Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 521
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Carroll K J - - 1994
During the period August 1988-July 1991 all cases of bacterial meningitis admitted to Lenakel Hospital on the island of Tanna in Vanuatu were followed. During this period there were 83 cases of purulent meningitis giving an annual incidence of 134 per 100,000 population. There were 13 deaths during the acute ...
Edelbroek M A - - 1994
A previously healthy 1-year-old infant was admitted with pyrexia and mild gastro-intestinal symptoms. A blood culture, taken on admission, showed growth of Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4b) on the 3rd day, at which time a lumbar puncture revealed a listeric meningitis. Despite the delay of antibiotic treatment, the infant never showed ...
Jafari H S - - 1994
With improved understanding of the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis, a number of points in the deleterious inflammatory cascade have been identified as possible sites for modulation. Dexamethasone attenuates tissue injury by inhibiting host mediators at several steps in the inflammatory process. Dexamethasone therapy initiated just before or simultaneously with the ...
Bonadio W A - - 1994
We reviewed 356 consecutive cases of febrile infants aged 8 to 12 weeks who received outpatient evaluation for sepsis over 4 years. Thirty-three infants (9.3%) had a serious bacterial infection (SBI), including bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI), and Salmonella enteritis. The SBI rate, which was directly proportional to ...
Kavaliotis J - - 1994
The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings in 8 cases of meningitis due to non-typhoid salmonella were analyzed. Seven out of 8 patients were infants < 12 months old, 2 of whom died, 2 presented with recurrent meningitis. Three infants had reversible neurological sequelae on discharge, not found during follow-up in ...
Weisse M E - - 1993
A premature infant with disseminated Candida tropicalis infection with arthritis and osteomyelitis is presented. Although the organism was susceptible to amphotericin B, synovial fluid cultures were still positive for yeast after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B therapy. The addition of oral flucytosine (25 mg/kg four times daily) resulted in ...
Lenaerts M - - 1993
We compared the incidence of post-lumbar puncture headache and of red blood cells in the first CSF sample (traumatic tap) in 35 inpatients punctured with a standard 20 G Yale needle and in 26 patients punctured with Sprotte's "atraumatic" needle. No significant difference was found between the two groups in ...
Hristeva L - - 1993
Neonatal meningitis is a serious problem with a high mortality and frequent neurological sequelae. The incidence of neonatal meningitis was calculated and the aetiology, clinical and laboratory features, and the treatment of cases recorded prospectively over a 7 year 8 month period was documented. It was further investigated whether secondary ...
Hoberman A - - 1993
Urinary tract infection (UTI), a relatively common cause of fever in infancy, usually consists of pyelonephritis and may cause permanent renal damage. This study assessed (1) the prevalence of UTI in febrile infants (temperature > or = 38.3 degrees C) with differing demographic and clinical characteristics and (2) the usefulness ...
Bannister C M - - 1993
After a difficult nasal intubation a premature infant leaked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one nostril. After developing bacterial meningitis, the baby was referred for neurosurgical management of the CSF fistula. Transaxial computed tomograms demonstrated a nasal encephalocele, but coronal scans were needed to show the defect in the cribriform plate.
Haimi-Cohen Y - - 1993
Citrobacter diversus is a cause of severe meningitis in neonates and infants. It is unique in its propensity to produce brain abscesses that play an important role in the poor prognosis associated with this condition. The recommended therapeutic regimen of third-generation cephalosporines, aminoglycosides and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is usually disappointing. We describe ...
Nuuja T - - 1993
The present study was made to investigate the effect of xylitol on the bactericidal and bacteriostatic action of chlorohexidine diacetate (CHX) and sodium fluoride (F) in ATCC strains of Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguis. Standardized bacterial cell suspensions were used in tests for bactericidal effect and for inhibition of growth ...
