Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1098
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Guzzetta A - - 2006
Psychological tests based on visual information processing have shown to be promising in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in infants at risk. In the present study we prospectively investigated the early development in a group of 20 high-risk preterm infants by means of i) the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence at 7, ...
Fellman Vineta - - 2006
The possibility of recording changes in electroencephalography potentials following perception of sound was reported several decades ago. The recent expanding research on auditory cortical event-related potentials (AERPs) for assessing sound discrimination abilities in children and infants has indicated that several methodological issues need to be addressed before it can be ...
Kaldy Zsuzsa - - 2006
We report a new method for calibrating differences in perceptual salience across feature dimensions, in infants. The problem of inter-dimensional salience arises in many areas of infant studies, but a general method for addressing the problem has not previously been described. Our method is based on a preferential looking paradigm, ...
Neil Patricia A - - 2006
Previous studies have shown that adults respond faster and more reliably to bimodal compared to unimodal localization cues. The current study investigated for the first time the development of audiovisual (A-V) integration in spatial localization behavior in infants between 1 and 10 months of age. We observed infants' head and ...
Oakes Lisa M - - 2006
The binding of object identity (color) and location in visual short-term memory (VSTM) was examined in 6.5- to 12.5-month-old infants (N= 144). Although we previously found that by age 6.5 months, infants can represent both color and location in VSTM, in the present study we observed that 6.5-month-old infants could ...
Mirabella Giuseppe - - 2006
Extremely preterm infants are at risk for neurodevelopmental problems and the visual system is particularly vulnerable. However, development of visual function in preterm infants with little or no retinal or neurologic injury has not been well defined. This study compared development of visual function in preterm infants without severe retinopathy ...
Garbutt Siobhan - - 2006
Saccadic eye movements are essential for redirecting the fovea at different visual targets. In adults and children saccades are remarkably stereotyped. Peak velocity and duration of saccades are a simple function of saccade amplitude called the 'main sequence'. Saccades that are substantially slower than normal often reflect disease of the ...
Jiang Ze D - - 2006
CONCLUSION: Peripheral auditory threshold does not correlate with brainstem auditory function in preterm infants. Infants with peripheral auditory abnormality seem not to be necessarily more prone to brainstem auditory abnormality than those without the elevation, although further studies are needed in a larger number of subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ...
Calandruccio Lauren - - 2006
Multifrequency tympanometry data were measured multiple times between the ages of four weeks and two years from 33 infants/toddlers. Tympanograms were also measured from 33 adult participants. Tympanograms recorded with five probe-tone frequencies (226, 400, 630, 800, and 1000 Hz) were classified using the Vanhuyse et al model classification system ...
Blade Pamela J - - 2006
Eccentric photorefraction provides an opportunity to gather rapid and remote estimates of refraction and gaze position from infants. The technique has the potential for extensive use in vision screenings and studies of visual development. The goal of this study was to assess the refraction calibration of the PowerRefractor (Multichannel Systems) ...
Cheatham Carol L CL University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Kansas City, KS 66160, - - 2006
Several randomized clinical studies in infants born preterm and at term have explored the effects on visual acuity development of postnatal supplementation with various sources of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Higher visual acuity after DHA supplementation is a consistent finding in infants born preterm. For infants born at term, the results ...
Kotsoni Eleni E University of London, - - 2006
Common-onset visual masking (COVM) occurs when a mask and a target have common onset but delayed offset, with the mask persisting beyond the duration of the target [Di Lollo, V., Enns, J. T., & Rensink, R. A. Competition for consciousness among visual events: The psychophysics of reentrant visual events. Journal ...
Leibold Lori J LJ Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. - - 2006
The effect of masker-frequency variability on the detection performance of 7-9 month-old infants and adults was examined. Listeners detected a 300-ms 1000-Hz pure tone masked by: (1) A random-frequency two-tone complex; (2) a fixed-frequency two-tone complex; or (3) a broadband noise. Maskers repeated at 300-ms intervals throughout testing at 60 ...
Wensveen Janice M JM College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-2020, USA. - - 2006
To characterize how the mechanisms that produce unilateral form-deprivation amblyopia integrate the effects of normal and abnormal vision over time, the effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision on the spatial vision losses produced by monocular form deprivation were investigated in infant monkeys. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, ...
Jiang Ze D - - 2006
We recorded serially brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) during the neonatal period in term infants who suffered perinatal asphyxia. The amplitudes of BAER components was analysed at 40 dB above BAER threshold of each subject who had a threshold<or=25 dB nHL. No apparent changes in the amplitudes of waves I ...
