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Goossens H - - 1986
In a nosocomial outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni infection 11 newborn infants (7 female, 4 male) had meningitis. The outbreak was caused by a single strain of C jejuni, as demonstrated by biotyping (biotype I), serotyping (LAU 7/PEN 18 on heat-stable antigens, a new serotype on heat-labile antigens), and the identical ...
Notterman D A - - 1986
In an 8-month-old infant with tuberculous meningitis treatment with isoniazid was unsuccessful and was associated with lower than expected plasma concentrations of isoniazid (measured concentration 0.1 microgram/mL). The infant had received isoniazid as a crushed tablet admixed with apple sauce. Oral administration of the parenteral solution of isoniazid (Nydrazid, Squibb) ...
Rennie J M - - 1986
6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha determinations were made by radioimmunoassay on samples of cerebrospinal fluid from 41 neonates. Levels were below the smallest quantity detectable (50 pg/ml) in 29 and greater than 200 pg/ml in only 3 babies. These results suggest that 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha is not a major prostaglandin in the ...
Kuramoto S - - 1986
Non-invasive measurement of the intracranial pressure (ICP) via the anterior fontanelle by using an applanation transducer has been performed. Recently, a new fontanometer using an applanation transducer has been developed in our department by improving the conventional Statham transducer, P-50 which is currently accepted for its high reliability. In this ...
Wynder S G - - 1986
Uvulitis and Hemophilus influenzae b (HIb) bacteremia occurred in two infants. Uvulitis may be associated with HIb bacteremia, with or without epiglottitis. An acutely inflamed uvula in a febrile infant should alert the physician to the possibility of HIb bacteremia and potentially serious sequelae. Hospitalization and parenteral antibiotic therapy are ...
Beckwith D G - - 1986
A 4-week-old female was hospitalized because of vomiting, irritability, and nuchal rigidity. A spinal fluid culture yielded Corynebacterium aquaticum. The diagnosis of C. aquaticum meningitis in this infant was supported by the following cerebrospinal fluid findings: Gram stain, elevated protein, hypoglycorrhachia, positive C-reactive protein, and polymorphonuclear leukocytosis. Antigen studies for ...
Costarino A - - 1986
In this article, the authors introduce the concept of a transitional physiology which governs fluid and electrolyte balance in the immediate postnatal period. The important impact of the extrauterine environment on fluid balance is also discussed. Finally, the pathophysiology of diuresis in RDS, and fluid shifts in the VLBW infant ...
Goodwin M A - - 1985
Brilliant pigment powder was used to measure minimum gastrointestinal transit times (GTT) in control and cloned-reovirus-inoculated turkey poults. Compared with controls, inoculated poults had longer GTT at 120 hr (P less than 0.05) but not at 24 and 72 hr after receiving a single oral dose of cloned reovirus. Reovirus ...
Tauxe R V - - 1985
After the Puerto Rico Department of Health received a report of salmonellosis in an infant who had contact with a pet turtle, we conducted a case-control study in two urban areas in Puerto Rico to measure the extent of pet turtle-associated salmonellosis there. Ten (17%) of 60 infants with salmonellosis ...
Rahbar F - - 1985
A two-day-old black male term infant developed meningitis due to Hemophilus para-influenzae, a rare cause of neonatal meningitis. The organism was sensitive to ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Of interest was that the mother had the same organism in her cervix. The need for prompt investigation and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy ...
Omene J A - - 1985
In a prospective study of high-risk newborn infants, the specificity and sensitivity of CSF/blood glucose ratio were studied in 35 newborn infants with meningitis and 100 high-risk neonates without meningitis. High CSF/blood glucose ratios of 0.93 (0.17) (Mean (S.D.) ) for preterm infants and 0.96 (0.30) (Mean (S.D.) ) for ...
Meade R H RH - - 1985
Meningitis occurs more often in the neonatal period than at any other time of life. It is often the result of maternal infection and occurs more often in the prematurely born infant and in those born after prolonged rupture of the membranes. Even with early treatment, the chance for survival ...
