Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1078
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Robertson Steven S - - 2004
Human infants actively forage for visual information from the moment of birth onward. Although we know a great deal about how stimulus characteristics influence looking behavior in the first few postnatal weeks, we know much less about the intrinsic dynamics of the behavior. Here we show that a simple stochastic ...
Shaw Paul - - 2004
Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) is routinely used with infants to assess hearing level. It is an operant procedure based on the association of auditory and visual stimuli. There are several recommended test procedures for VRA. One clinical VRA procedure involves presenting the initial auditory stimulus without activation of the visual ...
Kumar Sandeep - - 2004
Midline Granuloma is a very uncommon disease characterised by localised inflamation, destruction and often mutilations of the tissues of the upper respiratory tract and face. This unique case is being reported for its rarity having the complete destruction of the external nose and part of the upper lip.
Bacher Leigh F - - 2004
The rate of spontaneous eye blinking, a putative index of central dopamine activity based on neuropharmacological and clinical research, has been linked to cognitive activity and behavioral state. Although many species have been studied, few researchers have examined spontaneous eye blinking in human infants. Human infants between 10 and 12 ...
Lauritzen Lotte - - 2004
Studies on formula-fed infants indicate a beneficial effect of dietary DHA on visual acuity. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between breast-milk DHA levels and visual acuity in breast-fed infants. The objective in this study was to evaluate the biochemical and functional effects of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating ...
Kawai Nobuyuki - - 2004
We tested whether a chimpanzee fetus could form an association between an extrauterine tone and vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) using classical conditioning treatment. Two kinds of pure tone were used as the conditioned stimuli, one where a 500-Hz tone was always followed by a VAS of 80 Hz (110 gal), the ...
Brecelj Jelka - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of visual electrophysiological screening in evaluating retinal and postretinal visual pathway function in infants with congenital nystagmus. METHODS: In 28 infants with congenital nystagmus electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded with skin electrodes and, since the infants were alert, visual evoked potentials (VEP) were simultaneously recorded. The ...
Lauritzen Lotte - - 2004
The aim of the study was to describe variations in swept visual evoked potential (SWEEP-VEP) assessment of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in infants and to evaluate the best way to estimate visual performance from obtained SWEEP-VEP data. The visual performance of 92 infants (6-40 wk of age) was measured ...
van der Spuy Jacqueline - - 2003
PURPOSE: The Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) protein AIPL1 is present only in the rod photoreceptors of the adult human retina and is excluded from the cone photoreceptors. LCA, however, is characterized by an absence of both rod and cone function at birth or shortly thereafter. Therefore, this study was conducted ...
Ross-Sheehy Shannon - - 2003
Four experiments assessed visual short-term memory capacity in 4- to 13-month-old infants by comparing their looking to changing and nonchanging stimulus streams presented side by side. In each stream, 1 to 6 colored squares repeatedly appeared and disappeared. In changing streams, the color of a different randomly chosen square changed ...
Brecelj Jelka - - 2003
Electrophysiological parameters in children reflect not only pathological processes, but also maturation of the visual system. This review investigates PERG and PVEP changes in infants and schoolchildren in order to establish the time scale for electrophysiological maturation of the visual system. Studies using pattern-reversal and pattern-onset stimulation are presented. Maturational ...
Berezovsky Adriana - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine electroretinographic parameters according to the standard protocol from the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) in healthy preterm infants with normal fundus. Seventeen healthy preterm infants with normal fundus were recruited and divided in two age groups: 3-week group, nine ...
Hammarrenger Benoit - - 2003
The visual system undergoes major modifications during the first year of life. We wanted to examine whether the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways mature at the same rate or if they follow a different developmental course. A previous study carried out in our laboratory had shown that the N1 ...
Bell J J - - 2003
Extensive sponge assemblages are found in a number of habitats at Lough Hyne Marine Nature Reserve. These habitats are unusual in experiencing a range of environmental conditions, even though they are only separated by small geographic distances (1-500 m), reducing the possibility of confounding effects between study sites (e.g., silica ...
Dobson Velma - - 2003
PURPOSE: To compare measured visual field extent for a 6 degrees stimulus (typical size used in studies of infants) with a 1.5 degrees stimulus (similar to the largest size used in Goldmann perimetry) in young infants. METHODS: A total of 120 infants (60 each at 3.5 months and 7 months ...
Parry G - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine normative values for minimal response levels (MRLs) for normal-hearing young infants using insert earphone visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA). The subjects were 46 normally developing infants aged between 33 and 50 weeks who had hearing sensitivity assumed to be within normal limits and ...
Malcolm C A - - 2003
AIM: To test the hypothesis that maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation during pregnancy enhances maturation of the visual evoked potential (VEP) in healthy term infants. METHODS: One hundred women were supplemented with either fish oil capsules rich in DHA (n = 50) or placebo capsules (n = 50) from week ...
