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Results 401 - 450 of 490
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Rosenfeld W N - - 1983
The pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone were evaluated in 28 newborn infants who were being treated for sepsis. A dose of 50 mg/kg was administered intravenously on days 0 to 2 in all, with a second dose administered on days 5 to 7 in 14 infants. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration was also studied ...
MacMahon P - - 1983
Three hyponatraemic infants had post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus which was treated by repeated drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. Each required oral sodium supplements. The concentration of sodium in the cerebrospinal fluid was such that as much as 3 mmol of sodium could have been removed with each ventricular tap. Serum sodium concentrations should ...
Murphy T V - - 1983
Five infants enrolled in a day care center (DCC) developed invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b during a 25-week period. The isolates from four patients had identical outer membrane proteins and were biotype 1. Although rifampin prophylaxis was recommended on two different occasions, retrospective surveys demonstrated that 39 ...
Rosenberg H K - - 1983
Twenty-three infants with clinically proven bacterial meningitis were studied with real-time cranial sonography at the time of initial diagnosis and in several cases subsequently. A spectrum of sonographic abnormalities was observed, including bright convolutional markings, focal or diffuse increased and/or decreased parenchymal echoes, ventricular debris, and hydrocephalus. In three infants ...
Fraser J J JJ - - 1983
We have reported a case of septicemia and meningitis due to alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus in a 5-day-old infant. The microbiologic and clinical characteristics of neonatal infection with this organism lead us to conclude that this bacterium can be pathogenic in the newborn and should not be dismissed as a contaminant.
Hildebrand W L - - 1983
Lumbar puncture is indicated in any infant with symptoms suggestive of meningitis (seizures, intractable vomiting and unexplained fever) and in the evaluation of neonatal intracranial bleeding. The infant must be held firmly in the lateral decubitus or sitting position. Under sterile conditions, a 22- to 25-gauge needle is inserted into ...
Chan-Lui W Y - - 1983
Moxalactam penetrates cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and subdural fluid well enough to be a promising antimicrobial for enteric bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants. Clinical trials in adults and children have found few adverse effects. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) with or without bleeding was ...
Hällgren R - - 1982
One hundred and four infants with neurological symptoms or suspected infection during the neonatal period were consecutively investigated with respect to ferritin and albumin concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In some cases serial determinations of CSF ferritin were performed during the period in the neonatal unit. CSF ferritin was ...
Broughton R A - - 1982
Bacteriologic relapse occurred in a premature infant with Escherichia coli K1 meningitis 11 days following the completion of a 3-week course of therapy with the new 1-oxa-beta-lactam antibiotic moxalactam. Therapeutic failure was most probably the result of sequestration of viable bacteria in ventricular and/or paraventricular sites. While in vitro data ...
Edwards M S - - 1982
Subdural empyema rarely is associated with bacterial meningitis in infants, particularly when the etiologic agent is Neisseria meningitidis. We have described a 3-month-old infant in whom relapse of meningitis due to Meningococcus group C was accompanied by a right-sided subdural empyema. Full recovery followed appropriate antimicrobial therapy and closed drainage.
Kim K S - - 1982
A premature infant who died of early-onset group B streptococcal meningitis was found to have cerebritis with direct bacterial infection of the basal ganglia. Although the organism was sensitive to penicillin by in vitro testing, it was not eradicated from the cerebrospinal fluid after 48 h of antibiotic treatment. These ...
Davis R C - - 1981
Of seven infants with Salmonella sepsis, three had meningitis. A review of these cases and others previously reported demonstrated that among infants less than 1 year old in Arkansas, Salmonella infection developed in 383 over a 31/2-year period. The reported incidence of sepsis and/or meningitis was 1.8%; for those less ...
Merchant R E - - 1981
We examined the origin, nature and role of cellular defense mechanisms in experimental Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in the infant rat using ultrastructural techniques. An extensive inflammatory exudate composed of granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages was observed on the leptomeninges of all animals with meningitis. At 1-3 days following ...
