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Results 301 - 350 of 495
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Könönen E - - 1992
The occurrence of oral gram-negative anaerobes was examined in 30 edentulous infants (mean age 3 months, range 1-7 months). One pooled swab sample from mucosal surfaces (cheeks, palate, tongue) and one saliva sample was taken from each infant. The samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically using non-selective and selective media. ...
Jaber L - - 1992
A relationship between teething and fever was sought by examining mothers' reports of the 20 days before the eruption of the first tooth in 46 healthy infants. Twenty infants had a fever of greater than 37.5 degrees C on day 0 compared with seven infants (or fewer) from day 19 ...
Walsh M M - - 1992
There is widespread textural evidence for microbial activity in the cherts of the Early Archean Onverwacht Group. Layers with fine carbonaceous laminations resembling fossil microbial mats are abundant in the cherty metasediments of the predominantly basaltic Hooggenoeg and Kromberg Formations. In rare cases, filamentous microfossils are associated with the laminae. ...
Marks M I - - 1991
This report emphasizes new clinical information about bacterial meningitis in infants and children. Important elements of diagnosis include examination for the presence of shock and increased intracranial pressure. In such cases, initial treatment should focus on appropriate fluid therapy, administration of oxygen, reduction of intracranial pressure and use of corticosteroids. ...
Andreasen C B - - 1991
Heterophil function was evaluated in 16 healthy chickens and in 46 chickens with experimentally induced staphylococcal tenosynovitis. In paired blood samples, heterophils from chickens with tenosynovitis had a significant increase in adherence, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing of Staphylococcus aureus compared to heterophils from healthy chickens. The percent adherence of ...
Zenker P N - - 1991
Few infants have been reported who survived fungal endocarditis; all have required both surgical and intensive antifungal therapy. We describe three infants, two weighing less than 1000 gm, who survived Candida endocarditis without surgery. Two had Candida parapsilosis, an agent not previously reported as a cause of neonatal endocarditis. All ...
Padilla G - - 1991
We measured urine vasopressin (VP) once daily on days 1 through 3 in 18 patients hospitalized with meningitis. Urine VP values were 215 +/- 100, 116 +/- 44, and 69 +/- 23 pg/mL on days 1 through 3, respectively, for children with bacterial meningitis and 34 +/- 14, 20 +/- ...
Chowdhary V - - 1991
Forty infants with proven pyogenic meningitis were evaluated by real time cranial sonography. A spectrum of sonographic abnormalities was observed which included echogenic sulci, focal or diffuse increase in parenchymal echoes, ventriculitis, ventriculomegaly with or without aqueductal block, subdural collection, parenchymal infarcts, abscess and subdural empyema. There were two infants ...
Wild D - - 1991
Azido-PhIP (2-azido-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and nitro-PhIP (2-nitro-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) have been synthesized and characterized chemically. The mutagenic potencies of azido-PhIP (with photoactivation by near UV irradiation), of nitro-PhIP (without exogenous activation) and of the heterocyclic amine PhIP (with activation by rat liver S9) were evaluated by means of the reversion assay in Salmonella typhimurium. ...
Dallal M M - - 1991
Aztreonam is a synthetic, monobactam antibiotic structurally related to the beta-lactam class of drugs. It has inhibitory activity against many aerobic gram-negative bacteria, although it does not inhibit gram-positive or anaerobic bacteria. Administration of aztreonam occasionally is associated with minimal and transient adverse effects. This case report describes a patient ...
de Louvois J - - 1991
A two year prospective study identified 1922 cases of meningitis in children under 1 year of age. A further 201 cases were identified from other sources. The annual incidence of meningitis during the first year of life was 1.6/1000; during the first 28 days of life it was 0.32/1000, and ...
Bahal N - - 1991
Bacterial meningitis continues to be a cause of substantial morbidity in infants and children. Hearing impairment is the most common sequela of this disease. Corticosteroids have been used in an attempt to reduce the incidence of meningitis-induced hearing loss. Some studies have demonstrated a decrease in the incidence of hearing ...