Sofue Ayako - - 2003
We studied the incidence of positive and negative sharp waves in two pairs of twin infants with periventricular leukomalacia and compared it with that of normal cotwins by using remontage and refiltering functions of digital electroencephalography. Three electroencephalograms were serially performed in each infant. After the usual visual inspection with ...
Prochazkova Jirina - - 2003
The mechanism of the apoptotic process is generally recognized as being highly intricate. Unfortunately, so is its detection. The concept of detection sensitivity reflects not only the ability of a particular technique to label most of the cells displaying the appropriate marker but also the possibility of labeling cells in ...
Guttorm T K - - 2003
Differences revealed by factor scores extracted by principal component analysis (PCA) from event-related potential (ERP) data of newborns with and without familial risk for dyslexia were examined and compared to results obtained by using original averaged ERPs. ERPs to consonant-vowel syllables (synthetic /ba/, /da/, /ga/; and natural /paa/, /taa/, /kaa/) ...
Horwood A - - 2003
214 orthoptists' infants have been followed for up to 15 years, relating neonatal misalignment (NMs) and first convergence onset to later childhood ocular abnormalities. NMs are shown in a companion paper to reflect the onset of first convergence, but if frequent or absent may predict a higher risk of refractive ...
Horwood A - - 2003
214 orthoptists' infants have been followed for up to 15 years, relating neonatal misalignment (NMs) behaviour to onset of convergence and 20 Delta base out prism response, and also to later childhood ocular abnormalities. In a prospective postal survey, orthoptist mothers observed their own infants during the first months of ...
Pang Marco Y C - - 2003
This study examined whether human infants under the age of 12 mo learn to modify their stepping pattern after repeated trip-inducing stimuli. Thirty three infants aged from 5 to 11 mo were studied. The infants were held over a moving treadmill belt to induce stepping. Occasionally, a mechanical tap was ...
Amin Sanjiv B - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Antenatal steroids result in fetal lung maturation, but may retard brain development. Auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR) is a noninvasive assessment of brainstem maturation. The objective of this study was to determine if antenatal steroids affect brainstem maturation in infants </=32 weeks gestational age (GA). DESIGN/METHODS: Bilateral monaural ABR were ...
Brown Angela M - - 2003
The Superposition Hypothesis states that the binocular vision of newborn infants blends together the monocular visual responses of the two eyes, even when the visual stimulus evokes binocular rivalry in adults. According to the Superposition Hypothesis, this blending is replaced by binocular rivalry after the emergence of stereopsis [Neonate Cognition: ...
Richards John E - - 2003
This study examined the effect of attention in infants on the ERP changes occurring during the recognition of briefly presented visual stimuli. Infants at ages 4.5, 6 and 7.5 months were presented with a Sesame Street movie that elicited periods of attention and inattention, and computer-generated stimuli were presented overlaid ...
Weiss Avery H - - 2003
PURPOSE: To determine whether Teller Acuity Cards, transient visually evoked potentials (VEPs), and optic disc size estimated from ophthalmoscopy were predictive of acuity outcome in infants and young children with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). METHODS: Twenty-eight infants (mean age, 7 months) with bilateral ONH underwent clinical assessment, including ophthalmoscopy. ...
Hausmann Franziska - - 2003
Recent behavioural experiments have shown that birds use ultraviolet (UV)-reflective and fluorescent plumage as cues in mate choice. It remains controversial, however, whether such UV signals play a special role in sexual communication, or whether they are part of general plumage coloration. We use a comparative approach to test for ...
Kiorpes Lynne - - 2003
To explore the factors limiting the development of visual sensitivity, we constructed an ideal observer model for the infant macaque visual system. We made measurements of retinal morphology in infant and adult macaque monkeys, and used the data in combination with published optical data to formulate the model. We compared ...
Hunter Sharon K - - 2003
This study examined the effect of attention in young infants on the saccadic localization of peripheral stimuli. Infants ranging in age from 5 to 14 weeks were tested using a peripheral stimulus detection paradigm. The presence of a central fixation stimulus decreased detection probability, particularly if attention was engaged with ...
Teller Davida Y - - 2003
When infants fail to make chromatic discriminations, do the characteristics of their performance minima coincide more closely with the properties of adult luminance matches or heterochromatic brightness matches? In addition to their spectral properties, adult luminance matches are typically characterized by relatively small individual differences, whereas brightness matches are believed ...
Claflin Dragana I - - 2002
Associative learning was evaluated in human infants with simple delay classical eyeblink conditioning. A tone conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with an airpuff unconditioned stimulus (US) at three different delay intervals (250, 650, and 1,250 ms). Independent groups of healthy, full-term 5-month-old human infants were assigned to these three paired ...
Konishi Yukuo - - 2002
We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging and optical topography over the visual cortex of subjects during sedation with pentobarbital, and 8-Hz flickering light was intermittently projected onto their eyelids. Two age groups were analyzed: infants <60 days old and those >60 days old (corrected for gestational age at birth). The ...
