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Ryczko B - - 1988
Spontaneous (congenital) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is a rare occurrence with less than 100 cases being reported in the literature. In infants and children, it may present as otitis media with effusion. A 4-month-old infant, who was diagnosed with severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment and spontaneous CSF otorrhea, initially ...
Kaplan S L - - 1988
The mechanism(s) by which the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae type b may contribute to the virulence of this organism is unclear. Purified LPS of Haemophilus influenzae type b or phosphate buffered saline was administered intranasally to infant rats prior to the intranasal instillation of approximately 2-20 x 10(6) cfu ...
Mueller R A - - 1988
1. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of head-injured patients reveals that the concentration of intraventricular xanthine is elevated and that of uridine is decreased relative to those of adult lumbar CSF. 2. No correlations were observed between CSF lactate and CSF hypoxanthine, xanthine, or uridine, suggesting that changes in ...
Shohat M - - 1988
We studied 25 infants aged less than 9 months who were diagnosed as having nonpolio enteroviral meningitis (EM) confirmed by virus isolation from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF protein, glucose and cellular content in these infants was compared with that of 125 age-matched febrile infants without cerebromeningeal illness. In order to ...
Greiner J - - 1988
To verify the reliability of secretor status for prenatal diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy (DM), 179 amniotic fluid samples were compared with saliva or urine samples of the infants by hemagglutination inhibition. While no discrepancies were observed, problems could arise with intermediate results. Additionally, secretor typing is only informative in 8.4% ...
Mochizuki H - - 1988
In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities and pharmacokinetics of M14659 were investigated. In vitro activity of M14659 was superior to that of ceftazidime against Staphylococcus aureus. Against Gram-negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its activity was almost equal to that of ceftazidime. M14659 was more active against P. aeruginosa including ...
Jacobs R F - - 1988
18 infants and children (1 week to 3 months of age) were treated with cefotaxime 200 mg/kg/day for Gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis. 17 of these patients (94.4%) survived, with a complication rate of 23.5% (4/17 patients). The follow-up cerebrospinal fluid cultures at 24 hours were sterile in all patients. Cefotaxime ...
Karma P H - - 1987
The middle ear fluid (MEF) bacteriology of 107 attacks of acute otitis media (AOM) in 101 infants less than 3 months old was analyzed. A total of 108 bacteria were isolated from 85 attacks. Major AOM-pathogens, S. pneumoniae (19%), H. influenzae (9%) or B. catarrhalis (7%) were cultured in approximately ...
Arimoto S - - 1987
We have shown in our earlier reports (Arimoto et al., 1980a, b) that hemin and some other porphyrins can inhibit the mutagenicity in Salmonella of heterocyclic amines derived from cooking of proteins. A direct interaction between hemin and the mutagens was implicated on the basis of the observation that some ...
King J C JC - - 1987
We evaluated fever in 342 hospitalized infants less than 8 weeks of age. Sixteen infants (5%) had bacteremia or bacterial meningitis. Fifty-two percent of the infants were admitted during the months of July through September. We found no significant relationship between season, sex, height of fever, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate ...
Harrison C J - - 1987
The epidemiology, microbiology and clinical outcome of the conjunctivitis-otitis syndrome (CJ-AOM) was investigated in a rural private practice concurrent to a double blind placebo-controlled study of orally administered amoxicillin for prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) secondary to conjunctivitis. Bacterial pathogens were isolated when greater than 15 polymorphonuclear leukocytes/high power ...
Schlesinger L S - - 1987
In an effort to ascertain important epidemiologic and prognostic risk factors, we analyzed 33 cases of Staphylococcus aureus meningitis occurring over an 8-year period (1976 to 1984). Staphylococcus aureus caused 6% of all bacterial meningitis at our University Hospital. Fifty percent of cases were pediatric and included 7 newborn infants, ...
Bennhagen R - - 1987
A nationwide retrospective epidemiological survey of neonatal meningitis in Sweden was performed in order to estimate possible changes in incidence, etiology and mortality. The total number of newborns with meningitis was 137 and 40 (29%) were preterm (less than 37 gestational weeks) infants and 27 of these preterm boys (20%). ...