Sener R N - - 1993
Acute epidural haematomas are less commonly seen in children than in adults, and are even rarer in infants. On CT these haematomas sometimes show hypodense bubbles, an appearance the interpretation of which has been a matter of controversy. Identification of the origin of the bleeding--whether from torn dural sinuses or ...
Leonardi G P - - 1993
An outbreak of echovirus type 30, primarily affecting infant under 1 year old, was documented in Nassau County, N.Y., USA. Twenty-four of the 40 infected patients were definitively diagnosed with aseptic meningitis. A positive correlation was found between the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the overall cerebrospinal fluid white cell ...
al Hazzaa S A - - 1992
Endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis in infants is uncommon. We recently examined and treated an infant who presented with pink hypopyon which followed a Serratia marcescens septicaemia. Culture of the aspirate from the anterior chamber showed no red blood cells, and grew Serratia marcescens, which was also isolated from the tip of ...
McCracken G H - - 1992
Predisposing conditions for acute bacterial meningitis include prematurity, young age, management in an intensive care setting, low socioeconomic background, and crowded living conditions. Clinical findings vary with age and may be nonspecific (altered feeding behavior) or specific (Kernig and Brudzinski signs). Examination and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are essential ...
Perlman J M - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and sonographic features of late-onset meningitis (after 7 days of life) in sick, very-low-birth-weight infants. DESIGN: Retrospective study of a patient series. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care nursery at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas, Tex. PARTICIPANTS: Ten preterm infants with birth weights of more than 1750 ...
Greenwood D - - 1992
Quinine, an alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree was brought to Europe from Peru in the 17th century. Isolation of quinine and other cinchona alkaloids was achieved in France in the early part of the 19th century and uncertainties of supply of the bark stimulated efforts to ...
Johnson G M - - 1992
Laboratory criteria used for presumptive diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis were evaluated as predictors of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infection. Records were retrospectively analysed of infants under four months of age admitted to hospital between 1977 and 1987 with viral CSF cultures: those with enteroviruses isolated from CSF (group 1) were compared ...
Morooka T - - 1992
We experienced a nosocomial outbreak of Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (C. fetus) meningitis in a neonatal intensive care unit. A cluster of three infants developed meningitis approximately 1-1.5 months after the index patient was admitted. Two asymptomatic intestinal carriers of C. fetus were detected during the outbreak. Our experience indicates ...
Anagnostakis D - - 1992
The assessment of the blood-brain barrier permeability (BBBP) showed that BBBP values were higher in stressed neonates and those with bacterial meningitis than in "healthy" infants or neonates with aseptic meningitis. The BBBP determination may be helpful in differentiating bacterial from aseptic meningitis; the high BBBP should be considered in ...
Sayama M - - 1992
1. Metabolites produced by the incubation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 98/1,8-DNP6 and TA 98NR were examined. Mutagenicities of bacterial products and related compounds were also examined in the Ames assay using TA 98 and TA 100. 2. 2,6-DNT was converted to 2-nitroso-6-nitrotoluene, 2-hydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene and ...
Franco S M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term outcome of neonatal bacterial meningitis and the relationship between the outcome and specific features in the acute stage of the disease; and to compare the outcome between infants with neonatal meningitis and high-risk infants without meningitis. DESIGN: Prospective clinical evaluations of 21 survivors of meningitis ...
Shattuck K E - - 1992
One hundred seventy-seven cases of neonatal meningitis treated at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston over a 15-year period (1974-1988) were reviewed. Over this period, the incidence of bacterial meningitis decreased, the incidence of aseptic meningitis remained stable, and the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis increased in frequency. During ...
Tullus K - - 1992
Possession of P fimbriae, virulence-associated O and K antigens, haemolysin and aerobactin production, and susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents were studied in 63 Escherichia coli strains isolated from blood or CSF of infants who were grouped according to their clinical characteristics. These isolates were compared with 35 faecal E. coli ...
