and their safety seems adequate, although insufficiently evaluated to date. Interest has been focused on them as therapeutic agents for neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused ...
Placzek M - - 1983
Seventy infants with suspected bacterial infection in the first 48 hours of life were treated either with piperacillin and flucloxacillin or with penicillin and gentamicin. Infection was confirmed and successfully eradicated in 6 of the 35 infants receiving piperacillin and flucloxacillin. Four infants treated with penicillin and gentamicin had confirmed ...
DeAngelis C - - 1983
We identified, by diagnostic categories, the iatrogenic and financial costs that arise from hospitalizing febrile infants 60 days of age or younger. Thirty-seven (19.5%) of all admissions resulted in 48 separate complications. Twenty-nine (60.4%) of these complications were preventable, and six complications (12.5%) occurred in infants who probably did not ...
San Joaquin V H - - 1983
A suitable model of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis will facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology, therapy, and prevention of the disease and its sequelae. Bacteremia and meningitis were induced in infant New Zealand white rabbits by intranasal inoculation of H. influenzae type b. Intranasal trypsin prior to challenge significantly increased (p ...
Enzenauer R W - - 1983
The bacterial cause of purulent meningitis in patients younger than 2 months of age was reviewed. Hemophilus influenzae was the most common organism isolated from infants 1 to 2 months of age. Gram-negative enteric organisms were not shown to cause meningitis in this age group in term infants without neonatal ...
Raucher H S - - 1983
During 1981, we treated 20 infants, less than 24 months old, for nontyphoid Salmonella (NTSal) gastroenteritis (GE). Blood cultures were obtained in 17 cases, and Salmonella bacteremia was demonstrated in 8 (47%). Of the 13 children 3 to 24 months of age, 7 (54%) had positive blood cultures. One child ...
Naqvi S H - - 1983
We reviewed medical records of 155 pediatric patients whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples contained an increased proportion of neutrophils when processed by cytocentrifugation, despite normal CSF total white blood cell count. It was determined that these CSF findings occurred more commonly in patients with bacteremia, peripheral leukocytosis, and increased numbers ...
Kuo C C - - 1983
The immunotype distribution of 493 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates from 467 adults and 26 infants in the Seattle area from 1965 to 1982 is presented. All except one of the isolates from adults were from the genitourinary tract, rectum, or bubo. The proportions of each immunotype were ED, 46.5%; GF, 24.6%; ...
Rosenfeld W N - - 1983
The pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone were evaluated in 28 newborn infants who were being treated for sepsis. A dose of 50 mg/kg was administered intravenously on days 0 to 2 in all, with a second dose administered on days 5 to 7 in 14 infants. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration was also studied ...
MacMahon P - - 1983
Three hyponatraemic infants had post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus which was treated by repeated drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. Each required oral sodium supplements. The concentration of sodium in the cerebrospinal fluid was such that as much as 3 mmol of sodium could have been removed with each ventricular tap. Serum sodium concentrations should ...
Murphy T V - - 1983
Five infants enrolled in a day care center (DCC) developed invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b during a 25-week period. The isolates from four patients had identical outer membrane proteins and were biotype 1. Although rifampin prophylaxis was recommended on two different occasions, retrospective surveys demonstrated that 39 ...
Rosenberg H K - - 1983
Twenty-three infants with clinically proven bacterial meningitis were studied with real-time cranial sonography at the time of initial diagnosis and in several cases subsequently. A spectrum of sonographic abnormalities was observed, including bright convolutional markings, focal or diffuse increased and/or decreased parenchymal echoes, ventricular debris, and hydrocephalus. In three infants ...
Fraser J J JJ - - 1983
We have reported a case of septicemia and meningitis due to alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus in a 5-day-old infant. The microbiologic and clinical characteristics of neonatal infection with this organism lead us to conclude that this bacterium can be pathogenic in the newborn and should not be dismissed as a contaminant.