Graham D R - - 1981
Five infants born at one hospital over a two-year period developed meningitis due to a serotype O2 strain of Citrobacter diversus; four infants developed brain abscesses due to this organism. The initial prevalence of stool colonization in infants was 79%; eventually 140 infants (10%) and six nurses (6%) were found ...
Albanese V - - 1981
The clinical features and the neuroradiological appearance of multiloculated hydrocephalus that followed meningitis and ventriculitis in five newborn infants are presented. Several factors probably involved in the pathogenesis are discussed. Computed tomography is particularly helpful in the recognition of this entity and in the evaluation of its course. However, ventriculograms ...
Klein J O - - 1981
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent bacterial cause of pneumonia, otitis media, and bacteremia and is the third most common cause of meningitis in infants and children. Infants have the highest rates of pneumococcal disease. Recent studies showed that the peak incidence of meningitis occurs among infants three to five ...
Larsen J W JW - - 1981
Penicillin therapy for experimentally produced neonatal meningitis due to intracerebral inoculation of group B streptococci (GBS) was studied in 25 rhesus monkeys. Penicillin was administered either therapeutically to the newborns 3 hours after GBS inoculation or prophylactically as a bolus to the pregnant females 2 hours before delivery. The neonatal ...
Jacobson P L - - 1981
No deaths occurred among six consecutive cases of subdural empyema complicating meningitis in infants treated between 1968 and 1978 at North Carolina Memorial Hospital, Chapel Hill. Five of the six infants had no neurologic sequelae in follow-up periods ranging from 6 months to 7 years. This contrasts with a mortality ...
Charlang G - - 1981
Aspergillus nidulans and Penicillium chrysogenum produce specific cellular siderophores in addition to the well-known siderophores of the culture medium. Since this was found previously in Neurospora crassa, it is probably generally true for filamentous ascomycetes. The cellular siderophore of A. nidulans is ferricrocin; that of P. chrysogenum is ferrichrome. A. ...
Findler G - - 1981
The characteristic presentation of meningococcal meningitis is acute and clinically dramatic. This article describes an infant who presented with a bulging fontanelle and left arm weakness, but no signs of infection. Routine CT scan clearly showed hydrocephalus, but did not reveal the underlying ventriculitis which was subsequently disclosed by contrast ...
Levy D R - - 1981
Because the symptomatology of meningitis in infancy frequently is nonspecific, interns and residents staffing a busy pediatric hospital emergency room are encouraged to perform lumbar punctures at the slightest suspicion of meningitis. The effects of this policy were investigated with regard to the number of lumbar punctures done, number of ...
Odunfa S A - - 1981
Root exudates of cowpea and soybean were collected in aerated water cultures. The ability of these exudates to support nitrogenase activity of R. japonicum was studied on defined media. When a complete nitrogenase-inducing medium was supplemented with concentrated root exudate, there was an increased nitrogenase activity. When the cowpea root ...
Schaad U B - - 1981
Moxalactam, a new parenteral 1-oxa-beta-lactam antibiotics, is highly effective in vitro against gram-negative enteric bacilli, including isolated from neonates with meningitis. Studies with moxalactam in experimental coliform meningitis demonstrated favorable penetration, bioavailability, and antibacterial activity in CSF. The potential value of moxalactam for therapy of gram-negative enteric meningitis of infancy ...
Miller C A - - 1981
A case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with central nervous system involvement in an infant is presented. Marked demyelination of cerebral and cerebellar white matter is associated with an intense histiocytic infiltrations and astrogliosis. Histiocytes phagocytic of erythrocytes and lymphocytes are noted in a meningeal, subependymal, and perivascular distribution. Severe depletion of ...
Horbar J D - - 1980
Application of the Ladd fiberoptic sensor to the anterior fontanel of the human newborn has been used as a method for monitoring intracranial pressure noninvasively. This study measures the effect of varying the force with which the sensor is applied to the fontanel. The Ladd sensor readings of five preterm ...