Massaro A R - - 1985
It has previously been demonstrated that both Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and S-100 are released in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients during acute phases of exacerbation of the disease. In order to investigate the pathobiological significance of the release of these two proteins into the CSF, ...
Rotbart H A - - 1985
Twenty-three cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b septic arthritis seen over a recent 5-year period are reviewed. The natural history of the disease includes a mean three days of fever and joint symptoms prior to hospitalization, often accompanied or immediately preceded by a viral illness and/or otitis media. Concurrent H ...
Chan-Lui W Y - - 1985
A review and follow-up study of 21 Chinese infants who had pneumococcal meningitis showed a mortality of 23.8% and high morbidity in survivors. Severe meningitis and delay in treatment as reflected by the presence of coma, pneumonia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and lumbar CSF protein of over 368 mg% and glucose ...
Irons L I - - 1985
A competitive ELISA has been used to monitor the release of fimbriae from 1.2.3 serotype of B. pertussis after treatment by different methods and fimbriae have been purified from homogenates or KSCN extracts by chromatography. Fimbriae purified from different serotypes have been studied by inhibition of bacterial agglutination, immunodiffusion and ...
Speer C P - - 1985
Data were analyzed from 181 infants treated for neonatal septicemia and/or meningitis between 1962 and 1974 (n = 88) and between 1975 and 1982 (n = 93). In addition to an increase in the incidence of septicemia (1962 to 1974, 0.88 case/1000 live births (LB)/year; 1975 to 1982, 2.0 cases/1000 ...
Curless R G - - 1985
Collections of subdural fluid during the course of infant Hemophilus influenzae meningitis have been demonstrated in the past by routine subdural taps and, more recently, by computed tomography. While the fluid is usually a benign effusion, the clinical picture and CT pattern may suggest a subdural abscess (empyema) necessitating further ...
Mulder C J - - 1984
Bacteriological and clinical data on 132 children with neonatal meningitis caused by Escherichia coli were analyzed as a part of a larger study of bacterial meningitis undertaken between 1976 and 1982 in The Netherlands. Eighty-eight percent of the E. coli strains that were isolated carried the K1 capsular antigen. Most ...
Smego R A RA - - 1984
The course and outcome of combined treatment with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were analyzed in 17 patients with candida meningitis. Eleven patients were twelve months of age or younger; seven of these were neonates. All but two patients had underlying conditions or therapy that could predispose them to systemic candidiasis. ...
Gupta D R - - 1984
A new prenylated flavanone glycoside, nirurin, has been isolated from Phyllanthus nirurii. On the basis of chemical and spectral studies, its structure is proposed as 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) flavanone-5-O-rutinoside (1). The aglycone, also a new flavanone, has been characterized as 5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) flavanone, which may be designated as nirurinetin (2).
Chattopadhyay B - - 1984
A fatal case of neonatal Haemophilus influenzae type b, septicaemia and meningitis is described. Although the mother was asymptomatic, maternal genital tract culture yielded H. influenzae which was indistinguishable from the strain found in the infant. Despite the rarity of this organism as a cause of neonatal sepsis, increased awareness ...
McCracken G H GH - - 1984
Moxalactam and ampicillin sodium therapy were compared with amikacin sulfate and ampicillin therapy for meningitis due to gram-negative enteric bacilli in 63 infants enrolled in the Third Neonatal Meningitis Cooperative Study. The population characteristics and causative organisms were comparable for the two treatment groups. Cultures of CSF were positive for ...
Fitzgerald P - - 1984
We have noted an increased incidence of Serratia species isolates in our Special Care Nursery recently and have reviewed our experience over the 7 year period from 1976 to 1982. Fifty newborn infants had strains of Serratia isolated, 30 of which were found in 1982. Two strains of Serratia species ...
Longe A C - - 1984
53 Nigerian infants with neonatal meningitis were prospectively studied. The striking features were: (a) the higher predisposition (26.7-fold) of LBW infants to developing meningitis than has been previously reported in the literature; (b) the predominant role of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus; and (c) the rarity of salmonella organisms and ...
