Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1078
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Okumura Akihisa - - 2006
The aim of this study is to clarify the usefulness of amplitude spectral analysis for the evaluation of maturational changes of theta, alpha, and beta activities in preterm infants. We chose 10 healthy infants, who were born without complications other than prematurity, who were 29-30 weeks, 31-32 weeks, and 33-34 ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2006
Visual completion has been divided into two types: modal and amodal. While psychophysical studies with adults provided several common properties between modal and amodal completion, studies with infants showed differential trends in the development of these perceptual abilities. In the present study, we further examined the development of these two ...
Karlsson Karl A E - - 2006
Hippocampal sharp waves (SPWs) are among the earliest neural population patterns observed in infant mammals. Similarly, startles are among the earliest behavioral events observed. Here we provide evidence indicating that these two events are linked mechanistically soon after birth in freely moving and head-fixed 1 to 4-day-old rats. EMG electrodes ...
Hunnius Sabine - - 2006
The relation between the developmental trajectories of visual scanning and disengagement of attention and gaze were examined throughout early infancy. A sample of 10 infants carried out a scanning and a disengagement task with the same visual stimuli six times between 6 and 26 weeks of age. Frequency and latency ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2005
A familiarization-novelty preference procedure was used to determine whether 3- to 4-month-old and 6- to 7-month-old infants utilize the Gestalt principle of good continuation to organize visual patterns. The study involved presentation of a target item (i.e., a square or diamond) either in-line or off-line with a set of distractor ...
Chien Sarina Hui-Lin - - 2005
When adults view a disk of light embedded in a higher luminance surround, the perceived lightness of the disk is largely determined by the surround to disk luminance ratio (Wallach's ratio rule). In the present study, both adult and infant subjects were tested with multiple discrete trial procedures in which ...
Carter R Colin - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure ascertained prospectively on infant visual acuity across a range of exposures and factors that mediate or moderate these effects. STUDY DESIGN: Infant visual acuity was examined in 131 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) maternal-infant pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. Drinking patterns ...
Catanzarite V - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between visualization of key fetal anatomic structures during mid-trimester ultrasound examination with gestational age and duration of examination. METHODS: One hundred ultrasound examinations at 16-22 weeks' gestation were reviewed to determine the times at which key fetal anatomic features were seen. Scans were terminated at ...
Todd N Wendell - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus why the manubrium of the malleus, as viewed clinically through the external ear canal, generally points downward and posteriorly. OBJECTIVES: To depict the alignment of the handle of the malleus, viewed clinically through the external auditory canal, relative to the zygomatic arch, the Frankfort plane, ...
Mash Clay - - 2005
PURPOSE: Intraobserver test-retest reliability of the Teller Acuity Card (TAC) procedure for estimating grating acuity was assessed in 79 infants who had been treated in a neonatal intensive care unit for preterm birth and/or other perinatal complications. METHODS: Subjects were tested monocularly at one or more of four different age ...
Hansen Ronald M - - 2005
To assess cone photoreceptor and cone-mediated postreceptoral retinal function in infants. ERG responses to a 1.8-log unit range of long-wavelength flashes on a white, rod-saturating background were recorded in 4-week-old (n = 22) and 10-week-old (n = 28) infants and control adults and children, 8 to 40 years of age ...
Braddick Oliver - - 2005
During the first 3 months, infants develop visual evoked potential (VEP) responses that are signatures of cortical orientation-selectivity and directional motion selectivity. Orientation-specific cortical responses develop in early infancy. This study compared these responses directly in the same infants, to investigate whether the later appearance of direction selectivity was intrinsic, ...
Till Christine - - 2005
Despite an accumulating body of evidence demonstrating that the visual system is an important target for organic solvent toxicity in adults, little attention has been paid to the visual functioning of children with prenatal exposure to organic solvents. The present study aimed to: (1) determine prospectively whether prenatal solvent exposure ...
Tez Selda - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To obtain normative data for fetal pharyngeal diameter and to investigate the ability to visualize pharynx at different gestational ages during routine prenatal sonography. METHODS: Sonographic studies were performed in 292 consecutive pregnant women. The diameters of the pharynx were measured and our ability to visualize pharynx was evaluated ...
Lew Adina R - - 2005
Several theories of spatial orientation propose that the geometry of an environment plays a privileged role in reorientation, relative to relations between individual landmarks. Infants (N = 90) in three age groups (6, 8 1/2, and 12 months) experienced three conditions: topological, geometric, and control. A round room contained four ...
Sireteanu Ruxandra - - 2005
We investigated whether young infants orient reliably towards more salient vs. less salient objects in a visual scene. Subjects were tested with stimuli presented on textured fields, one side showing a target stimulus (a 'more salient' or 'less salient' texture patch) and the other a background stimulus. Infants typically preferred ...