Lin F C - - 1987
Between February and June, 1983, four cases of Citrobacter diversus neonatal meningitis were identified at a suburban Baltimore hospital. One of the 4 infants died at age 13 months, 2 (both of whom had brain abscesses) have evidence of developmental delay and 1 appears to be normal after 33 months ...
Hall J E - - 1987
Amphotericin B (Amp-B) serum concentrations were determined in five infants with disseminated candidiasis. All patients had positive blood cultures for Candida and one patient had Candida albicans meningitis. Amp-B sterilized the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid within four to nine days. Total doses of Amp-B varied from 11.6-62.3 mg. There ...
Mushinsky R F - - 1986
Compatibility studies were conducted of sulbactam/ampicillin in infusion diluents that are reported to be compatible with ampicillin sodium. A high-performance liquid chromatographic system that simultaneously detects sulbactam and ampicillin was used to determine whether the infusion diluents and the conditions of use recommended for ampicillin sodium are applicable to sulbactam/ampicillin. ...
Loughran C F - - 1986
A comparative trial of ioxaglate sodium meglumine and iopamidol in excretory urography was undertaken. The study failed to demonstrate any statistically significant differences between the two media in terms of urographic quality. Diagnostically adequate urograms were obtained in 92.6% of patients receiving ioxaglate and 89.6% of patients receiving iopamidol. There ...
Ment L R - - 1986
Despite significant improvement in mortality rate, survivors of neonatal bacterial meningitis experience a significant incidence of neurodevelopmental sequelae. Neuropathologic studies have demonstrated vasculitis, arachnoiditis, and ventriculitis with secondary edema and encephalomalacia. Areas of cerebral infarction, most commonly thought to be venous in origin, have been reported as well. We performed ...
Javaheri S - - 1986
We hypothesized that, during isosmotic isonatremic HCl acidosis with maintained isocapnia in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), acetazolamide, by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the central nervous system (CNS), should produce an isonatric hyperchloric metabolic acidosis in CSF. Blood and CSF ions and acid-base variables were measured in two groups of ...
Goossens H - - 1986
In a nosocomial outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection 11 newborn infants (7 female, 4 male) had meningitis. The outbreak was caused by a single strain of C jejuni, as demonstrated by biotyping (biotype I), serotyping (LAU 7/PEN 18 on heat-stable antigens, a new serotype on heat-labile antigens), and the identical ...
Notterman D A - - 1986
In an 8-month-old infant with tuberculous meningitis treatment with isoniazid was unsuccessful and was associated with lower than expected plasma concentrations of isoniazid (measured concentration 0.1 microgram/mL). The infant had received isoniazid as a crushed tablet admixed with apple sauce. Oral administration of the parenteral solution of isoniazid (Nydrazid, Squibb) ...
Rennie J M - - 1986
6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha determinations were made by radioimmunoassay on samples of cerebrospinal fluid from 41 neonates. Levels were below the smallest quantity detectable (50 pg/ml) in 29 and greater than 200 pg/ml in only 3 babies. These results suggest that 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha is not a major prostaglandin in the ...
Kuramoto S - - 1986
Non-invasive measurement of the intracranial pressure (ICP) via the anterior fontanelle by using an applanation transducer has been performed. Recently, a new fontanometer using an applanation transducer has been developed in our department by improving the conventional Statham transducer, P-50 which is currently accepted for its high reliability. In this ...
Wynder S G - - 1986
Uvulitis and Hemophilus influenzae b (HIb) bacteremia occurred in two infants. Uvulitis may be associated with HIb bacteremia, with or without epiglottitis. An acutely inflamed uvula in a febrile infant should alert the physician to the possibility of HIb bacteremia and potentially serious sequelae. Hospitalization and parenteral antibiotic therapy are ...