Courage Mary L - - 2006
To examine the development of look duration as a function of age and stimulus type, 14- to 52-week-old infants were shown static and dynamic versions of faces, Sesame Street material, and achromatic patterns for 20 s of accumulated looking. Heart rate was recorded during looking and parsed into stimulus orienting, ...
Drover James R - - 2006
PURPOSE: We assessed the retest variability of a new contrast sensitivity (CS) card procedure and its ability to predict spatial resolution. METHODS: Twenty-four 3-month-olds were tested twice with the CS cards and once with the Teller acuity cards (TAC) within a single session. RESULTS: Coefficient of repeatability (COR) analysis revealed ...
Adler Scott A - - 2006
Visual search studies with adults have shown that stimuli that contain a unique perceptual feature pop out from dissimilar distractors and are unaffected by the number of distractors. Studies with very young infants have suggested that they too might exhibit pop-out. However, infant studies have used paradigms in which pop-out ...
Ricci Daniela D Paediatric Neurology Unit, Catholic University, Rome, - - 2006
The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the presence and severity of cerebral visual impairment in preterm infants with PVL. We also wished to establish whether abnormalities of visual function are related to brain MRI findings and more specifically not only to the involvement of optic radiations and ...
Johnson T Mark - - 2006
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility of the use of a flexible intraocular rake to remove epiretinal membranes (ERM). DESIGN: Interventional case series. METHODS: A multi-tine flexible intraocular rake was designed. Ten consecutive patients with idiopathic epiretinal membranes underwent vitrectomy and removal of the ERM with the intraocular rake. Outcome measures ...
Okumura Akihisa - - 2006
The aim of this study is to clarify the usefulness of amplitude spectral analysis for the evaluation of maturational changes of theta, alpha, and beta activities in preterm infants. We chose 10 healthy infants, who were born without complications other than prematurity, who were 29-30 weeks, 31-32 weeks, and 33-34 ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2006
Visual completion has been divided into two types: modal and amodal. While psychophysical studies with adults provided several common properties between modal and amodal completion, studies with infants showed differential trends in the development of these perceptual abilities. In the present study, we further examined the development of these two ...
Karlsson Karl A E - - 2006
Hippocampal sharp waves (SPWs) are among the earliest neural population patterns observed in infant mammals. Similarly, startles are among the earliest behavioral events observed. Here we provide evidence indicating that these two events are linked mechanistically soon after birth in freely moving and head-fixed 1 to 4-day-old rats. EMG electrodes ...
Hunnius Sabine - - 2006
The relation between the developmental trajectories of visual scanning and disengagement of attention and gaze were examined throughout early infancy. A sample of 10 infants carried out a scanning and a disengagement task with the same visual stimuli six times between 6 and 26 weeks of age. Frequency and latency ...
Quinn Paul C - - 2005
A familiarization-novelty preference procedure was used to determine whether 3- to 4-month-old and 6- to 7-month-old infants utilize the Gestalt principle of good continuation to organize visual patterns. The study involved presentation of a target item (i.e., a square or diamond) either in-line or off-line with a set of distractor ...
Chien Sarina Hui-Lin - - 2005
When adults view a disk of light embedded in a higher luminance surround, the perceived lightness of the disk is largely determined by the surround to disk luminance ratio (Wallach's ratio rule). In the present study, both adult and infant subjects were tested with multiple discrete trial procedures in which ...
Carter R Colin - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure ascertained prospectively on infant visual acuity across a range of exposures and factors that mediate or moderate these effects. STUDY DESIGN: Infant visual acuity was examined in 131 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) maternal-infant pairs in Cape Town, South Africa. Drinking patterns ...
Catanzarite V - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between visualization of key fetal anatomic structures during mid-trimester ultrasound examination with gestational age and duration of examination. METHODS: One hundred ultrasound examinations at 16-22 weeks' gestation were reviewed to determine the times at which key fetal anatomic features were seen. Scans were terminated at ...
Todd N Wendell - - 2005
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus why the manubrium of the malleus, as viewed clinically through the external ear canal, generally points downward and posteriorly. OBJECTIVES: To depict the alignment of the handle of the malleus, viewed clinically through the external auditory canal, relative to the zygomatic arch, the Frankfort plane, ...
Mash Clay - - 2005
PURPOSE: Intraobserver test-retest reliability of the Teller Acuity Card (TAC) procedure for estimating grating acuity was assessed in 79 infants who had been treated in a neonatal intensive care unit for preterm birth and/or other perinatal complications. METHODS: Subjects were tested monocularly at one or more of four different age ...