Bosworth Rain G - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate asymmetries in detection of horizontal motion in normal infants and children and in patients with infantile esotropia. Motion detection thresholds (% motion signal) were measured in 75 normal infants and in 36 eyes of 27 infants with infantile esotropia (ET), using a ...
Siatkowski R Michael - - 2005
PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether visual field abnormalities occur in infants with deformational posterior plagiocephaly and to assess whether there is a relationship between the severity and laterality of visual field abnormalities with the severity and laterality of skull deformity. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 40 ...
Winges Kimberly M - - 2005
Delayed visual maturation (DVM) is usually a retrospective diagnosis given to infants who are born with no or poor visually-directed behavior, despite normal acuity on objective testing, but who recover months later. This condition can be organized into several types based on associated neurodevelopmental or ocular findings, but the etiology ...
Hollich George - - 2005
In 4 studies, 7.5-month-olds used synchronized visual-auditory correlations to separate a target speech stream when a distractor passage was presented at equal loudness. Infants succeeded in a segmentation task (using the head-turn preference procedure with video familiarization) when a video of the talker's face was synchronized with the target passage ...
Feeney M Patrick - - 2005
This study examined the measurement of the contralateral acoustic stapedius reflex in six-week-old infants and adults using wideband shifts in admittance and energy reflectance (YR). The reflex activator was bandpass noise from 2,500 to 11,000 Hz presented at a maximum spectrum level of 51 dB SPL measured in the ear ...
Zwaigenbaum Lonnie - - 2005
In the interest of more systematically documenting the early signs of autism, and of testing specific hypotheses regarding their underlying neurodevelopmental substrates, we have initiated a longitudinal study of high-risk infants, all of whom have an older sibling diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Our sample currently includes 150 infant ...
Pereira Leonardo - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between visual assessment of the cervix and digital examination. METHODS: Prospective study of patients presenting to Labor and Delivery. Exclusion criteria were preterm premature ruptured membranes (PPROM) and placenta previa. Visual and digital assessments of cervical dilation, effacement, position, and station of fetal presenting part ...
Moskowitz Anne - - 2005
PURPOSE: Study the scotopic and photopic oscillatory potentials (OPs) of the electroretinogram (ERG) in 10-week old infants. METHODS: Term-born 10-week old infants (n = 15) and adults (n = 12) were tested. Full-field ERGs were recorded under scotopic and photopic conditions. The records were filtered (75-300 Hz) to demonstrate the ...
Benavente Isabel - - 2005
The aim of this paper has been to obtain normative data for the major components of the visually evoked potentials obtained by flash stimulus (F-PEV) in the newborn, and to analyse the evolution of these responses during the first 24 weeks of life. In order to do so, F-VEP were ...
Hansen Ronald M - - 2005
PURPOSE: To study deactivation of the rod photoresponse in infants using a paired-flash procedure. Rhodopsin content increases and scales the parameters of the activation of rod phototransduction as rods develop. However, little is known about the kinetics of deactivation in the rods of young infants. METHODS: ERG responses to pairs ...
Yoo Seung-Schik - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of visualizing a 3-dimensional structure of cerebral white matter fiber tracts in preterm infants, postconceptional age (PCA) 28 weeks to term, by using volumetric diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We combined tractography algorithms and ...
Brown Angela M - - 2005
Infant and adult vernier acuity differed by a factor of only 4 to 6 when the stimuli were periodic and results were expressed in units of spatial phase. This ratio was much smaller than the factor of 50 to 100 obtained when we expressed our results and those of others ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2005
The capacity to represent the world in terms of numerically distinct objects (i.e., object individuation) is a milestone in early cognitive development and forms the foundation for more complex thought and behavior. Over the past 10 to 15 yr, infant researchers have expended a great deal of effort to identify ...
Morale Sarah E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the critical period during which the dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the maturation of visual cortical function in term infants. AIM: To define the relationship between duration of dietary LCPUFA supply and visual acuity at 52 weeks of age. STUDY ...
Delaney Suzanne M - - 2004
PURPOSE: To explore the effect of peripheral stimulus flicker rate on measured visual field extent (MVFE) in young infants. METHODS: Three hundred sixty infants (180 each at 3.5 and 7 months of age) were tested monocularly with a light-emitting diode static perimetry procedure using a double-arc perimeter with arms at ...
Anker S - - 2004
The Second Cambridge Population Infant Vision Screening Programme using the VPR-1 videorefractor without cycloplegia was undertaken in order to identify those infants with refractive errors who were potentially amblyogenic or strabismogenic. Infants identified at eight months were entered into a control trial of treatment with partial spectacle correction and underwent ...
John M Sasha - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the auditory steady-state responses evoked by amplitude-modulated (AM), mixed-modulated (MM), exponentially-modulated (AM2), and frequency-modulated (FM) tones in 50 newborn infants (within 3 days of birth) and in 20 older infants (within 3-15 wk of birth). Our hypothesis was that MM and AM2 tonal stimuli would evoke ...
