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Results 251 - 300 of 521
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Saladino R A - - 1997
We have developed a model of low-inoculum Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in infant rats. We challenged 4-day-old Sprague-Dawley pups via intraperitoneal or intrapulmonary injection of S. pneumoniae serotypes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6b, 7f, 9v, 14, 19f, and 23f. To achieve bacteremia with low inocula, it was necessary to passage the ...
Koç E - - 1997
Salmonella meningitis is a rare clinical entity that occurs mainly during early infancy. Treatment of Salmonella infections may be complicated by the bacteria's growing resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents, especially third-generation cephalosporins. A report is presented of a newborn infant with Salmonella meningitis who relapsed after 4 weeks of ...
Dyer J - - 1997
Citrobacter sedlakii was isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures of a 5-day-old premature infant with sepsis, meningitis, and brain abscess. This newly described organism was difficult to identify due to discrepancies between the Vitek and API 20E identification systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the ...
Heiskala H - - 1997
Corticotrophin (adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) and beta-endorphin levels of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were determined in 16 infants with the West syndrome during individualized ACTH treatment. Prior to treatment, the levels of CSF ACTH were significantly higher in infants with cryptogenic spasms, normal perinatal events, or normal development than in infants ...
Hayani K C - - 1997
A 3-week-old infant developed left shoulder swelling and was found to have septic arthritis and osteomyelitis of the humerus caused by Citrobacter koseri (formerly C. diversus). Citrobacter species are Gram-negative rods that are best known for their propensity to cause neonatal meningitis, ventriculitis and concomitant brain abscess. Non-central nervous system ...
Mu S C - - 1997
Invasive bacterial eye infections in the neonate range from perforating keratitis to endophthalmitis. Endophthalmitis secondary to Pseudomonas aeruginosa has gained clinical and therapeutic importance since mortality rates are high and prognosis concerning preservation of vision is poor, especially in premature infants. We presented two cases with meningitis, septicemia and P. ...
Ajayi O A - - 1997
To determine whether lumbar puncture is necessary in the evaluation of neonates with risk for infection or suspected sepsis in the first 72 hours of life, we reviewed the laboratory and medical records of 506 infants who had lumbar punctures between January 1988 and December 1990. Neonates < 72 hours ...
Juul S E - - 1997
Erythropoietin (Epo) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 80 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples to determine whether Epo is present in the CSF of infants, CSF Epo concentrations correlate with age, and CSF Epo concentrations correlate with Epo therapy. Epo was present in the CSF of normal neonates. CSF Epo ...
Nazarowec-White M - - 1997
Enterobacter sakazakii, previously referred to as a yellow-pigmented Enterobacter cloacae was designated as a unique species in 1980. This reclassification was based on differences from E. cloacae in DNA relatedness, pigment production and biochemical reactions. E. sakazakii has been implicated in a severe form of neonatal meningitis. Although studies have ...
Brik R - - 1997
Fever may be the sole clinically evident presentation of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in a very young infant, and therefore lumbar puncture is still widely regarded as a mandatory procedure in the sepsis workup of febrile infants under 2 months of age. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the frequency ...
Calhoun D A - - 1996
Administration of large doses of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF) to mice results in diminished erythropoiesis. Hyporegenerative anemia does not occur in adult humans as a consequence of treatment with rG-CSF, but it is not clear whether this will be a problem in neonates. Because rG-CSF is currently being tested ...
Daoud A S - - 1996
A two-and-a-half year prospective study of neonatal meningitis in the two main referral hospitals in Northern Jordan was carried out to determine the clinical spectrum and particular characteristics of meningitis in the newborn. The 53 cases studied represented an incidence of 1.1 per 1000 live births. The commonest bacterial pathogen ...
Reiter P D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcal species are the most common cause of nosocomial infections in the neonate. Because of staphylococcal resistance patterns, vancomycin has become the drug of choice for treatment. Although the blood stream is the usual site of infection, premature infants are at increased risk for the development of meningitis. The ...
Jeyasekaran G - - 1996
The incidence of Listeria spp. in tropical fish and shellfish was studied. The isolation protocol included a pre-enrichment, followed by two selective enrichment steps and plating on three selective agars. Listeria monocytogenes could be detected in 17.2% of finfish and 12.1% of shellfish. L. innocua was the most common species ...
Pavan Mary H - - 1996
It seems amazing how many infants and children seem spontaneously to progress through the stages of feeding from suckle feeding through mature feeding, which includes biting and chewing, without difficulty or concern! Some, however, develop aspiration, failure to thrive, and feeding problems beyond the scope of the primary care physician.Disorders ...
Baker R C - - 1996
We prospectively evaluated the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with documented viral meningitis to determine (1) whether deficits in physical growth, development, speech and language, hearing, or intelligence occur; and (2) if so, at what age these deficits can be detected. Sixteen infants with documented enteroviral meningitis under the age of ...
