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Results 401 - 450 of 1078
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Cavallini Anna - - 2002
Teller Acuity Cards are a new "preferential looking" procedure for the evaluation of visual acuity in newborns and infants. We used this test to assess, longitudinally, visual acuity in 60 healthy term newborns followed up from birth to two years of age. In order to have a set of comparison ...
Adams Russell J - - 2002
Despite the emerging scientific and clinical importance of measuring human contrast sensitivity (CS), developmental data are sparse, especially those obtained with a single methodology. We used a new, time-efficient, psychophysical card procedure to evaluate binocular CS in groups of 20 4- to 9-yr-olds and 10 adults. Combined with data from ...
Collins Michael J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Correction of infant aphakia with conventional soft and rigid designs induces significant amounts of positive spherical aberration. METHODS: Different levels of positive spherical aberration were induced by rigid lenses positioned close to the eye. Visual acuity and depth of focus were measured for twelve young adult subjects. RESULTS: Positive ...
Richards John E - - 2002
Several models of the development of infant visual attention have used information about neural development. Most of these models have been based on nonhuman animal studies and have relied on indirect measures of neural development in human infants. This article discusses methods for studying a "neurodevelopmental" model of infant visual ...
Szundi Istvan - - 2002
Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at 20 degrees C from 30 ns to milliseconds after photolysis of lauryl maltoside suspensions of artificial visual pigments derived from 9-cis isomers of 5-ethylretinal, 8,16-methanoretinal (a 6-s-trans-bicyclic analogue), or 5-demethyl-8-methylretinal. In all three pigments, the earliest intermediate that was detected had the characteristics of ...
Plager David A - - 2002
PURPOSE: The optimal role of intraocular lenses (IOLs) in infants remains a controversial topic for many reasons, including concerns about significant complications occurring in young rapidly developing eyes. METHODS: To assess the number and type of significant complications requiring further intervention occurring in the first postoperative year, we reviewed the ...
Brown K A - - 2002
Identification of thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAS) during breathing is currently detected by visual coding of records of ribcage (RC) and abdominal (AB) movements. There is thus a need to automate this process in order to save time and improve TAS detection accuracy. We studied 15 infants of 39-49 weeks postconceptional age. ...
O'Connor Anna R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: A prospective study of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) of 505 infants who weighed <1701 g at birth was undertaken in the mid-1980s. This cohort was traced at 10 to 12 years of age to determine how low birth weight alone and ROP might influence their ophthalmic outcome. METHODS: Outcome ...
van Wezel-Meijler G - - 2002
AIM: To study the influence of dietary-supplied long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on structural brain maturation in preterm infants and to investigate parameters of functional brain development, relating them to structural maturation. Other studies have suggested that dietary supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm infants may enhance their visual ...
Repka Michael X - - 2002
Preterm infants are more likely than term infants to have significant abnormalities of all parts of the visual system leading to reduced vision. The most common problem is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The frequency and severity of this disorder is inversely related to gestational age. Damage ranges from minor to ...
Atkinson J - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To compare the age of onset of the pattern orientation reversal visual evoked potential (OR-VEP) in a group of very low birthweight (VLBW) premature infants with term infants matched for postconceptual age at testing. The OR-VEP measure is used as an indicator of visual cortical functioning because of the ...
Feuer William J - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility over time of visual estimates of the horizontal cup/disk ratio by trained technicians from optic disk stereophotographs. METHODS: Baseline optic disk stereophotographs are graded at entry and regraded annually in a masked fashion. The 1,636 participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS) undergo stereoscopic ...
Cheour Marie - - 2002
Event-related brain potentials of 10 full-term newborns in response to duration changes in complex, harmonic tones known to elicit prominent mismatch negativity (MMN) response in adults were investigated. Here we report that duration changes elicited prominent MMN responses in a 11 newborns tested. In contrast, MMN has been reported in ...
Rose Susan A - - 2002
Developmental change and stability of visual expectation and reaction times (RT) were examined at 5, 7, and 12 months in a longitudinal sample of term and preterm infants (birthweight <1,750 g). Using the traditional 200-ms cut-point to separate anticipatory from reactive saccades, RTs (and their standard deviations) declined markedly over ...
Birch E E - - 2001
Visual impairment, oculomotor abnormalities, and refractive error are prevalent among children with a history of preterm birth. These conditions may result from exposure of the immature visual system to early visual stimulation, from nutritional deficits that occur following the abrupt loss of placental maternal-to-fetal transfer of essential nutrients, and as ...
Wilk A E - - 2001
In three experiments with sixty 3- and 6-month-olds, we examined whether operant and visual-preference measures of retention are equivalent. Infants learned to move a mobile by kicking and then received a paired-comparison test with the familiar (training) mobile and a novel one. Kicking above baseline was the direct measure of ...
Shiuey Y - - 2001
Endokeratoplasty using an infant donor cornea was performed in an 81-year-old man with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, corneal decompensation, and a history of cystoid macular edema in the left eye. The patient reported minimal discomfort after surgery, and the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/400 to 20/100 by the second ...