Brook I - - 1980
A neonate monitored with scalp electrodes during delivery presented with a scalp abscess, osteomyelitis and bacteremia. Bacteroides fragilis was recovered from the blood culture, and polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated from the aspirated purulent material. Attention should be paid to the possibility of such complications in infants requiring ...
Ichord R - - 1980
An 8-week-old infant presented with Arizona hinshawii meningitis and bacteraemia. The child responded well to the administration of parenteral ampicillin and chloramphenicol. However, chloramphenicol was discontinued after one day of therapy, and A. hinshawii was recultured from the cerebrospinal fluid on the fifth day. Chloramphenicol therapy was restarted and the ...
Yogev R - - 1980
Infant rats with bacteremia and meningitis induced by ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b were treated with ampicillin and nafcillin, alone or in combination. Neither ampicillin alone (in 19 animals) nor nafcillin alone (in 20 animals) sterilized the blood or cerebrospinal fluid of any treated infant rat. When the combination of ...
Baker C J - - 1980
Admission specimens of CSF, serum, and urine from 67 patients with proved group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteremia and/or meningitis were evaluated by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Group B and type-specific antigens were detected in 81% of CSF, 63% of serum, and 96% of concentrated urine specimens by CIE. Each of 26 ...
McCracken G H GH - - 1980
In a multicentre controlled trial in the U.S.A. and Latin America 52 infants with meningitis and ventriculitis were randomly assigned to receive either systemic ampicillin and gentamicin or intraventricular gentamicin plus systemic antimicrobial agents. The aetiological agents most often encountered were Escherichia coli in the U.S. infants and Salmonella spp. ...
Probst F P - - 1980
The case of an infant with a dermal sinus tract, recurrent meningitis, ascending myelitis and a fatal outcome is described. The extraordinary extent of the cord affection with abscesses up to the level of the lower brainstem, and the presence of squamous epithelium within them, is difficult to explain on ...
Boeckx R L - - 1980
We measured cerebrospinal fluid glutamine concentration in a reference group of 85 newborn to 30-month-old infants. All of the spinal taps were performed for the diagnosis of illnesses unrelated to hyperammonemia or hepatic encephalopathy. We also analyzed samples from patients with meningitis or cerebral hemorrhage, or who were receiving total ...
Webb B J - - 1980
The usefulness of Phadebact streptococcus reagents for the detection of group B streptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid was evaluated in 54 infants with meningitis and in 22 normal infants. Antigens was detected by slide coagglutination in 19 (82.6%) and by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in 20 (87.0%) of 23 cerebrospinal fluid specimens ...
Pavel S - - 1980
Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from healthy newborns, infants, and children of both sexes between 23-777 days of age. Bioassay of the CSF revealed relatively high antidiuretic and hydroosmotic activities. Rat uterine activities could be detected only in the CSF of newborns, and these activities were increased in the ...
Whitney R R - - 1980
Procedures for evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in an infant rat model of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis were developed. The results of efficacy studies with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefamandole, cefoxitin, and SQ 13,426 were compared to activity in vitro. While most of the drugs tested were very active against the two ...
Maguire G F - - 1979
Organisms causing community-acquired meningitis in the first four months of life were reviewed. Species of Streptococcus and Enterobacteriaceae were preponderant in the neonatal period, whereas S pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were preponderant after the first month of life. The Enterobacteriaceae, other than Salmonella, were not associated with meningitis after one ...
Stechenberg B W - - 1979
Countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis was used for the detection of group- and type-specific antigens in the body fluids of 61 infants from St. Louis and Indiana with group B streptococcal infections. Urine concentrated using an Amicon filter yielded the highest percentage of positive results; 81% were positive in the St Louis group. ...