Fyfe W M - - 1991
Thirty-one cases of neonatal listeriosis occurred in Scotland between 1 January 1987 and 31 August 1989. In each of these, Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or both. No case of neonatal listeriosis occurred between 1 September 1989 and 31 July 1990, a statistically significant difference in incidence ...
Denning D W - - 1991
A woman developed meningitis due to Neisseria lactamica in association with a cribriform plate fracture. Cerebrospinal fluid antigen tests for Neisseria meningitidis were negative. The patient recovered with intravenous penicillin therapy. N. lactamica can be rapidly distinguished from N. meningitidis by the hydrolysis of ONPG (o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside). In contrast to N. ...
Tullus K - - 1991
Blood and CSF isolates (n = 629) from Swedish infants up to one year of age were tested in vitro against 13 antimicrobial agents in order to update the guidelines for empiric therapy of septicaemia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin provided inadequate empiric therapy for meningitis, due to the poor ...
Midha R - - 1991
An apneic and tetraplegic infant with an open lumbosacral myelomeningocele and an Arnold-Chiari malformation is reviewed. An exuberant chronic aseptic meningitis with foreign body giant cells and immunoreactive keratin was present around the spinal cord and brainstem. This paper discusses the recognition and role of granulomatous meningitis in the clinical ...
Yurdakök M - - 1992
An objective method to evaluate the erythrocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in traumatic tap is described. In newborn infants with intracranial bleeding the CSF mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values are lower than the peripheral blood MCV, but in patients with traumatic tap, the CSF and blood MCV values are similar.
Nathoo K J - - 1991
A 2-year review of neonatal meningitis was undertaken at a referral hospital in Zimbabwe to determine the pattern of bacterial isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid, the clinical presentation and the immediate outcome. During the study period, 94 cases were identified and the overall mortality was 41%. Group B Streptococcus was ...
Sáez-Llorens X - - 1990
A high index of suspicion of meningitis is needed when evaluating neonates and young infants because clinical findings can be minimal and are often subtle and nonspecific. Analysis of the CSF constitutes the most effective method to document meningeal bacterial infection, although overlap with normal CSF values can occur, especially ...
Anderson S G - - 1990
Twenty-four infants treated for neonatal Gram negative bacillary meningitis over a 10-year period were reviewed to determine the mortality and incidence of complications including relapse. Nine (37.5%) infants died; two survivors had major and 13 minimal or no handicap. Five (21%) infants had a relapse of meningitis after the initial ...
Levy M - - 1990
A retrospective review of charts for 650 children who had lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis was undertaken to determine the characteristics of patients with and without meningitis, identify other conditions suggesting meningitis, and evaluate the predictive value of signs and symptoms of meningitis. The incidence of positive lumbar punctures increased ...
Whittet H B - - 1990
Heterotopic brain tissue is a rare cause of symptoms in neonates in whom it may present with respiratory obstruction. In infants it may produce unilateral nasal obstruction due to a nasal 'polyp' or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea with an associated risk of meningitis. It is exceedingly rare in adults but may ...
White R P - - 1990
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 11 premature infants suffering from posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus was examined by radioimmunoassay for prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha, PGD2, 6-keto PGF1 alpha, thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and peptidoleukotrienes (LTC4/LTD4). The LTs were detected in the CSF of more of these patients (70%) than any of the other ...
Wasserman G M - - 1990
We reviewed records of 443 consecutive infants less than 3 months of age who were hospitalized during a 28-month period for complete evaluation of fever (rectal temperature greater than or equal to 38 degrees C), close observation and consideration of antimicrobial therapy. Infants less than 2 weeks of age were ...
Chay O M - - 1990
We present 4 neonates with enteroviral meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid findings were variable and posed a diagnostic problem. Immediate outcome was excellent and 3 of the 4 infants were normal at follow-up at 6 months of age. However long-term follow-up will be necessary to to determine any long-term sequelae.