Beckwith D G - - 1986
A 4-week-old female was hospitalized because of vomiting, irritability, and nuchal rigidity. A spinal fluid culture yielded Corynebacterium aquaticum. The diagnosis of C. aquaticum meningitis in this infant was supported by the following cerebrospinal fluid findings: Gram stain, elevated protein, hypoglycorrhachia, positive C-reactive protein, and polymorphonuclear leukocytosis. Antigen studies for ...
Costarino A - - 1986
In this article, the authors introduce the concept of a transitional physiology which governs fluid and electrolyte balance in the immediate postnatal period. The important impact of the extrauterine environment on fluid balance is also discussed. Finally, the pathophysiology of diuresis in RDS, and fluid shifts in the VLBW infant ...
Goodwin M A - - 1985
Brilliant pigment powder was used to measure minimum gastrointestinal transit times (GTT) in control and cloned-reovirus-inoculated turkey poults. Compared with controls, inoculated poults had longer GTT at 120 hr (P less than 0.05) but not at 24 and 72 hr after receiving a single oral dose of cloned reovirus. Reovirus ...
Tauxe R V - - 1985
After the Puerto Rico Department of Health received a report of salmonellosis in an infant who had contact with a pet turtle, we conducted a case-control study in two urban areas in Puerto Rico to measure the extent of pet turtle-associated salmonellosis there. Ten (17%) of 60 infants with salmonellosis ...
Rahbar F - - 1985
A two-day-old black male term infant developed meningitis due to Hemophilus para-influenzae, a rare cause of neonatal meningitis. The organism was sensitive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Of interest was that the mother had the same organism in her cervix. The need for prompt investigation and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy ...
Omene J A - - 1985
In a prospective study of high-risk newborn infants, the specificity and sensitivity of CSF/blood glucose ratio were studied in 35 newborn infants with meningitis and 100 high-risk neonates without meningitis. High CSF/blood glucose ratios of 0.93 (0.17) (Mean (S.D.) ) for preterm infants and 0.96 (0.30) (Mean (S.D.) ) for ...
Meade R H RH - - 1985
Meningitis occurs more often in the neonatal period than at any other time of life. It is often the result of maternal infection and occurs more often in the prematurely born infant and in those born after prolonged rupture of the membranes. Even with early treatment, the chance for survival ...
Massaro A R - - 1985
It has previously been demonstrated that both Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and S-100 are released in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during acute phases of exacerbation of the disease. In order to investigate the pathobiological significance of the release of these two proteins into the CSF, ...
Rotbart H A - - 1985
Twenty-three cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b septic arthritis seen over a recent 5-year period are reviewed. The natural history of the disease includes a mean three days of fever and joint symptoms prior to hospitalization, often accompanied or immediately preceded by a viral illness and/or otitis media. Concurrent H ...
Chan-Lui W Y - - 1985
A review and follow-up study of 21 Chinese infants who had pneumococcal meningitis showed a mortality of 23.8% and high morbidity in survivors. Severe meningitis and delay in treatment as reflected by the presence of coma, pneumonia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and lumbar CSF protein of over 368 mg% and glucose ...
Irons L I - - 1985
A competitive ELISA has been used to monitor the release of fimbriae from 1.2.3 serotype of B. pertussis after treatment by different methods and fimbriae have been purified from homogenates or KSCN extracts by chromatography. Fimbriae purified from different serotypes have been studied by inhibition of bacterial agglutination, immunodiffusion and ...
Speer C P - - 1985
Data were analyzed from 181 infants treated for neonatal septicemia and/or meningitis between 1962 and 1974 (n = 88) and between 1975 and 1982 (n = 93). In addition to an increase in the incidence of septicemia (1962 to 1974, 0.88 case/1000 live births (LB)/year; 1975 to 1982, 2.0 cases/1000 ...
Curless R G - - 1985
Collections of subdural fluid during the course of infant Hemophilus influenzae meningitis have been demonstrated in the past by routine subdural taps and, more recently, by computed tomography. While the fluid is usually a benign effusion, the clinical picture and CT pattern may suggest a subdural abscess (empyema) necessitating further ...
