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Results 351 - 400 of 1104
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Hansen Ronald M - - 2005
PURPOSE: To study deactivation of the rod photoresponse in infants using a paired-flash procedure. Rhodopsin content increases and scales the parameters of the activation of rod phototransduction as rods develop. However, little is known about the kinetics of deactivation in the rods of young infants. METHODS: ERG responses to pairs ...
Yoo Seung-Schik - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of visualizing a 3-dimensional structure of cerebral white matter fiber tracts in preterm infants, postconceptional age (PCA) 28 weeks to term, by using volumetric diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We combined tractography algorithms and ...
Brown Angela M - - 2005
Infant and adult vernier acuity differed by a factor of only 4 to 6 when the stimuli were periodic and results were expressed in units of spatial phase. This ratio was much smaller than the factor of 50 to 100 obtained when we expressed our results and those of others ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2005
The capacity to represent the world in terms of numerically distinct objects (i.e., object individuation) is a milestone in early cognitive development and forms the foundation for more complex thought and behavior. Over the past 10 to 15 yr, infant researchers have expended a great deal of effort to identify ...
Morale Sarah E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the critical period during which the dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the maturation of visual cortical function in term infants. AIM: To define the relationship between duration of dietary LCPUFA supply and visual acuity at 52 weeks of age. STUDY ...
Delaney Suzanne M - - 2004
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of peripheral stimulus flicker rate on measured visual field extent (MVFE) in young infants. METHODS: Three hundred sixty infants (180 each at 3.5 and 7 months of age) were tested monocularly with a light-emitting diode static perimetry procedure using a double-arc perimeter with arms at ...
Anker S - - 2004
The Second Cambridge Population Infant Vision Screening Programme using the VPR-1 videorefractor without cycloplegia was undertaken in order to identify those infants with refractive errors who were potentially amblyogenic or strabismogenic. Infants identified at eight months were entered into a control trial of treatment with partial spectacle correction and underwent ...
John M Sasha - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the auditory steady-state responses evoked by amplitude-modulated (AM), mixed-modulated (MM), exponentially-modulated (AM2), and frequency-modulated (FM) tones in 50 newborn infants (within 3 days of birth) and in 20 older infants (within 3-15 wk of birth). Our hypothesis was that MM and AM2 tonal stimuli would evoke ...
Kato Toru - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate flash visual evoked potential (VEP) findings and their chronological changes in preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) during the early neonatal period. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 14 preterm infants with cystic PVL. The patients underwent serial ...
Leppänen Paavo H T - - 2004
The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs), a measure of passive change detection, is suggested to develop early in comparison to other ERP components, and an MMN-like response has been measured even from preterm infants. The MMN response in adults is negative in polarity at about 150-200 ms. ...
Spierer Abraham - - 2004
PURPOSE: To measure grating visual acuity in premature infants and compare it with that in full-term infants. METHODS: The visual acuity of 73 premature and 73 full-term infants was tested at 6 months of age by the Teller Acuity Card procedure. All premature infants had undergone indirect funduscopy for the ...
Hong Yun Chul YC Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Medical Research Center, Korea. - - 2004
The roles of antioxidants in the placenta and genetic susceptibility to oxidant chemicals in relation to neonatal birth weight have not been elucidated. We determined whether the level of placental manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and its genetic polymorphism plays any role in oxidative stress and neonatal birth weight. We measured ...
Brannon Elizabeth M - - 2004
Ten-month-old infants and adults were tested in an auditory oddball paradigm in which 50-ms tones were separated by 1500 ms (standard interval) and occasionally 500 ms (deviant interval). Both infants and adults showed marked brain responses to the tone that followed a deviant inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the timing-deviance event-related-potential ...
Hoffman Dennis R - - 2004
Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical ...
Friedrich M - - 2004
The present study investigated whether delayed auditory processing typically found in children with specific language impairment (SLI) can already be observed in the event-related potentials of 2-month-old infants. Infants with and without a family history of SLI were tested in a passive auditory oddball paradigm with CV-syllables differing in vowel ...
Oliveira A G F - - 2004
Although healthy preterm infants frequently seem to be more attentive to visual stimuli and to fix on them longer than full-term infants, no difference in visual acuity has been reported compared to term infants. We evaluated the contrast sensitivity (CS) function of term (N = 5) and healthy preterm (N ...
Ranote S - - 2004
Using fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of maternal responsiveness. Ten healthy mothers viewed alternating blocks of video: (i) 40 s of their own infant; (ii) 20 s of a neutral video; (iii) 40 s of an unknown infant and (iv) 20 s of neutral video, repeated 4 times. Predominant ...