Suttle Catherine M - - 2001
The accurate and reliable assessment of visual function in infants and young children is important for ensuring optimal management of those at risk of abnormal visual development. Visual acuity is the aspect of visual function most commonly assessed by optometrists and can be measured in infants and children using appropriate ...
Horwood A M - - 2001
PURPOSE: A remote haploscopic photorefractor, designed for assessment of accommodation and convergence in infants and clinical groups, was used to determine heterophoria accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratios in normal naïve adults. These were compared with conventional clinical measures. METHODS: Twenty-one naïve subjects were used to compare occluded and unoccluded prism cover ...
Weiss A H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To further explain cortical abnormalities in infants without visually guided behaviors with anatomically normal eyes by using a battery of objective visual tests and neuroimaging studies. DESIGN: A cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one infants with clear ocular media and normal fundi, who were visually unresponsive by clinical examination, and 31 ...
Da Pozzo S - - 2001
AIMS: To report 6 cases in which indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) failed to convert occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) into well-defined CNV in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD). METHODS: Patients with AOFVD observed from 1993 to 1999 were prospectively followed up. Whenever the development of CNV was suspected, ICGA was performed ...
Innis S M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is related to visual and neural development in term breast-fed infants. DESIGN: A prospective study of 83 infants who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 3 months. We determined red blood cell and plasma fatty acids at 2 months, visual acuity at 2, ...
Calloway S L - - 2001
PURPOSE: To clinically evaluate the random dot stereoacuity cards developed by Birch and Salomao on a population of infants within the first 12 months of life and to generate baseline normative data. METHODS: Random dot stereoacuity cards were constructed using vectographic vertical bar stimuli with cross disparities ranging from 45 ...
Comer R M - - 2001
PURPOSE: To analyze graft survival and visual outcome after penetrating keratoplasty in infants with congenital corneal opacity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 11 patients with congenital corneal opacity who underwent penetrating keratoplasty as infants. Six patients had a diagnosis of Peter's anomaly, 1 of congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy, ...
Makrides M - - 2001
Visual-evoked potential (VEP) acuity has been used to assess the effects of dietary fats on the integrity of the visual pathway of infants. We investigated prognostic determinants of VEP acuity at 16 wk of age. The results of two randomized dietary intervention trials designed to assess the effect of dietary ...
Bacher L F - - 2001
Fluctuations in body movement and visual inspection were measured over minutes in 3-month-old infants to look for evidence of coupling. In Experiment 1, infants (n = 12) looked ad libitum at two identical pictures for an average of 7.3 min. Analysis of the spontaneous fluctuations in movement and inspection revealed ...
Young Y H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Downbeat nystagmus is defined as spontaneous nystagmus present with fixation in the primary position or lateral gaze. Those who have downbeat nystagmus but negative magnetic resonance imaging results are termed as idiopathic. Patients with idiopathic downbeat nystagmus, although unconcerned with their etiology, have visual symptoms such as oscillopsia, diplopia, ...
Sie LTL - - 2001
Functional MRI (fMRI) of the visual cortex was evaluated in 42 sedated 18-month-old infants (mean corrected age; 31 males, 11 females) with or without periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Data from 14 infants could not be evaluated because of movement artefacts. Ten of the remaining 28 infants showed no significant fMRI response ...
Dobkins K R - - 2001
In order to investigate the development of color mechanisms in infants we fitted elliptical detection contours to psychophysically-derived contrast thresholds plotted in L- and M-cone contrast space. Detection ellipses were obtained for 47 infants (ages 2-5 months of age), and were compared to those of six adults tested under nearly ...
Lengle J M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of fetal and neonatal auditory evoked responses (fAERs and nAERs) obtainable with a low-noise, high-channel count SQUID gradiometer in a well-shielded environment. METHODS: Measurement of long-latency fAERs was attempted in 19 normal fetuses in 28 sessions at 29-40 weeks' gestation, using a 37-channel SQUID gradiometer. ...
Werner L A - - 2001
Infants have higher pure-tone thresholds than adults. One explanation is that infants do not adopt the frequency-selective listening strategy that adults use when detecting tones. In contrast to other models of infants' immature sensitivity, the listening strategy account predicts that infants will be more sensitive to broadband sounds, relative to ...
Orekhova E V - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The study examined the suggestion that infant ability to maintain attention in anticipatory task and to sustain interference is related to the active inhibitory processes in cortical neural networks. METHODS: The extent of selective EEG synchronization in the alpha range has been taken as a measure of cortical inhibition. ...
Olsen J - - 2001
Impaired fetal growth is associated with increased susceptibility to several chronic diseases. We studied the association between birth weight, indicators of disproportional fetal growth, and impaired visual acuity and hearing in 4,300 conscripts from a well-defined region in Denmark from August 1, 1993, to July 31, 1994. From the standard ...