Hildebrand W L - - 1983
Lumbar puncture is indicated in any infant with symptoms suggestive of meningitis (seizures, intractable vomiting and unexplained fever) and in the evaluation of neonatal intracranial bleeding. The infant must be held firmly in the lateral decubitus or sitting position. Under sterile conditions, a 22- to 25-gauge needle is inserted into ...
Chan-Lui W Y - - 1983
Moxalactam penetrates cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and subdural fluid well enough to be a promising antimicrobial for enteric bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants. Clinical trials in adults and children have found few adverse effects. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) with or without bleeding was ...
Hällgren R - - 1982
One hundred and four infants with neurological symptoms or suspected infection during the neonatal period were consecutively investigated with respect to ferritin and albumin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In some cases serial determinations of CSF ferritin were performed during the period in the neonatal unit. CSF ferritin was ...
Broughton R A - - 1982
Bacteriologic relapse occurred in a premature infant with Escherichia coli K1 meningitis 11 days following the completion of a 3-week course of therapy with the new 1-oxa-beta-lactam antibiotic moxalactam. Therapeutic failure was most probably the result of sequestration of viable bacteria in ventricular and/or paraventricular sites. While in vitro data ...
Edwards M S - - 1982
Subdural empyema rarely is associated with bacterial meningitis in infants, particularly when the etiologic agent is Neisseria meningitidis. We have described a 3-month-old infant in whom relapse of meningitis due to Meningococcus group C was accompanied by a right-sided subdural empyema. Full recovery followed appropriate antimicrobial therapy and closed drainage.
Kim K S - - 1982
A premature infant who died of early-onset group B streptococcal meningitis was found to have cerebritis with direct bacterial infection of the basal ganglia. Although the organism was sensitive to penicillin by in vitro testing, it was not eradicated from the cerebrospinal fluid after 48 h of antibiotic treatment. These ...
Davis R C - - 1981
Of seven infants with Salmonella sepsis, three had meningitis. A review of these cases and others previously reported demonstrated that among infants less than 1 year old in Arkansas, Salmonella infection developed in 383 over a 31/2-year period. The reported incidence of sepsis and/or meningitis was 1.8%; for those less ...
Merchant R E - - 1981
We examined the origin, nature and role of cellular defense mechanisms in experimental Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in the infant rat using ultrastructural techniques. An extensive inflammatory exudate composed of granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages was observed on the leptomeninges of all animals with meningitis. At 1-3 days following ...
Graham D R - - 1981
Five infants born at one hospital over a two-year period developed meningitis due to a serotype O2 strain of Citrobacter diversus; four infants developed brain abscesses due to this organism. The initial prevalence of stool colonization in infants was 79%; eventually 140 infants (10%) and six nurses (6%) were found ...
Albanese V - - 1981
The clinical features and the neuroradiological appearance of multiloculated hydrocephalus that followed meningitis and ventriculitis in five newborn infants are presented. Several factors probably involved in the pathogenesis are discussed. Computed tomography is particularly helpful in the recognition of this entity and in the evaluation of its course. However, ventriculograms ...
Klein J O - - 1981
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent bacterial cause of pneumonia, otitis media, and bacteremia and is the third most common cause of meningitis in infants and children. Infants have the highest rates of pneumococcal disease. Recent studies showed that the peak incidence of meningitis occurs among infants three to five ...
Larsen J W JW - - 1981
Penicillin therapy for experimentally produced neonatal meningitis due to intracerebral inoculation of group B streptococci (GBS) was studied in 25 rhesus monkeys. Penicillin was administered either therapeutically to the newborns 3 hours after GBS inoculation or prophylactically as a bolus to the pregnant females 2 hours before delivery. The neonatal ...
Jacobson P L - - 1981
No deaths occurred among six consecutive cases of subdural empyema complicating meningitis in infants treated between 1968 and 1978 at North Carolina Memorial Hospital, Chapel Hill. Five of the six infants had no neurologic sequelae in follow-up periods ranging from 6 months to 7 years. This contrasts with a mortality ...