Kato Toru - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate flash visual evoked potential (VEP) findings and their chronological changes in preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) during the early neonatal period. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 14 preterm infants with cystic PVL. The patients underwent serial ...
Leppänen Paavo H T - - 2004
The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs), a measure of passive change detection, is suggested to develop early in comparison to other ERP components, and an MMN-like response has been measured even from preterm infants. The MMN response in adults is negative in polarity at about 150-200 ms. ...
Spierer Abraham - - 2004
PURPOSE: To measure grating visual acuity in premature infants and compare it with that in full-term infants. METHODS: The visual acuity of 73 premature and 73 full-term infants was tested at 6 months of age by the Teller Acuity Card procedure. All premature infants had undergone indirect funduscopy for the ...
Brannon Elizabeth M - - 2004
Ten-month-old infants and adults were tested in an auditory oddball paradigm in which 50-ms tones were separated by 1500 ms (standard interval) and occasionally 500 ms (deviant interval). Both infants and adults showed marked brain responses to the tone that followed a deviant inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Specifically, the timing-deviance event-related-potential ...
Hoffman Dennis R - - 2004
Between 6 and 12 mo of age, blood levels of the (n-3) long-chain PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in breast-fed infants typically decrease due to diminished maternal DHA stores and the introduction of DHA-poor solid foods displacing human milk as the primary source of nutrition. Thus, we utilized a randomized, clinical ...
Friedrich M - - 2004
The present study investigated whether delayed auditory processing typically found in children with specific language impairment (SLI) can already be observed in the event-related potentials of 2-month-old infants. Infants with and without a family history of SLI were tested in a passive auditory oddball paradigm with CV-syllables differing in vowel ...
Oliveira A G F - - 2004
Although healthy preterm infants frequently seem to be more attentive to visual stimuli and to fix on them longer than full-term infants, no difference in visual acuity has been reported compared to term infants. We evaluated the contrast sensitivity (CS) function of term (N = 5) and healthy preterm (N ...
Ranote S - - 2004
Using fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of maternal responsiveness. Ten healthy mothers viewed alternating blocks of video: (i) 40 s of their own infant; (ii) 20 s of a neutral video; (iii) 40 s of an unknown infant and (iv) 20 s of neutral video, repeated 4 times. Predominant ...
Bosompem K M - - 2004
We used a rapid, visually read, field applicable monoclonal antibody (MoAb)-dipstick assay for specific diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis together with microscopy to determine the prevalence of infant schistosomiasis in a community in the Awutu-Efutu Senya District in the Central Region of Ghana. The study group consisted of 97 infants (51 ...
Katz Milton - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Fresnel and wedge-shaped refractive prisms are used diagnostically and therapeutically in clinical practice. This article extends the study on the effect of prisms on visual acuity to the effect on contrast sensitivity by membrane Fresnel (F), refractive (R), and newly designed hybrid diffractive (C) prisms (ComPrisms), which combine a ...
Riva E - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic chlorines and heavy metals, which are supplied to the foetus by transplacental transfer and to breastfed infants by the milk, may impair cognitive functions. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are known to enhance development during foetal life and early infancy, may ...
Kook Michael S - - 2004
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of cataract extraction on the results of frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective, case series. METHODS: We performed FDT threshold C20-1 and Humphrey Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm (SITA)-fast programs within 1 month before and 2 months after phacoemulsification in 52 ...
Sherer David M - - 2004
The cavum septum pellucidum is a fluid-filled cavity located between the membranes of the septi pellucidi, which should always be visualized sonographically in normal fetuses between 18 and 37 weeks gestation and in approximately 50% of term infants. The cavum vergae, a cavity within the septum pellucidum, is located posterior ...
Pereverzeva Maria - - 2004
When infants are tested with stimuli of various chromaticities embedded in a dark or achromatic (white) surround, they show maximal preference for stimuli of maximal colorimetric purity, and minimal preference for achromatic stimuli. We investigated how this pattern of preferences changes with changes of surround chromaticity. Sixteen-week-old infants were tested ...
Emukah Emmanuel C - - 2004
We conducted a cohort study on impact of effects of eight years of annual ivermectin mass treatment administered in eight villages in Imo State, Nigeria. Physical and visual acuity examinations carried out in 462 persons in 1995, prior to the launching of mass drug administration with ivermectin, were compared with ...
Dibiasi Jasmin - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the quality of general movements (GMs) in young infants is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for detecting brain dysfunction early in life. Of special interest is a type of GMs called fidgety movements (FMs) characteristic for 3- to 5-month-old infants. GMs are part of an ...
Roy Marie-Sylvie - - 2004
The aim of the study was to evaluate the pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP) combined with an optimal state of vigilance, called liberated state (LS), in order to improve testing in very young infants. Transient PVEP were recorded in response to a checkerboard pattern of 120, 60 and 30 min ...
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