Francis B M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To identify incidence, bacterial aetiology, outcome after treatment and risk factors for poor outcome of neonatal meningitis. DESIGN: Retrospective survey of neonatal meningitis occurring in Australia between January 1987 and December 1989. Data were obtained from Medical Records and Microbiology Departments of hospitals with neonatal nurseries. SETTING: Neonatal nurseries ...
Könönen E - - 1992
The occurrence of oral gram-negative anaerobes was examined in 30 edentulous infants (mean age 3 months, range 1-7 months). One pooled swab sample from mucosal surfaces (cheeks, palate, tongue) and one saliva sample was taken from each infant. The samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically using non-selective and selective media. ...
Jaber L - - 1992
A relationship between teething and fever was sought by examining mothers' reports of the 20 days before the eruption of the first tooth in 46 healthy infants. Twenty infants had a fever of greater than 37.5 degrees C on day 0 compared with seven infants (or fewer) from day 19 ...
Walsh M M - - 1992
There is widespread textural evidence for microbial activity in the cherts of the Early Archean Onverwacht Group. Layers with fine carbonaceous laminations resembling fossil microbial mats are abundant in the cherty metasediments of the predominantly basaltic Hooggenoeg and Kromberg Formations. In rare cases, filamentous microfossils are associated with the laminae. ...
Marks M I - - 1991
This report emphasizes new clinical information about bacterial meningitis in infants and children. Important elements of diagnosis include examination for the presence of shock and increased intracranial pressure. In such cases, initial treatment should focus on appropriate fluid therapy, administration of oxygen, reduction of intracranial pressure and use of corticosteroids. ...
Andreasen C B - - 1991
Heterophil function was evaluated in 16 healthy chickens and in 46 chickens with experimentally induced staphylococcal tenosynovitis. In paired blood samples, heterophils from chickens with tenosynovitis had a significant increase in adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing of Staphylococcus aureus compared to heterophils from healthy chickens. The percent adherence of ...
Zenker P N - - 1991
Few infants have been reported who survived fungal endocarditis; all have required both surgical and intensive antifungal therapy. We describe three infants, two weighing less than 1000 gm, who survived Candida endocarditis without surgery. Two had Candida parapsilosis, an agent not previously reported as a cause of neonatal endocarditis. All ...
Padilla G - - 1991
We measured urine vasopressin (VP) once daily on days 1 through 3 in 18 patients hospitalized with meningitis. Urine VP values were 215 +/- 100, 116 +/- 44, and 69 +/- 23 pg/mL on days 1 through 3, respectively, for children with bacterial meningitis and 34 +/- 14, 20 +/- ...
Chowdhary V - - 1991
Forty infants with proven pyogenic meningitis were evaluated by real time cranial sonography. A spectrum of sonographic abnormalities was observed which included echogenic sulci, focal or diffuse increase in parenchymal echoes, ventriculitis, ventriculomegaly with or without aqueductal block, subdural collection, parenchymal infarcts, abscess and subdural empyema. There were two infants ...
Wild D - - 1991
Azido-PhIP (2-azido-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and nitro-PhIP (2-nitro-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) have been synthesized and characterized chemically. The mutagenic potencies of azido-PhIP (with photoactivation by near UV irradiation), of nitro-PhIP (without exogenous activation) and of the heterocyclic amine PhIP (with activation by rat liver S9) were evaluated by means of the reversion assay in Salmonella typhimurium. ...
Dallal M M - - 1991
Aztreonam is a synthetic, monobactam antibiotic structurally related to the beta-lactam class of drugs. It has inhibitory activity against many aerobic gram-negative bacteria, although it does not inhibit gram-positive or anaerobic bacteria. Administration of aztreonam occasionally is associated with minimal and transient adverse effects. This case report describes a patient ...
de Louvois J - - 1991
A two year prospective study identified 1922 cases of meningitis in children under 1 year of age. A further 201 cases were identified from other sources. The annual incidence of meningitis during the first year of life was 1.6/1000; during the first 28 days of life it was 0.32/1000, and ...