Lisby-Sutch S M - - 1990
The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, complications and sequelae, and therapy of otitis media are reviewed. Otitis media is one of the most common infections in infants and children. Epidemiologic studies have identified season of the year, bottle versus breast feeding, socioeconomic status, race, sex, and daycare attendance as factors associated with ...
Fujihara S - - 1989
Polyamines in various root nodule bacteria including Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Rhizobium fredii, R. leguminosarum, R. meliloti and R. loti were identified by capillary gas chromatography. Homospermidine was the polyamine present in highest concentration in all the rhizobia tested. In addition to putrescine and homospermidine, fast-growing type of rhizobial cells contained a ...
Coovadia Y M - - 1989
All cases of bacterial meningitis in the neonatal unit at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban for the period 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1987 were reviewed. In particular, we looked at the impact of cefotaxime on mortality rates and amikacin on the incidence of hospital-acquired Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) meningitis. ...
Manjra A I AI Department of Paediatrics, University of Natal, - - 1989
Meningitis and ventriculitis in a 6-day-old neonate caused by a Gram-negative glucose-non-fermenting organism, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, was resistant to most antibiotics except ceftazidime and imipenem. The organism became resistant after 28 days treatment with ceftazidime. When the infant was 7 weeks old, imipenem became available but, in spite of 3 days ...
Lenoir P - - 1989
Candida albicans meningitis was found in an otherwise healthy 44-day-old premature infant whose birth weight was 1,860 gm. Almost no abnormal clinical or neurologic findings were present. The electroencephalogram, however, was abnormal. All previous body fluid cultures were negative. The combined use of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine resulted in negative ...
Mustafa M M - - 1989
Intraventricular gentamicin therapy in infants with gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis and ventriculitis is associated with increased mortality. Therefore, endotoxin, interleukin-1 beta, and cachectin (tumor necrosis factor) concentrations in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid from 21 infants (11 received intravenous antibiotics alone and 10 received intraventricular gentamicin also) were determined and correlated with ...
Bakheit A M - - 1989
A 69 year old female presented with eight discrete episodes of paraparesis over a period of six weeks. Each episode lasted between 10 and 30 minutes and resolved spontaneously. The cause of her symptoms was not established during life and at necropsy she was found to have granulomatous meningitis of ...
Platt M S - - 1989
We show that postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis is a common event. Postmortem cerebrospinal or ventricular fluid was obtained from children and adults. The cells were counted and morphologically characterized using several histochemical markers. Infants exhibit a brisk postmortem CSF pleocytosis. Sudden infant death cases have relatively high CSF counts. ...
Jacobs R F - - 1989
Pharmacokinetic studies on cefotaxime/desacetylcefotaxime were carried out in very low birth weight newborns (n = 18; 500-1500 g; 28.4 +/- 2.4 weeks gestational age) during the first week of life. We have previously reported that the elimination t 1/2 of cefotaxime (3.4-6.4 h) and desacetylcefotaxime (9.4 h) was longer than ...
Bonadio W A - - 1989
A retrospective study of 72 infants under four weeks of age with meningitis evaluated over almost four years was performed to determine the predictive value of the CBC differential ratio (% lymphocytes + % monocytes/% polymorphonuclear leukocytes + % band forms) profile in distinguishing those with bacterial from those with ...
Baker R C - - 1989
A prospective study of the effects of fever reduction on the clinical appearance of infants at risk for occult bacteremia was undertaken to study the hypothesis that infants with bacteremic illness fail to improve clinically following defervescence compared with infants with benign viral illness. A total of 154 children were ...
Gruskay J - - 1989
We identified 10 infants (mean +/- SD birth weight, 1000 +/- 500 g; gestation, 29 +/- 3 weeks; postnatal age, 24 +/- 19 days) who had Staphylococcus epidermidis meningitis despite unremarkable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) blood cell counts and glucose and protein levels. Staphylococcus epidermidis meningitis was diagnosed if all the ...