Mulder C J - - 1984
Bacteriological and clinical data on 132 children with neonatal meningitis caused by Escherichia coli were analyzed as a part of a larger study of bacterial meningitis undertaken between 1976 and 1982 in The Netherlands. Eighty-eight percent of the E. coli strains that were isolated carried the K1 capsular antigen. Most ...
Smego R A RA - - 1984
The course and outcome of combined treatment with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were analyzed in 17 patients with candida meningitis. Eleven patients were twelve months of age or younger; seven of these were neonates. All but two patients had underlying conditions or therapy that could predispose them to systemic candidiasis. ...
Gupta D R - - 1984
A new prenylated flavanone glycoside, nirurin, has been isolated from Phyllanthus nirurii. On the basis of chemical and spectral studies, its structure is proposed as 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) flavanone-5-O-rutinoside (1). The aglycone, also a new flavanone, has been characterized as 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) flavanone, which may be designated as nirurinetin (2).
Chattopadhyay B - - 1984
A fatal case of neonatal Haemophilus influenzae type b, septicaemia and meningitis is described. Although the mother was asymptomatic, maternal genital tract culture yielded H. influenzae which was indistinguishable from the strain found in the infant. Despite the rarity of this organism as a cause of neonatal sepsis, increased awareness ...
McCracken G H GH - - 1984
Moxalactam and ampicillin sodium therapy were compared with amikacin sulfate and ampicillin therapy for meningitis due to gram-negative enteric bacilli in 63 infants enrolled in the Third Neonatal Meningitis Cooperative Study. The population characteristics and causative organisms were comparable for the two treatment groups. Cultures of CSF were positive for ...
Fitzgerald P - - 1984
We have noted an increased incidence of Serratia species isolates in our Special Care Nursery recently and have reviewed our experience over the 7 year period from 1976 to 1982. Fifty newborn infants had strains of Serratia isolated, 30 of which were found in 1982. Two strains of Serratia species ...
Longe A C - - 1984
53 Nigerian infants with neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied. The striking features were: (a) the higher predisposition (26.7-fold) of LBW infants to developing meningitis than has been previously reported in the literature; (b) the predominant role of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus; and (c) the rarity of salmonella organisms and ...
Fisher R M - - 1984
Real-time ultrasonography was performed, utilising the patent anterior fontanelle, on 82 infants with viral or bacterial meningitis. One third of the cases had normal ultrasonic appearances. The other two thirds demonstrated abnormalities of the subdural space, parenchyma and ventricles. Ventricular dilatation was the commonest abnormality and was present in 57% ...
Marchant C D - - 1984
We determined the course of otitis media in a prospective, longitudinal study of infants who were enrolled at birth and followed to age 1 year. Bilateral chronic otitis media with effusion developed in eight of 24 (33%) with onset of otitis media before age 2 months, compared to two of ...
Peltola H - - 1984
Twenty-eight bacteriologically proved episodes of purulent meningitis in 27 infants and children were monitored prospectively with sequential determinations of serum C-reactive protein. Except in one rapidly fatal case, all the patients showed decreasing CRP values for about 1 week. In five patients the CRP values than returned to a high ...
Knoop F C - - 1984
The effect of lodoxamide tromethamine, a calcium antagonist, on intestinal fluid accumulation induced by Escherichia coli heat-stable (ST) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) enterotoxins in infant mice was investigated. The simultaneous administration of lodoxamide with ST or CT enterotoxin resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) inhibition of the intestinal ...
Law B J - - 1984
A model of overwhelming E. coli K1 sepsis and early meningitis was developed in infant rabbits and used to compare clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of ampicillin, moxalactam, cephalothin and chloramphenicol. Intraperitoneal injection of 10(7) E. coli K1 into 1- or 2-wk-old rabbits produced a rapidly progressive infection which, if left ...
Brown B S - - 1984
Five infants with meningitis and ventriculitis, and a sixth patient with meningitis only are reported. In one hydrocephalic infant, infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was not suspected until cerebral ultrasonography revealed features of ventriculitis. It appears that in non-communicating hydrocephalus managed with a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt, infection may ...
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