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Results 351 - 400 of 923
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Steward D K - - 2001
The development of failure to thrive (FTT) is hypothesized to be caused by the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Birthweight is one biological variable thought to play a role in the infant's growth failure. In studies that enrolled infants with FTT who were full-term at birth, the reported birthweights ...
Ruíz-Extremera A - - 2001
SUMMARY: The presence of development disorders in neonates attended in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is highly variable; the aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the evolution of somatic and neurosensory development in a group of neonates requiring treatment in the NICU and to analyse the perinatal ...
Rauh V A - - 2001
This study assessed the contribution of age and other risk factors to racial disparities in rates of moderately low birthweight (MLBW; 1500-2499 g) and very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g). Logistic regression models were developed to determine the effects on MLBW and VLBW of maternal age, race, and poverty, adjusting ...
Singhal A - - 2001
Low birthweight may predispose to the development of atherosclerosis later in life. We have tested the hypothesis that low birthweight as a result of preterm birth is associated with reduced flow-mediated endothelial-dependent vasodilation (FMD), which is an early stage in the development of atherosclerosis. Mean FMD in adolescents born preterm ...
Ørskou J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: To investigate how mean birthweight has changed in the past decade, and to describe changes in the proportion of infants with a birthweight above 4000 grams (g). METHODS: We analyzed data on 43,561 singleton infants born between 1990 and 1999 at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Information on birthweight, gestational ...
Göpel W - - 2001
The influence of genetic factors that increase coagulation on the extension of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in very low birthweight infants has not been studied previously. This study investigated the frequency and effect of the factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in a population-based cohort of 305 preterm infants with ...
Loos R J - - 2001
Despite the longer gestation of girls, their birthweight is less than that of boys. Because unlike-sex twins provide a natural situation in which to investigate the influence of sex on gestation, we compared birthweight and gestation of 1929 same-sex and unlike-sex dizygotic pairs. Length of gestation in unlike-sex pairs was ...
Clausson B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether customised birthweight standard improves the definition of small for gestational age and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as stillbirth, neonatal death, or low Apgar score. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. POPULATION: Births in Sweden between 1992-95 (n = 326,377). METHODS: Risks of stillbirth, neonatal ...
Hikino S - - 2001
The prevalence rates of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in low birthweight infants were evaluated. In Fukuoka City, Japan, between July 1994 and September 1997, sufficient information including birthweight, gestational age, sex, feeding method and a history of food allergy was obtained from questionnaires at the well-baby check-ups of 21766 ...
Rosenberg K D - - 2001
PURPOSE: Surfactant has been shown to cause decreased neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in randomized studies of preterm infants. It is not clear whether the introduction of surfactant caused a decrease in neonatal mortality in a community. This study explores the hypothesis that the introduction of surfactant in 1990 to 1991 ...
Laucht M - - 2001
The development of behaviour problems in infants born with biological risk (low birthweight) and psychosocial risk (psychosocially disadvantaged family) was studied in a sample of 347 children (171 males, 176 females) at the ages of 2, 4:6, and 8 years. In the search for factors that moderate the effects of ...
Ulijaszek S J - - 2001
The aim of this analysis was to examine the extent and possible seasonal nature of the secular trend in mean birthweight in the Purari delta, Papua New Guinea. This is a country undergoing rapid modernization, and with this has come a secular trend toward increased adult body size in some ...
Osendarp S J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Infant malnutrition and mortality rates are high in less-developed countries especially in low-birthweight infants. Zinc deficiency is also widely prevalent in these circumstances. We aimed to assess the effect of daily zinc supplements given to pregnant mothers on their infants' growth and morbidity. METHODS: We did a double-blind, placebo ...
Kubota H - - 2001
Fifteen appropriate-for-date premature low-birthweight infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied. The infants were stratified into three birthweight groups: less than 1000 g, 1000 g and greater but less than 1500 g, and 1500 g or greater. Reported and new risk factors for PVL were compared with control patients ...
Jackson K - - 2001
New knowledge in perinatal medicine has resulted in increased survival of very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. After leaving hospital, the child is seen at regular medical check-ups, but there is often a persistent worry about the child which affects the family as a whole. This can lead to an increased utilization of ...
Bonellie S R - - 2001
Low birthweight is often used as a health indicator. This paper reports the findings of a cohort study, which were analysed to determine the relationship, if any, between the age of the mother and birthweight given the mother's smoking habits and the level of social deprivation of the mother's place ...
Rolnick S J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of low-birthweight (LBW) births and the association of LBW with utilization and healthcare charges in a managed care organization. DESIGN: Observational study of computerized and medical record data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed the rate of LBW (weight < 2500 g) for singleton infants born ...