Bosompem K M - - 2004
We used a rapid, visually read, field applicable monoclonal antibody (MoAb)-dipstick assay for specific diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis together with microscopy to determine the prevalence of infant schistosomiasis in a community in the Awutu-Efutu Senya District in the Central Region of Ghana. The study group consisted of 97 infants (51 ...
Katz Milton - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Fresnel and wedge-shaped refractive prisms are used diagnostically and therapeutically in clinical practice. This article extends the study on the effect of prisms on visual acuity to the effect on contrast sensitivity by membrane Fresnel (F), refractive (R), and newly designed hybrid diffractive (C) prisms (ComPrisms), which combine a ...
Riva E - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic chlorines and heavy metals, which are supplied to the foetus by transplacental transfer and to breastfed infants by the milk, may impair cognitive functions. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are known to enhance development during foetal life and early infancy, may ...
Kook Michael S - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of cataract extraction on the results of frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective, case series. METHODS: We performed FDT threshold C20-1 and Humphrey Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA)-fast programs within 1 month before and 2 months after phacoemulsification in 52 ...
Sherer David M - - 2004
The cavum septum pellucidum is a fluid-filled cavity located between the membranes of the septi pellucidi, which should always be visualized sonographically in normal fetuses between 18 and 37 weeks gestation and in approximately 50% of term infants. The cavum vergae, a cavity within the septum pellucidum, is located posterior ...
Pereverzeva Maria - - 2004
When infants are tested with stimuli of various chromaticities embedded in a dark or achromatic (white) surround, they show maximal preference for stimuli of maximal colorimetric purity, and minimal preference for achromatic stimuli. We investigated how this pattern of preferences changes with changes of surround chromaticity. Sixteen-week-old infants were tested ...
Emukah Emmanuel C - - 2004
We conducted a cohort study on impact of effects of eight years of annual ivermectin mass treatment administered in eight villages in Imo State, Nigeria. Physical and visual acuity examinations carried out in 462 persons in 1995, prior to the launching of mass drug administration with ivermectin, were compared with ...
Dibiasi Jasmin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the quality of general movements (GMs) in young infants is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for detecting brain dysfunction early in life. Of special interest is a type of GMs called fidgety movements (FMs) characteristic for 3- to 5-month-old infants. GMs are part of an ...
Roy Marie-Sylvie - - 2004
The aim of the study was to evaluate the pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) combined with an optimal state of vigilance, called liberated state (LS), in order to improve testing in very young infants. Transient PVEP were recorded in response to a checkerboard pattern of 120, 60 and 30 min ...
Robertson Steven S - - 2004
Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic ...
Shaw Paul - - 2004
Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) is routinely used with infants to assess hearing level. It is an operant procedure based on the association of auditory and visual stimuli. There are several recommended test procedures for VRA. One clinical VRA procedure involves presenting the initial auditory stimulus without activation of the visual ...
Kumar Sandeep - - 2004
Midline Granuloma is a very uncommon disease characterised by localised inflamation, destruction and often mutilations of the tissues of the upper respiratory tract and face. This unique case is being reported for its rarity having the complete destruction of the external nose and part of the upper lip.
Bacher Leigh F - - 2004
The rate of spontaneous eye blinking, a putative index of central dopamine activity based on neuropharmacological and clinical research, has been linked to cognitive activity and behavioral state. Although many species have been studied, few researchers have examined spontaneous eye blinking in human infants. Human infants between 10 and 12 ...
Lauritzen Lotte - - 2004
Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating ...
Kawai Nobuyuki - - 2004
We tested whether a chimpanzee fetus could form an association between an extrauterine tone and vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) using classical conditioning treatment. Two kinds of pure tone were used as the conditioned stimuli, one where a 500-Hz tone was always followed by a VAS of 80 Hz (110 gal), the ...
Brecelj Jelka - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of visual electrophysiological screening in evaluating retinal and postretinal visual pathway function in infants with congenital nystagmus. METHODS: In 28 infants with congenital nystagmus electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded with skin electrodes and, since the infants were alert, visual evoked potentials (VEP) were simultaneously recorded. The ...
Lauritzen Lotte - - 2004
The aim of the study was to describe variations in swept visual evoked potential (SWEEP-VEP) assessment of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in infants and to evaluate the best way to estimate visual performance from obtained SWEEP-VEP data. The visual performance of 92 infants (6-40 wk of age) was measured ...
van der Spuy Jacqueline - - 2003
PURPOSE: The Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) protein AIPL1 is present only in the rod photoreceptors of the adult human retina and is excluded from the cone photoreceptors. LCA, however, is characterized by an absence of both rod and cone function at birth or shortly thereafter. Therefore, this study was conducted ...