Bahal N - - 1991
Bacterial meningitis continues to be a cause of substantial morbidity in infants and children. Hearing impairment is the most common sequela of this disease. Corticosteroids have been used in an attempt to reduce the incidence of meningitis-induced hearing loss. Some studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of hearing ...
Fyfe W M - - 1991
Thirty-one cases of neonatal listeriosis occurred in Scotland between 1 January 1987 and 31 August 1989. In each of these, Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or both. No case of neonatal listeriosis occurred between 1 September 1989 and 31 July 1990, a statistically significant difference in incidence ...
Denning D W - - 1991
A woman developed meningitis due to Neisseria lactamica in association with a cribriform plate fracture. Cerebrospinal fluid antigen tests for Neisseria meningitidis were negative. The patient recovered with intravenous penicillin therapy. N. lactamica can be rapidly distinguished from N. meningitidis by the hydrolysis of ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside). In contrast to N. ...
Tullus K - - 1991
Blood and CSF isolates (n = 629) from Swedish infants up to one year of age were tested in vitro against 13 antimicrobial agents in order to update the guidelines for empiric therapy of septicaemia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin provided inadequate empiric therapy for meningitis, due to the poor ...
Midha R - - 1991
An apneic and tetraplegic infant with an open lumbosacral myelomeningocele and an Arnold-Chiari malformation is reviewed. An exuberant chronic aseptic meningitis with foreign body giant cells and immunoreactive keratin was present around the spinal cord and brainstem. This paper discusses the recognition and role of granulomatous meningitis in the clinical ...
Yurdakök M - - 1992
An objective method to evaluate the erythrocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in traumatic tap is described. In newborn infants with intracranial bleeding the CSF mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values are lower than the peripheral blood MCV, but in patients with traumatic tap, the CSF and blood MCV values are similar.
Nathoo K J - - 1991
A 2-year review of neonatal meningitis was undertaken at a referral hospital in Zimbabwe to determine the pattern of bacterial isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid, the clinical presentation and the immediate outcome. During the study period, 94 cases were identified and the overall mortality was 41%. Group B Streptococcus was ...
Sáez-Llorens X - - 1990
A high index of suspicion of meningitis is needed when evaluating neonates and young infants because clinical findings can be minimal and are often subtle and nonspecific. Analysis of the CSF constitutes the most effective method to document meningeal bacterial infection, although overlap with normal CSF values can occur, especially ...
Anderson S G - - 1990
Twenty-four infants treated for neonatal Gram negative bacillary meningitis over a 10-year period were reviewed to determine the mortality and incidence of complications including relapse. Nine (37.5%) infants died; two survivors had major and 13 minimal or no handicap. Five (21%) infants had a relapse of meningitis after the initial ...
Levy M - - 1990
A retrospective review of charts for 650 children who had lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis was undertaken to determine the characteristics of patients with and without meningitis, identify other conditions suggesting meningitis, and evaluate the predictive value of signs and symptoms of meningitis. The incidence of positive lumbar punctures increased ...
Whittet H B - - 1990
Heterotopic brain tissue is a rare cause of symptoms in neonates in whom it may present with respiratory obstruction. In infants it may produce unilateral nasal obstruction due to a nasal 'polyp' or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea with an associated risk of meningitis. It is exceedingly rare in adults but may ...
White R P - - 1990
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 11 premature infants suffering from posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus was examined by radioimmunoassay for prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha, PGD2, 6-keto PGF1 alpha, thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and peptidoleukotrienes (LTC4/LTD4). The LTs were detected in the CSF of more of these patients (70%) than any of the other ...
Wasserman G M - - 1990
We reviewed records of 443 consecutive infants less than 3 months of age who were hospitalized during a 28-month period for complete evaluation of fever (rectal temperature greater than or equal to 38 degrees C), close observation and consideration of antimicrobial therapy. Infants less than 2 weeks of age were ...
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