Fiser József - - 2002
The ability of humans to recognize a nearly unlimited number of unique visual objects must be based on a robust and efficient learning mechanism that extracts complex visual features from the environment. To determine whether statistically optimal representations of scenes are formed during early development, we used a habituation paradigm ...
Wang Vivian M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cataracts pose a serious threat to the visual system in infants and children, requiring prompt surgical intervention and rehabilitation to optimize visual development. Glaucoma is a serious complication following cataract surgery in infants and can lead to loss of vision. Early diagnosis of glaucoma, however, can be quite challenging ...
Suttle Catherine M - - 2002
Young infants can distinguish red from green without brightness cues which shows that neural pathways processing color information (the 'red-green' color-opponent pathway) are functional early in life. There is some doubt over whether the 'blue-yellow' pathway is functional in young infants. Here, we show that infants behave like tritanopic adults ...
Kushnerenko Elena - - 2002
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a negative component of auditory event-related potential (ERP), reflecting the brain's automatic change detection process. In the present study we investigated the development of the pitch change detection, as indexed by the MMN, in the same infants from birth until 12 months of age. The MMN ...
Turner J E - - 2002
This study investigated the development of the link from accommodation to vergence in infants by occluding one eye thus removing binocular cues. Occluded adults continue to converge partially demonstrating that the accommodative drive to vergence (the AC/A link) and proximal cues are sufficient to drive vergence. For infants of all ...
Krasevec Julia M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Adequate intake of essential fatty acids (EFAs) is required for optimal development of the central nervous system and visual acuity in infants. Little information exists regarding the EFA status of vulnerable populations living in Southern regions. OBJECTIVE: We examined the adequacy of EFA status in Cuban breast-feeding mothers and ...
Cacho Pilar - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine which are the most sensitive tests, together with accommodative amplitude, to classify accommodative insufficiency (Al), we analyzed the relation between monocular estimated method (MEM) dynamic retinoscopy, monocular and binocular accommodative facility (MAF, BAF), and positive relative accommodation (PRA) with or without the presence of reduced amplitude of ...
Colombo John - - 2002
Four-month-old infants were exposed to sequences in which a 2-s light stimulus alternated with dark interstimulus periods whose length was manipulated to be 3 or 5 s. A predictable on-off pattern occurred for eight trials, but the light stimulus was omitted on the ninth trial. Infants showed heart rate responses ...
Lavoie Chantale - - 2002
Using a new polynomial regression criterion, the authors investigated empirically the short-term reliability of infants' visual habituation measures. Twenty-one 5-month-old infants were tested twice with a 1-day interval. Results revealed many reliable habituation measures, a reliable reaction to novelty measure, and a new reliable measure of interest. The 2nd-order polynomial ...
Delgado Christine E F - - 2002
This study examined the importance of target location (within vs. outside the visual field) on the relation between responding to joint attention and subsequent language development in 47 normally developing infants. The results supported a developmental progression in the infants' ability to locate targets from within to outside the visual ...
Revilla Isabel - - 2002
The aim of the present work was to study the effect of both vintage and the use of four types of pectinolytic enzymatic preparations on the quality of red wine using factor analysis. We also studied the evolution of the factors obtained along two years of storage of the wine. ...
Dibiasi Jasmin - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the quality of general movements (GMs) in infants proves to be a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for detecting brain dysfunction early in life. Of special interest, particularly for the prediction of cerebral palsy, is the fidgety kind of GMs, the so-called fidgety movements (FMs) observable ...
Chiu Bill - - 2002
Periodic alternating nystagmus is a rare central nervous system disorder in which the eyes undergo a horizontal jerk nystagmus that periodically reverses direction. A patient with a hypoplastic cerebellum and enlarged cisterna magna exhibited transient periodic alternating nystagmus following an attack of Ménière's disease. We hypothesize that in susceptible individuals ...
Schulz Elisabeth - - 2002
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of field size on grating acuity assessment in normal children and pediatric ophthalmological patients. METHOD: A prototype set of acuity cards was produced with three acuity steps per octave and a card size of 26 x 70 cm, bearing a grating field of 26 x ...
Malcolm C A - - 2002
This paper investigates gender differences in the peak latency and amplitude of the P1 component of the pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (pattern-reversal VEP) recorded in healthy term infants. Pattern-reversal VEPs in response to a series of high contrast black and white checks (check widths 120', 60', 30', 24', 12', 6') ...
Koura Takahiro - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Anisotropic conduction properties may provide a substrate for reentrant arrhythmias. We investigated the age-dependent changes of structural and functional anisotropy in isolated right atria from infant (1 to 2 months), young (6 to 12 months), and old (6 to 10 years) dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: The histology of the ...
Leibold Lori J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Reaction time (RT) to sound is known to be related to loudness in adult listeners. The purpose of this study was to determine whether infants' RT to sound decreases systematically with intensity as it does in adults. DESIGN: RT was measured for 24 6- to 9-mo-old infants and 11 ...
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