Fisher R M - - 1984
Real-time ultrasonography was performed, utilising the patent anterior fontanelle, on 82 infants with viral or bacterial meningitis. One third of the cases had normal ultrasonic appearances. The other two thirds demonstrated abnormalities of the subdural space, parenchyma and ventricles. Ventricular dilatation was the commonest abnormality and was present in 57% ...
Marchant C D - - 1984
We determined the course of otitis media in a prospective, longitudinal study of infants who were enrolled at birth and followed to age 1 year. Bilateral chronic otitis media with effusion developed in eight of 24 (33%) with onset of otitis media before age 2 months, compared to two of ...
Peltola H - - 1984
Twenty-eight bacteriologically proved episodes of purulent meningitis in 27 infants and children were monitored prospectively with sequential determinations of serum C-reactive protein. Except in one rapidly fatal case, all the patients showed decreasing CRP values for about 1 week. In five patients the CRP values than returned to a high ...
Knoop F C - - 1984
The effect of lodoxamide tromethamine, a calcium antagonist, on intestinal fluid accumulation induced by Escherichia coli heat-stable (ST) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) enterotoxins in infant mice was investigated. The simultaneous administration of lodoxamide with ST or CT enterotoxin resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) inhibition of the intestinal ...
Law B J - - 1984
A model of overwhelming E. coli K1 sepsis and early meningitis was developed in infant rabbits and used to compare clinical and bacteriologic efficacy of ampicillin, moxalactam, cephalothin and chloramphenicol. Intraperitoneal injection of 10(7) E. coli K1 into 1- or 2-wk-old rabbits produced a rapidly progressive infection which, if left ...
Brown B S - - 1984
Five infants with meningitis and ventriculitis, and a sixth patient with meningitis only are reported. In one hydrocephalic infant, infection of the central nervous system (CNS) was not suspected until cerebral ultrasonography revealed features of ventriculitis. It appears that in non-communicating hydrocephalus managed with a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt, infection may ...
Berant M - - 1984
Three young infants with protracted diarrhea and malnutrition were successfully treated by means of intravenous nutrition, which included infusions of fat emulsion (Intralipid) and of fresh frozen plasma. Three to five weeks after termination of intravenous feeding, and after full recovery, they developed pneumococcal septicemia and meningitis. One infant died, ...
Sutter V L - - 1984
The human mouth provides a suitable habitat for numerous bacterial genera. Anaerobic genera or genera that include anaerobic members found in the oral cavity are Actinomyces, Arachnia, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Lactobacillus, Leptotrichia, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium, Selenomonas, Treponema, and Veillonella. The incidence of anaerobes varies with age of the individual ...
Michelsson K - - 1984
Altogether 248 cries from 62 infants with hydrocephalus were analysed by sound spectrography: 92 cries from infants with congenital hydrocephalus and 52 cries from each of the groups with cerebral malformations, hydrocephalus as sequelae of meningitis, and after closure of a meningomyelocele. The cries were compared with 104 cries of ...
Hutchison C P - - 1984
A 27-year-old woman died from pneumococcal meningitis associated with pneumococcal endometritis two days after being delivered of a .1.75-kg infant. The infant also had pneumococcal septicemia and died six days after birth. The pneumococcus isolated from the mother and the baby was type 8. The membranes had ruptured 21 hours ...
Klein J O - - 1984
The current incidence of neonatal sepsis in the United States varies from less than 1 to 8.1 per 1000 live births. The incidence of bacterial meningitis is about one-third of the number of infants with sepsis. The mortality is 20 to 30% and many survivors are severely impaired. Group B ...
Schaad U B - - 1984
The new cephalosporin compounds have increased in vitro activity against gram-negative enteric bacilli and penetrate well into cerebrospinal fluid. Moreover, their pharmacokinetic properties are favorable and their safety seems adequate, although insufficiently evaluated to date. Interest has been focused on them as therapeutic agents for neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused ...