Mohanty C - - 2000
The usefulness of parturient abdominal circumference as a predictor of low birthweight (LBW) was studied in 151 singleton pregnancies. The abdominal circumference was measured in early labour and was plotted against the birthweight of the newborns. A significant positive correlation was observed between the two parameters (r = +0.507). For ...
Costalos C - - 2000
The aim of the study was a prospective survey of the effects of low-dose cisapride on gastric emptying and QTc interval in very low birthweight infants. Twenty low birthweight infants were studied: mean (SD) gestation 30.5 (2.2) wk; birthweight 1320 (150)g. Gastric emptying was assessed ultrasonically in 15 of these ...
Stevenson D K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in short term outcome of very low birthweight infants attributable to sex. METHODS: Boys and girls weighing 501-1500 g admitted to the 12 centres of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network were compared. Maternal information and perinatal data were ...
Jacob J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the neonatal mortality in the Alaska Native and non-native (primarily white) population in Alaska for a 10-year period (1987-1996). METHODS: Natality, mortality, and cause of death data were obtained from the State of Alaska's Bureau of Vital Statistics (BVS). Birthweight-specific and preventable birthweight-specific mortality were analyzed ...
Darlow B A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether regional differences in early neonatal morbidity in a national cohort of very low-birthweight (VLBW) infants persisted at 7-8 years of age. METHODS: Perinatal data collected prospectively from birth on all VLBW infants born in New Zealand in 1986 and admitted to a neonatal unit included the ...
Yoong S Y - - 2000
The aim of the present study is to compare the health status of Armed Forces and civilian infants, accounting for social class. In a prospective cohort study, demographic data were obtained from mothers of liveborn infants from 436 civilian and 162 Armed Forces families. Birth details were taken from hospital ...
Jeng S F - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to compare the age of walking attainment between very low-birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants and normal term infants, and to determine the variables that affect the walking attainment in VLBW infants. Ninety-six VLBW preterm infants and 82 normal term infants were prospectively followed to determine ...
Pickett Kate E. - - 2000
The Institute of Medicine recommends that short women gain less weight during pregnancy than taller women in order to reduce the risk of high birthweight, which can lead to feto-pelvic disproportion. This recommendation, however, is based on clinical judgment rather than on epidemiologic evidence, as few studies have examined the ...
Olsen J - - 2000
A correlation between birthweight and sperm counts in adult life was anticipated because impaired fetal growth could impair replication of Sertoli cells produced in fetal life. Furthermore, it was expected that males born with a high birthweight might have impaired sperm production as they are expected to have been exposed ...
Lao T T - - 2000
To determine if impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) impacts on the outcome of singleton pregnancies in Chinese women with a high (>26 kg/m(2)) body mass index (BMI), a retrospective case-control study was performed on 128 women with IGT and 128 controls with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, who were matched ...
Buehler J W - - 2000
Linked birth and infant death certificates allow measurement of birthweight-specific infant mortality. Jack Smith, MS, to whom this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine is dedicated, played a key role in the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project. NIMS provided national data on birthweight-specific infant mortality for the ...
Novotny Rachel - - 2000
Indicators of infant birthweight are important because infant birthweight is related to later health outcomes. This study developed and validated new measures of the pelvis from dual energy absorptiometry (DEXA). Predictors of the new measures of maternal pelvic size were examined and the pelvic size measures were examined as predictors ...
- - 2000
In the United States, pregnancies associated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) or ovulation-inducing drugs are more likely to result in multiple births than spontaneously conceived pregnancies (1). In addition, triplet and higher-order multiple births are at greater risk than singleton births to be preterm (< or = 37 completed weeks' ...
Mackerras D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Two recent papers examining low birthweight in Aboriginal infants came to different conclusions about the role of size for gestation and preterm delivery in influencing the low birthweight proportion. As the two studies used different methods to estimate the infants' gestational age and to analyse the data, the results ...
Dunin-Wasowicz D - - 2000
One-hundred twenty-nine very low-birthweight infants were treated in Newborn and Infant Care Department of Children's Memorial Health Institute between 1985 and 1994; 89 were taken to prospective neurodevelopmental care. The newborns were divided into two groups. Group I had 38 preterm infants born from 1985 to 1989 and followed up ...
Skjaerven R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To describe birthweight by gestational age in Norway for the period 1967-1998, evaluate secular trends and provide new standards for small for gestational age for 16 to 44 weeks of gestation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The analyses were based on more than 1.8 million singleton births, covering all births in ...
Saigal S - - 2000
Reports on the school-age outcomes and behavioural difficulties at adolescence of infants who were very low birthweight (VLBW) are only just emerging. Studies which compare VLBW with same age controls consistently show significantly poorer performance, with average scores between 8 and 13 points lower. Even children with no neurological impairments ...