Hoekelman R - - 1979
The potential consequences of bacteremia are considerable in all infants but particularly in those from 3 to 24 months of age with temperatures of 38.3 degrees C or more. Physicians have been advised to scrutinize these patients carefully with a variety of diagnostic tests and to treat their conditions vigorously ...
Gelmers H J - - 1979
The adverse side effects in a series of 439 myelographies with metrizamide were analyzed. The most frequent side effect was headache, which could be differentiated as early onset headache, related to hydrodynamic modifications in the spinal fluid following lumbar puncture, and late onset headache related to a metrizamide effect. The ...
Schreiner R L - - 1979
The incidence of non-traumatic, traumatic and unsuccessful lumbar punctures in 181 neonates was similar whether a needle with a stylet, a butterfly needle without stylet, or a standard venipuncture needle without stylet was used. Comparison of 20 lumbar puncture pairs in 17 patients showed that traumatic lumbar puncture does not ...
Siemes H - - 1979
CSF of a 4-month-old boy with prolonged, meningococcal meningitis revealed oligoclonal immunoglobulin G about 10 weeks after hospital admission. These proteins persisted for at least 4 months. In contrast to this child, a further 10 infants and young children with bacterial meningitis, whose CSF was examined between 4 weeks and ...
Sharma A K - - 1979
Spermatocrit values of the epididymal fluid were determined in 8 buffalo-bulls by micropuncture technique. The spermatocrit index in caput and cauda epididymidis was 42.63 +/- 0.79 and 56.13 +/- 0.94 per cent respectively. Based on this study it was calculated that 13.5 per cent of the fluid is resorbed between ...
Greene G R - - 1978
A 4-month-old female infant with meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type f had a hospital course complicated by sterile subdural effusions and persistent neurologic abnormalities. One year later she was normal in all respects. The infant's mother had serum bactericidal antibodies to H. influenzae type b but not to type ...
Quinn R J - - 1978
This report describes a case of meningitis caused by a Lancefield group C streptococcus (Streptococcus dysgalactiae) in a 9-week-old infant. Bacteria of this group rarely cause serious infections in man. The organism was identified as a member of Lancefield group C by the acid extraction method and as S. dysgalactiae ...
Chesney P J - - 1978
Meningitis due to Candida albicans was successfully treated in a 1.1 kg premature infant using combined antifungal therapy of amphotericin B for three weeks and 5-fluorocytosine for four months. Hydrocephalus and profound psychomotor retardation were present one year later. Psychomotor retardation, aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus were found to be common ...
Adams H - - 1978
The clinical presentation, bacteriological results, treatment, and outcome of Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in a newborn infant are described. The neonatal listeriosis was of the late-onset variety, and the infant survived the infection, but hydrocephalus, which necessitated operative relief, developed. Although 2 cases of Listeria meningitis have previously been described in ...
Wilfert C M - - 1978
It is clear from the preceding material that bacterial infection is a significant threat to the newborn infant. The most common gram-negative organism causing meningitis in the neonate is E. coli, and the invasive capacity of this organism is correlated with its polysaccharide antigen, K1. Careful studies of supportive care ...
Lilien L D - - 1978
Candida albicans meningitis was diagnosed in a 45-day-old premature infant whose birth weight was 1,616 gm. Symptoms consisted of poor weight gain and poor suckling. The combined use of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) resulted in negative CSF cultures after 12 days of therapy. Amphotericin B was given for 45 ...
Takashima S - - 1978
Using microangiography combined with benzidine stains, we studied the development of vessels in the meninges, cortex, and white matter in 30 neonates, 16 infants and children, and eight neonates with periventricular leukomalacia. The vessels of the deep white matter, especially the ventriculofugal arteries, are useful as an index of cerebrovascular ...
Lee E L - - 1977
All of 16 infants with neonatal meningitis treated during a 30-month period were found to have accompanying ventriculitis at the time of the initial ventricular puncture. Fifteen of these infants were caused by gramm-negative organisms. All infants received antibiotics systemically and intraventricularly via an implanted ventriculostomy reservoir or by direct ...
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