Placzek M - - 1983
Seventy infants with suspected bacterial infection in the first 48 hours of life were treated either with piperacillin and flucloxacillin or with penicillin and gentamicin. Infection was confirmed and successfully eradicated in 6 of the 35 infants receiving piperacillin and flucloxacillin. Four infants treated with penicillin and gentamicin had confirmed ...
DeAngelis C - - 1983
We identified, by diagnostic categories, the iatrogenic and financial costs that arise from hospitalizing febrile infants 60 days of age or younger. Thirty-seven (19.5%) of all admissions resulted in 48 separate complications. Twenty-nine (60.4%) of these complications were preventable, and six complications (12.5%) occurred in infants who probably did not ...
San Joaquin V H - - 1983
A suitable model of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis will facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology, therapy, and prevention of the disease and its sequelae. Bacteremia and meningitis were induced in infant New Zealand white rabbits by intranasal inoculation of H. influenzae type b. Intranasal trypsin prior to challenge significantly increased (p ...
Enzenauer R W - - 1983
The bacterial cause of purulent meningitis in patients younger than 2 months of age was reviewed. Hemophilus influenzae was the most common organism isolated from infants 1 to 2 months of age. Gram-negative enteric organisms were not shown to cause meningitis in this age group in term infants without neonatal ...
Raucher H S - - 1983
During 1981, we treated 20 infants, less than 24 months old, for nontyphoid Salmonella (NTSal) gastroenteritis (GE). Blood cultures were obtained in 17 cases, and Salmonella bacteremia was demonstrated in 8 (47%). Of the 13 children 3 to 24 months of age, 7 (54%) had positive blood cultures. One child ...
Naqvi S H - - 1983
We reviewed medical records of 155 pediatric patients whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples contained an increased proportion of neutrophils when processed by cytocentrifugation, despite normal CSF total white blood cell count. It was determined that these CSF findings occurred more commonly in patients with bacteremia, peripheral leukocytosis, and increased numbers ...
Kuo C C - - 1983
The immunotype distribution of 493 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates from 467 adults and 26 infants in the Seattle area from 1965 to 1982 is presented. All except one of the isolates from adults were from the genitourinary tract, rectum, or bubo. The proportions of each immunotype were ED, 46.5%; GF, 24.6%; ...
Rosenfeld W N - - 1983
The pharmacokinetics of cefoperazone were evaluated in 28 newborn infants who were being treated for sepsis. A dose of 50 mg/kg was administered intravenously on days 0 to 2 in all, with a second dose administered on days 5 to 7 in 14 infants. Cerebrospinal fluid penetration was also studied ...
MacMahon P - - 1983
Three hyponatraemic infants had post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus which was treated by repeated drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. Each required oral sodium supplements. The concentration of sodium in the cerebrospinal fluid was such that as much as 3 mmol of sodium could have been removed with each ventricular tap. Serum sodium concentrations should ...
Murphy T V - - 1983
Five infants enrolled in a day care center (DCC) developed invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b during a 25-week period. The isolates from four patients had identical outer membrane proteins and were biotype 1. Although rifampin prophylaxis was recommended on two different occasions, retrospective surveys demonstrated that 39 ...
Rosenberg H K - - 1983
Twenty-three infants with clinically proven bacterial meningitis were studied with real-time cranial sonography at the time of initial diagnosis and in several cases subsequently. A spectrum of sonographic abnormalities was observed, including bright convolutional markings, focal or diffuse increased and/or decreased parenchymal echoes, ventricular debris, and hydrocephalus. In three infants ...
Fraser J J JJ - - 1983
We have reported a case of septicemia and meningitis due to alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus in a 5-day-old infant. The microbiologic and clinical characteristics of neonatal infection with this organism lead us to conclude that this bacterium can be pathogenic in the newborn and should not be dismissed as a contaminant.
Hildebrand W L - - 1983
Lumbar puncture is indicated in any infant with symptoms suggestive of meningitis (seizures, intractable vomiting and unexplained fever) and in the evaluation of neonatal intracranial bleeding. The infant must be held firmly in the lateral decubitus or sitting position. Under sterile conditions, a 22- to 25-gauge needle is inserted into ...
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