Charlang G - - 1981
Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium chrysogenum produce specific cellular siderophores in addition to the well-known siderophores of the culture medium. Since this was found previously in Neurospora crassa, it is probably generally true for filamentous ascomycetes. The cellular siderophore of A. nidulans is ferricrocin; that of P. chrysogenum is ferrichrome. A. ...
Findler G - - 1981
The characteristic presentation of meningococcal meningitis is acute and clinically dramatic. This article describes an infant who presented with a bulging fontanelle and left arm weakness, but no signs of infection. Routine CT scan clearly showed hydrocephalus, but did not reveal the underlying ventriculitis which was subsequently disclosed by contrast ...
Levy D R - - 1981
Because the symptomatology of meningitis in infancy frequently is nonspecific, interns and residents staffing a busy pediatric hospital emergency room are encouraged to perform lumbar punctures at the slightest suspicion of meningitis. The effects of this policy were investigated with regard to the number of lumbar punctures done, number of ...
Odunfa S A - - 1981
Root exudates of cowpea and soybean were collected in aerated water cultures. The ability of these exudates to support nitrogenase activity of R. japonicum was studied on defined media. When a complete nitrogenase-inducing medium was supplemented with concentrated root exudate, there was an increased nitrogenase activity. When the cowpea root ...
Schaad U B - - 1981
Moxalactam, a new parenteral 1-oxa-beta-lactam antibiotics, is highly effective in vitro against gram-negative enteric bacilli, including isolated from neonates with meningitis. Studies with moxalactam in experimental coliform meningitis demonstrated favorable penetration, bioavailability, and antibacterial activity in CSF. The potential value of moxalactam for therapy of gram-negative enteric meningitis of infancy ...
Miller C A - - 1981
A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with central nervous system involvement in an infant is presented. Marked demyelination of cerebral and cerebellar white matter is associated with an intense histiocytic infiltrations and astrogliosis. Histiocytes phagocytic of erythrocytes and lymphocytes are noted in a meningeal, subependymal, and perivascular distribution. Severe depletion of ...
Horbar J D - - 1980
Application of the Ladd fiberoptic sensor to the anterior fontanel of the human newborn has been used as a method for monitoring intracranial pressure noninvasively. This study measures the effect of varying the force with which the sensor is applied to the fontanel. The Ladd sensor readings of five preterm ...
Brook I - - 1980
A neonate monitored with scalp electrodes during delivery presented with a scalp abscess, osteomyelitis and bacteremia. Bacteroides fragilis was recovered from the blood culture, and polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated from the aspirated purulent material. Attention should be paid to the possibility of such complications in infants requiring ...
Ichord R - - 1980
An 8-week-old infant presented with Arizona hinshawii meningitis and bacteraemia. The child responded well to the administration of parenteral ampicillin and chloramphenicol. However, chloramphenicol was discontinued after one day of therapy, and A. hinshawii was recultured from the cerebrospinal fluid on the fifth day. Chloramphenicol therapy was restarted and the ...
Yogev R - - 1980
Infant rats with bacteremia and meningitis induced by ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b were treated with ampicillin and nafcillin, alone or in combination. Neither ampicillin alone (in 19 animals) nor nafcillin alone (in 20 animals) sterilized the blood or cerebrospinal fluid of any treated infant rat. When the combination of ...
Baker C J - - 1980
Admission specimens of CSF, serum, and urine from 67 patients with proved group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteremia and/or meningitis were evaluated by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Group B and type-specific antigens were detected in 81% of CSF, 63% of serum, and 96% of concentrated urine specimens by CIE. Each of 26 ...
McCracken G H GH - - 1980
In a multicentre controlled trial in the U.S.A. and Latin America 52 infants with meningitis and ventriculitis were randomly assigned to receive either systemic ampicillin and gentamicin or intraventricular gentamicin plus systemic antimicrobial agents. The aetiological agents most often encountered were Escherichia coli in the U.S. infants and Salmonella spp. ...
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