Ahmed A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) values in the noninfected neonate are not well-delineated. Studies analyzing these values are inconsistent in the criteria used to define the noninfected population. The purpose of our study was to examine CSF values in neonates in the first 30 days of life in whom infection was ...
Berg A M - - 1996
Aseptic meningitis is a rare complication of relapsing polychondritis. We describe a 60-year-old man who developed a prolonged episode of aseptic meningitis for which no cause could be determined and, that resolved spontaneously. He then developed classic relapsing polychondritis 14 months later. He subsequently had another episode of prolonged meningitis ...
Whitelaw A - - 1996
Tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays a role in differentiation of neurones and activity-dependent structural changes in neurones. We hypothesised that tPA would also be present in CSF during fibrinolysis after intraventricular haemorrhage. We measured tPA antigen in CSF from 13 normal newborn infants and 14 infants with post-haemorrhagic ventricular ...
Beeram M R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of lumbar puncture (LP) in the initial evaluation of symptom-free infants for congenital syphilis. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively studied infants who had successful LPs and were born to untreated or inadequately treated seropositive women between 1990 and 1993 in two hospitals in Washington, D.C. We ...
Storm H - - 1996
The activation of the laryngeal chemoreflex may be a pathogenic mechanism in apnoea, apparent life threatening events, and SIDS. Infants with apnoea and increased levels of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in CSF have been successfully treated with naloxone. Beta-endorphin may induce respiratory depression, and naloxone is a beta-endorphin antagonist. We therefore wanted ...
Capeding M R - - 1995
Two sampling techniques, nasal swabbing and oropharyngeal swabbing, for detection of the upper respiratory tract carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were studied prospectively with 296 healthy Filipino infants at various ages: 6 to 8, 10 to 12, 14 to 17, 18 to 22, 32 to 39, and 46 ...
Karande S C - - 1995
The clinical profile of typhoid fever in an infant is variable and non-specific. A rare case of typhoid fever in a 7 month old infant is reported. The child presented with only a day's history of fever and loose motions which resulted in severe dehydration, acute tubular necrosis and death. ...
Aintablian N - - 1995
Repeated episodes of enteroviral meningitis occurring within a 1-month period in two non-immunocompromised infants were investigated using molecular techniques to distinguish persistent or recrudescent infection from new infection. Viral RNA from cerebrospinal fluid was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and the nucleic acid sequences determined. This analysis demonstrated that ...
Manzur A Y - - 1995
A boy born at 34 weeks gestation with initially normal development presented with acute hydrocephalus at 22 months. Subsequently his development has been slow and complicated clinically by epilepsy. Upon extensive investigation, he has been found to have extremely elevated lipoprotein(a) levels, hypercholesterolemia (familial), and lesions of the cortex and ...
Tee A C - - 1995
A study was undertaken to determine the relationship of presenting features and outcome in primary childhood meningitis at the Paediatric Department, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1980 to December 1989. A total of 177 cases of primary childhood meningitis admitted during the study period were analysed retrospectively. One hundred ...
Baram T Z - - 1995
Infantile spasms respond to ACTH, and levels of the hormone in cerebrospinal fluid of untreated infants with this disorder were found to be lower than in age-matched controls. In this study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and ACTH using improved immunoassays in a larger cohort of infants with infantile spasms. ...
Mahajan R - - 1995
Cranial ultrasonography was performed on 61 infants with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM). Thirty nine, infants (64%) had acute meningitis with no clinical evidence of complications (Group-I) and 22 infants (36%) had clinical evidence of complications of ABM (Group-II). Cranial ultrasound was normal in 20 infants (32.8%). The spectrum of sonographic ...
Udgaonkar U S - - 1995
Over a period of 2 years, 28 patients admitted to Government General Hospital (GGH), Sangli (which is attached to Government Medical College (GMC), Miraj) yielded multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal salmonellae from their clinical material. The pediatric age group predominated in the study, accounting for 93% of cases. Salmonella typhimurium was the ...
Jiang X R - - 1995
Cyclosporin A (CSA) exhibits greater multidrug resistance (MDR) modulating activity in vitro than other MDR modulators such as verapamil and quinidine. However, the immunosuppressive and nephrotoxic effects of CSA may limit its clinical use. PSC 833, a new cyclosporin D derivative, exerts a higher MDR reversal activity but lacks toxic ...
Wiswell T E - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: We performed this investigation to assess whether selective approaches to performing lumbar puncture (LP) in the early neonatal period will result in a missed or delayed diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. DESIGN: A retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of all neonates born in US Army hospitals from ...
Dulkerian S J - - 1995
We sought to determine whether the detection of cytokines, produced during the inflammatory response, would aid in the diagnosis of meningitis in young infants. We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in 62 infants less than 6 months of age whose ...
Raju V S - - 1995
Cranial sonography was performed in 34 infants with proven meningitis and with clinical suspicion of its complications, utilizing the patent anterior fontanelle. Twenty-five patients showed various sonographic findings which included ventriculomegaly, echogenic sulci, subdural effusion, ventriculitis, infarction/cerebritis, cerebral oedema, porencephalic cyst, etc. Sonography is safe and cost-effective in diagnosis of ...