Cohen R J - - 2000
Breast milk intake, urine volume and urine-specific gravity (USG) of exclusively breastfed, low birthweight (LBW) term male infants in Honduras were measured during 8-h periods at 2 (n = 59) and 8 (n = 68) wk of age. Ambient temperature was 22-36 degrees C and relative humidity was 37-86%. Maximum ...
Smith R M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To improve, by culturally appropriate means, birthweights and growth of children up to three years of age over 14 months in five Aboriginal communities in north-western Australia. METHODS: Frequent individual nutritional assessment of infants and children with counselling of mothers and carers and of pregnant women and the introduction ...
Scott S - - 2000
Inadequate nutrition of both the mother and her offspring at each stage of its development - before pregnancy, in the womb, in infancy and during early childhod - played an important role in the patterns of subfertility and infant mortality in a saturated, marginal, preindustrial community. It is suggested that ...
Eregie C O - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentage agreement between two standards of arm/head ratios in neonatal nutritional assessment. DESIGN: The nutritional status of newborn infants was determined using a standard of arm/head ratio on gestational age and another standard of arm/head ratio on birthweight. The two assessments were then compared for percentage ...
Ichiba H - - 2000
To examine osteopenia in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants we used repeated dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a prospective study of lumbar spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese VLBW infants (birthweight 426-1498 g; n = 61, group 1) aged 40 weeks postconception to 3 years of age. Control subjects ...
Coory M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although Torres Strait Islanders (TSIs) are often combined with Aborigines, they are a distinct group and would prefer to be considered separately. The Queensland Perinatal Data Collection (QPDC) has been the only population-based, perinatal collection in Australia that has distinguished between Aboriginal and TSI mothers. It provided a unique ...
Koupilova I - - 2000
BACKGROUND: To investigate social variation in birthweight and length of gestation in Estonia in the period of transition to a democracy and market economy. METHODS: All live births resulting from singleton pregnancies reported to the Estonian Medical Birth Registry in 1992-1997 (n = 84, 629) were studied with respect to ...
Pal D K - - 2000
AIMS: To measure the prevalence of hypoglycaemia among newborn infants in Nepal, where classic risk factors prevail, and to evaluate their importance. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done of 578 term newborn infants aged 0 to 48 hours on the postnatal wards of a government maternity hospital in Kathmandu, ...
Seed P T - - 2000
Differences in growth were investigated among ethnic groups in low-birthweight babies (< 2500 g or < 32 weeks gestation) at birth and at 2-3 years. This prospective study was based on data for all 3091 low-birthweight live births in the South East Thames Region, UK, over a 1-year period, surviving ...
Kasumba I N - - 2000
A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted at Nsambya Hospital in Kampala, to investigate the prevalence and effect of Plasmodium falciparum infections during pregnancy, in a peri-urban/urban location. Overall, 544 pregnant women were recruited when they presented at the labour ward for delivery. After giving informed consent, each subject ...
Anderka M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This study used a large, population-based data set (n = 619,455) to establish reference standards of the timing of spontaneous vaginal births. METHODS: Low-risk births in Massachusetts from 1989 to 1995 were studied. This group comprised 242,276 births that met the following criteria: singleton, vertex, vaginal births with a ...
Garner P - - 2000
Malaria contributes to antenatal anaemia and slowing of fetal growth, especially in first-time mothers. It is thought that these effects harm the mother and baby, and interventions to prevent or mitigate the effects of malaria are often recommended. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of anti-malarial ...
Ruijter I - - 1999
This study evaluates risk factors associated with low birthweight in an African-American population. Records of 225 women delivering liveborn, nonanomalous singletons weighing < 2500 g were reviewed. The next parturient, matched for race only, of a similar infant weighing > or = 2500 g constituted the control. This case-control study ...
Guendelman S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To compare maternal characteristics and birth outcomes of Mexico-born and native-born mothers in the United States and those of North African mothers living in France and Belgium to French and Belgian nationals. METHODS: We examined information from single live birth certificates for 285,371 Mexico-born and 3,131,632 U.S.-born mothers (including ...
Cunningham S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: (1) assess the association of average, low, high and variable mean blood pressure (mbp) on death and the common morbidities of very low birthweight infants, and in doing so, (2) to derive representative reference ranges for mbp in very low birthweight infants. STUDY DESIGN: This five ...
Msomekela M - - 1999
Metabolic bone disease (MBD), or rickets, is common in very low birthweight infants. A descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study was carried out at Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar-es-Salaam from 15 April to 30 June, 1995 to discover the magnitude, contributory factors, morbidity and suitable biochemical diagnostic tests for MBD. One hundred infants ...
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