Kaplan S L - - 1989
Bacterial interstrain variation for cochlear invasion was studied by intraperitoneal inoculation of infant rats with Haemophilus influenzae type b. Eight pairs of CSF isolates from children with or without deafness due to meningitis were injected into half of each litter in separate experiments. At 48 h, quantitative CSF culture results ...
Mirro R - - 1989
Lumbar CSF eicosanoids were measured in 11 neonates with perinatal asphyxia and 12 neonates with suspected sepsis. In the asphyxia group low levels of thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin F2a were detected in five neonates, all of which had had a lumbar puncture prior to 4 hours of age. In the ...
Riddell M G - - 1989
Fifty-three zona pellucida-intact ova were collected surgically from superovulated, Brucella -free mixed-breed ewes. Groups containing two to seven ova were incubated in medium containing Brucella abortus . All groups of ova were then washed 10 times, and ova and sequential washes were cultured for the isolation of B. abortus . ...
McCracken G H GH - - 1989
Concentrations of interleukin 1-beta and tumor necrosis factor in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 42 neonates with Gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis were determined and correlated with outcome and other CSF indices. At the time of diagnosis interleukin 1-beta was detected in CSF of 40 infants and peak concentrations correlated significantly with ...
Bennet R - - 1989
The outcome of neonatal septicemia in 320 infants seen during 1969-83 has been evaluated. Mortality decreased from 27% to 12%. The incidence of moderate to severe handicaps in survivors remained unchanged at around 20%. Sixty percent of these handicapped children had meningitis or osteomyelitis, and many of these were healthy ...
Ryczko B - - 1988
Spontaneous (congenital) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) otorrhea is a rare occurrence with less than 100 cases being reported in the literature. In infants and children, it may present as otitis media with effusion. A 4-month-old infant, who was diagnosed with severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment and spontaneous CSF otorrhea, initially ...
Kaplan S L - - 1988
The mechanism(s) by which the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Haemophilus influenzae type b may contribute to the virulence of this organism is unclear. Purified LPS of Haemophilus influenzae type b or phosphate buffered saline was administered intranasally to infant rats prior to the intranasal instillation of approximately 2-20 x 10(6) cfu ...
Mueller R A - - 1988
1. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of head-injured patients reveals that the concentration of intraventricular xanthine is elevated and that of uridine is decreased relative to those of adult lumbar CSF. 2. No correlations were observed between CSF lactate and CSF hypoxanthine, xanthine, or uridine, suggesting that changes in ...
Shohat M - - 1988
We studied 25 infants aged less than 9 months who were diagnosed as having nonpolio enteroviral meningitis (EM) confirmed by virus isolation from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF protein, glucose and cellular content in these infants was compared with that of 125 age-matched febrile infants without cerebromeningeal illness. In order to ...
Greiner J - - 1988
To verify the reliability of secretor status for prenatal diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy (DM), 179 amniotic fluid samples were compared with saliva or urine samples of the infants by hemagglutination inhibition. While no discrepancies were observed, problems could arise with intermediate results. Additionally, secretor typing is only informative in 8.4% ...
Mochizuki H - - 1988
In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities and pharmacokinetics of M14659 were investigated. In vitro activity of M14659 was superior to that of ceftazidime against Staphylococcus aureus. Against Gram-negative bacteria except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its activity was almost equal to that of ceftazidime. M14659 was more active against P. aeruginosa including ...
Jacobs R F - - 1988
18 infants and children (1 week to 3 months of age) were treated with cefotaxime 200 mg/kg/day for Gram-negative enteric bacillary meningitis. 17 of these patients (94.4%) survived, with a complication rate of 23.5% (4/17 patients). The follow-up cerebrospinal fluid cultures at 24 hours were sterile in all patients. Cefotaxime ...
Karma P H - - 1987
The middle ear fluid (MEF) bacteriology of 107 attacks of acute otitis media (AOM) in 101 infants less than 3 months old was analyzed. A total of 108 bacteria were isolated from 85 attacks. Major AOM-pathogens, S. pneumoniae (19%), H. influenzae (9%) or B. catarrhalis (7%) were cultured in approximately ...
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