Ross-Sheehy Shannon - - 2003
Four experiments assessed visual short-term memory capacity in 4- to 13-month-old infants by comparing their looking to changing and nonchanging stimulus streams presented side by side. In each stream, 1 to 6 colored squares repeatedly appeared and disappeared. In changing streams, the color of a different randomly chosen square changed ...
Brecelj Jelka - - 2003
Electrophysiological parameters in children reflect not only pathological processes, but also maturation of the visual system. This review investigates PERG and PVEP changes in infants and schoolchildren in order to establish the time scale for electrophysiological maturation of the visual system. Studies using pattern-reversal and pattern-onset stimulation are presented. Maturational ...
Berezovsky Adriana - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine electroretinographic parameters according to the standard protocol from the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) in healthy preterm infants with normal fundus. Seventeen healthy preterm infants with normal fundus were recruited and divided in two age groups: 3-week group, nine ...
Hammarrenger Benoit - - 2003
The visual system undergoes major modifications during the first year of life. We wanted to examine whether the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways mature at the same rate or if they follow a different developmental course. A previous study carried out in our laboratory had shown that the N1 ...
Bell J J - - 2003
Extensive sponge assemblages are found in a number of habitats at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve. These habitats are unusual in experiencing a range of environmental conditions, even though they are only separated by small geographic distances (1-500 m), reducing the possibility of confounding effects between study sites (e.g., silica ...
Dobson Velma - - 2003
PURPOSE: To compare measured visual field extent for a 6 degrees stimulus (typical size used in studies of infants) with a 1.5 degrees stimulus (similar to the largest size used in Goldmann perimetry) in young infants. METHODS: A total of 120 infants (60 each at 3.5 months and 7 months ...
Parry G - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine normative values for minimal response levels (MRLs) for normal-hearing young infants using insert earphone visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA). The subjects were 46 normally developing infants aged between 33 and 50 weeks who had hearing sensitivity assumed to be within normal limits and ...
Malcolm C A - - 2003
AIM: To test the hypothesis that maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy enhances maturation of the visual evoked potential (VEP) in healthy term infants. METHODS: One hundred women were supplemented with either fish oil capsules rich in DHA (n = 50) or placebo capsules (n = 50) from week ...
Sofue Ayako - - 2003
We studied the incidence of positive and negative sharp waves in two pairs of twin infants with periventricular leukomalacia and compared it with that of normal cotwins by using remontage and refiltering functions of digital electroencephalography. Three electroencephalograms were serially performed in each infant. After the usual visual inspection with ...
Prochazkova Jirina - - 2003
The mechanism of the apoptotic process is generally recognized as being highly intricate. Unfortunately, so is its detection. The concept of detection sensitivity reflects not only the ability of a particular technique to label most of the cells displaying the appropriate marker but also the possibility of labeling cells in ...
Guttorm T K - - 2003
Differences revealed by factor scores extracted by principal component analysis (PCA) from event-related potential (ERP) data of newborns with and without familial risk for dyslexia were examined and compared to results obtained by using original averaged ERPs. ERPs to consonant-vowel syllables (synthetic /ba/, /da/, /ga/; and natural /paa/, /taa/, /kaa/) ...
Horwood A - - 2003
214 orthoptists' infants have been followed for up to 15 years, relating neonatal misalignment (NMs) and first convergence onset to later childhood ocular abnormalities. NMs are shown in a companion paper to reflect the onset of first convergence, but if frequent or absent may predict a higher risk of refractive ...
Horwood A - - 2003
214 orthoptists' infants have been followed for up to 15 years, relating neonatal misalignment (NMs) behaviour to onset of convergence and 20 Delta base out prism response, and also to later childhood ocular abnormalities. In a prospective postal survey, orthoptist mothers observed their own infants during the first months of ...
Pang Marco Y C - - 2003
This study examined whether human infants under the age of 12 mo learn to modify their stepping pattern after repeated trip-inducing stimuli. Thirty three infants aged from 5 to 11 mo were studied. The infants were held over a moving treadmill belt to induce stepping. Occasionally, a mechanical tap was ...
Amin Sanjiv B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Antenatal steroids result in fetal lung maturation, but may retard brain development. Auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) is a noninvasive assessment of brainstem maturation. The objective of this study was to determine if antenatal steroids affect brainstem maturation in infants </=32 weeks gestational age (GA). DESIGN/METHODS: Bilateral monaural ABR were ...
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