Kaplan D M - - 1995
During the last few decades antibiotics have played an extremely important role in the management of otitis media (OM). Nowadays there are only sporadic reports of its sequelae and complications in the developed countries. Nevertheless, complications of OM still arise and the potential seriousness of this problem emphasizes the need ...
Ali Z - - 1995
The objective of this 3-year (1988-1990) retrospective study was to report the experience with neonatal meningitis at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Mount Hope Women's Hospital, Trinidad, West Indies. Neonates were included in the study if organisms were cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or if there was a pleocytosis ...
Wachi A - - 1995
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and motion at the craniospinal junction was conducted by magnetic resonance velocity imaging with phase encoding followed by motion velocity integration. Thirteen normal subjects classified into two groups were studied: an infant group with open sutures and fontanel, and a noninfant group with closed ...
Sáez-Llorens X - - 1995
Ninety infants and children were prospectively randomized to receive cefepime (n = 43) or cefotaxime (n = 47) for therapy of bacterial meningitis. The two treatment groups were comparable in terms of age, duration of illness before enrollment, history of seizures, clinical status on admission, and etiology. Six (7%) patients ...
Ito A - - 1995
The composition of rumen ciliate protozoa was surveyed in 15 Tokara native goats, Capra hircus domesticus, inhibiting Kagoshima, Japan. As a result, of 11 species with 3 forms under 5 genera detected, Entodinium simplex, E. nanellum and E. rectangulatum were found in all the animals examined. The large ophryoscolecid ciliates ...
Rajajee S - - 1995
Culture-proven cases of enteric fever (182) were studied during the period May 1991 to April 1992; 39 per cent of the children were below 3 years. There was male preponderance. Infants presented within first few days of onset of fever with severe systemic manifestation, such as repeated convulsion, puffiness of ...
Riordan F A - - 1995
A retrospective study of infants with bacterial meningitis admitted to our hospital during 1949-52, highlighted the lack of 'classical' signs of meningitis in these infants. We carried out a similar review of 44 infants aged less than three months, admitted during 1982-91. We also determined the causative organisms and their ...
Thornberg E - - 1995
Neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and glutamate in CSF were investigated in the immediate postasphyctic period in 22 term newborn infants. The cerebral function monitor (CFM) pattern was also assessed and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) was graded. NSE was significantly increased in the CSF of infants ...
Jarløv J O - - 1995
We report a case of Candida albicans meningitis in a neonate born after 27 weeks of gestation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a premature infant with Candida-meningitis treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome(R)). The patient did not respond well to conventional Amphotericin B, ...
Djerić D R - - 1994
Sixteen temporal bones from 8 infants with otitis media, who died of meningitis, and 6 controls from infants with only otitis media, were studied histologically. All bones contained middle ear effusion and residual mesenchyme, but, unlike the controls, the meningitic cases showed considerable histopathological tissue changes of chronic and acute ...
Pomeranz A J - - 1994
We undertook a retrospective chart review of 27 patients less than 60 days of age, hospitalized for possible serious bacterial illness (SBI), but who were culture negative, and then readmitted within seven days for the same reason. Upon repeat evaluation for sepsis, five of these infants had significant illnesses; two ...
Koontongkaew S - - 1994
The toxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate against Streptococcus mutans GS-5 was comparatively determined by measuring its bactericidal activity, and its inhibitory effect on microbial dehydrogenases was studied by the resazurin reduction method. Both methods indicated that chlorhexidine within the range 0.75-5.00 mg/l was highly toxic to Streptococcus mutans, probably due to ...
Berner R - - 1994
Extraintestinal manifestations of salmonellosis in paediatric patients are found predominantly in infants less than three months of age. Genital involvement is a rare complication. We present a short review of the literature and describe the case of a 10-week-old boy suffering from severe diarrhoea, who presented with a swelling of ...
Hoyert D L - - 1994
Effective with vital statistics data for 1989, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) made the following change in most of its tabulations of race for live births and fetal death; race for live births and fetal deaths are shown by race of mother rather than by race of child. ...
de Louvois J - - 1994
Acute bacterial meningitis is more common during the neonatal period than at any other time of life and is accompanied by a high incidence of mortality and long term significant sequelae. The incidence of neonatal meningitis is variously calculated at between 0.25 and 0.32 per 1000 live births depending on ...
Winkler P - - 1994
PURPOSE: To investigate rapid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in infants in relation to respiration and cardiac cycle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CSF-flow signals were detected in 35 of 526 consecutive infants (22 male and 13 female infants, aged 1-30 days) who underwent 140 color flow and pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic studies at ...
Chen J Y - - 1994
From January 1991 to March 1993, a total of 11 infants with positive blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or stool cultures of Candida albicans were found in the nursery or neonatal intensive care unit of the Chung Shan Medical and Dental College Hospital. Clinical features including respiratory deterioration, poor activity, ...
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