Belson A - - 2001
Infants with chronic renal insufficiency have multiple risk factors for developing pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) and are at particular risk for being diagnosed with PTC late, because of their inability to express symptoms. We describe a 13-month-old infant dependent on peritoneal dialysis, without evidence of central nervous system infection or inflammation, ...
Rasengane T A - - 2001
In the present study we investigate the dependence of photopic contrast thresholds on retinal illuminance in infants and adults. Contrast thresholds were measured at five retinal illuminances between about 6 and about 20,000 Td in subjects in both age groups. The forced-choice preferential looking technique was used in 3-month-old infants, ...
Guzzetta A - - 2001
In the last two decades there has been a considerable increase in the understanding of visual maturation in the young infant and it has been possible to develop methods for testing visual function that are applicable in the neonatal period and early infancy. Several studies have reported that various aspects ...
Kawabata H - - 2001
Four groups of eight 4-month-old infants were each habituated to one of four displays consisting of a grating of either low (0.4 cycle deg(-1) or high (1.2 cycles deg(-1) spatial frequency, whose central portion was covered up with a horizontal occluder which was either narrow (1.33 deg) or broad (4.17 ...
Dannemiller J L - - 2001
Luminance increments and decrements of equal magnitude are processed asymmetrically in the adult visual system. At detection threshold, decrements are slightly easier to detect than increments. At suprathreshold contrast levels decrements appear to have more contrast than increments when both differ from the background by the same absolute amount. Two ...
Houston Derek M - - 2001
Families of infants who are congenitally deaf now have the option of cochlear implantation at a very young age. In order to assess the effectiveness of early cochlear implantation, however, new behavioral procedures are needed to measure speech perception and language skills during infancy. One important component of language development ...
Mazur A - - 2001
Clinical use of stored electrogram (EGM) configurations currently used in ICDs is limited. The hypothesis that EGMs recorded from electrodes on the ICD surface may improve diagnostic capabilities of the device was tested in the present study. The Buttons on Active Can Emulator (BACE), an ICD-sized device containing four button ...
Simmer K - - 2001
The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids linolenic acid and linoleic acid are precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain fatty acids (LCPUFA). Infant formula has historically only contained the precursor fatty acids. Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are also essential nutrients in infancy. Over the last few years some manufacturers ...
Hansen R M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To obtain and analyze scotopic increment threshold functions to test the hypothesis that rod photoreceptor immaturity accounts for the elevation of infants' over controls' dark-adapted thresholds and elevation of parafoveal over peripheral thresholds in infants. METHODS: Using a preferential looking method, thresholds for detection of 2(o), 50 msec, blue ...
Day J - - 2000
Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) with insert-earphone stimulus delivery provides a means of obtaining early ear-specific information on the auditory status of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of VRA in young infants, and to compare the use of sound field and insert-earphone stimulus presentation. VRA ...
Hicks C B - - 2000
The determination of auditory thresholds by means of behavioral techniques in young infants can be difficult. This could be the result of limitations in methodology, a lack of observable auditory responsiveness, or both. In the current study, 2- and 4-month old infants were tested under enhanced conditions for obtaining behavioral ...
SanGiovanni J P - - 2000
Neonatal cerebral white matter echolucencies predict visual resolution acuity deficits in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. We examined maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, intrapartum, infant birth/perinatal, and ocular motor/refractive characteristics to determine whether they accounted for this association in infants who were tested once between postnatal age 25 and 56 weeks (corrected for gestational ...
Birch E E - - 2000
PURPOSE: Poor response rates and/or the confounding of motion and offset responses make it difficult to interpret results of previous studies of infant hyperacuity. The aim of the present study was to design a protocol that overcomes these limitations and to investigate the normal maturation of hyperacuity. METHODS: Hyperacuity of ...
Pye S D - - 2000
The directional responses of a range of ultraviolet radiometers commonly used for irradiance measurements of UVB and UVC have been studied. Radiometers with 24 diffuser/filter combinations were assessed using a deuterium source, and three different diffuser/filter designs were assessed using a monochromatic source. The directional responses of the radiometers have ...
Deák G O - - 2000
Factors affecting joint visual attention in 12- and 18-month-olds were investigated. In Experiment 1 infants responded to 1 of 3 parental gestures: looking, looking and pointing, or looking, pointing, and verbalizing. Target objects were either identical to or distinctive from distractor objects. Targets were in front of or behind the ...
SanGiovanni J P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To derive combined estimates of visual resolution acuity differences between healthy preterm infants consuming different compositions and ratios of essential fatty acids (EFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). DATA SOURCES: Electronic biomedical reference database (Medline and Health Star from 1965 to July ...
Birch E E - - 2000
PURPOSE: To determine the maturational course of nasotemporal asymmetry in infantile esotropia and to define the relationships among the symmetry of the motion visual evoked potential (MVEP), eye alignment, fusion, and stereopsis. METHODS: Sixty healthy term infants and 34 infants with esotropia participated. Nasotemporal MVEP asymmetry was assessed by the ...
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