Hansen Ronald M - - 2005
To assess cone photoreceptor and cone-mediated postreceptoral retinal function in infants. ERG responses to a 1.8-log unit range of long-wavelength flashes on a white, rod-saturating background were recorded in 4-week-old (n = 22) and 10-week-old (n = 28) infants and control adults and children, 8 to 40 years of age ...
Braddick Oliver - - 2005
During the first 3 months, infants develop visual evoked potential (VEP) responses that are signatures of cortical orientation-selectivity and directional motion selectivity. Orientation-specific cortical responses develop in early infancy. This study compared these responses directly in the same infants, to investigate whether the later appearance of direction selectivity was intrinsic, ...
Till Christine - - 2005
Despite an accumulating body of evidence demonstrating that the visual system is an important target for organic solvent toxicity in adults, little attention has been paid to the visual functioning of children with prenatal exposure to organic solvents. The present study aimed to: (1) determine prospectively whether prenatal solvent exposure ...
Tez Selda - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To obtain normative data for fetal pharyngeal diameter and to investigate the ability to visualize pharynx at different gestational ages during routine prenatal sonography. METHODS: Sonographic studies were performed in 292 consecutive pregnant women. The diameters of the pharynx were measured and our ability to visualize pharynx was evaluated ...
Lew Adina R - - 2005
Several theories of spatial orientation propose that the geometry of an environment plays a privileged role in reorientation, relative to relations between individual landmarks. Infants (N = 90) in three age groups (6, 8 1/2, and 12 months) experienced three conditions: topological, geometric, and control. A round room contained four ...
Sireteanu Ruxandra - - 2005
We investigated whether young infants orient reliably towards more salient vs. less salient objects in a visual scene. Subjects were tested with stimuli presented on textured fields, one side showing a target stimulus (a 'more salient' or 'less salient' texture patch) and the other a background stimulus. Infants typically preferred ...
Bosworth Rain G - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate asymmetries in detection of horizontal motion in normal infants and children and in patients with infantile esotropia. Motion detection thresholds (% motion signal) were measured in 75 normal infants and in 36 eyes of 27 infants with infantile esotropia (ET), using a ...
Siatkowski R Michael - - 2005
PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether visual field abnormalities occur in infants with deformational posterior plagiocephaly and to assess whether there is a relationship between the severity and laterality of visual field abnormalities with the severity and laterality of skull deformity. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 40 ...
Winges Kimberly M - - 2005
Delayed visual maturation (DVM) is usually a retrospective diagnosis given to infants who are born with no or poor visually-directed behavior, despite normal acuity on objective testing, but who recover months later. This condition can be organized into several types based on associated neurodevelopmental or ocular findings, but the etiology ...
Hollich George - - 2005
In 4 studies, 7.5-month-olds used synchronized visual-auditory correlations to separate a target speech stream when a distractor passage was presented at equal loudness. Infants succeeded in a segmentation task (using the head-turn preference procedure with video familiarization) when a video of the talker's face was synchronized with the target passage ...
Feeney M Patrick - - 2005
This study examined the measurement of the contralateral acoustic stapedius reflex in six-week-old infants and adults using wideband shifts in admittance and energy reflectance (YR). The reflex activator was bandpass noise from 2,500 to 11,000 Hz presented at a maximum spectrum level of 51 dB SPL measured in the ear ...
Zwaigenbaum Lonnie - - 2005
In the interest of more systematically documenting the early signs of autism, and of testing specific hypotheses regarding their underlying neurodevelopmental substrates, we have initiated a longitudinal study of high-risk infants, all of whom have an older sibling diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Our sample currently includes 150 infant ...
Pereira Leonardo - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between visual assessment of the cervix and digital examination. METHODS: Prospective study of patients presenting to Labor and Delivery. Exclusion criteria were preterm premature ruptured membranes (PPROM) and placenta previa. Visual and digital assessments of cervical dilation, effacement, position, and station of fetal presenting part ...
Moskowitz Anne - - 2005
PURPOSE: Study the scotopic and photopic oscillatory potentials (OPs) of the electroretinogram (ERG) in 10-week old infants. METHODS: Term-born 10-week old infants (n = 15) and adults (n = 12) were tested. Full-field ERGs were recorded under scotopic and photopic conditions. The records were filtered (75-300 Hz) to demonstrate the ...
Benavente Isabel - - 2005
The aim of this paper has been to obtain normative data for the major components of the visually evoked potentials obtained by flash stimulus (F-PEV) in the newborn, and to analyse the evolution of these responses during the first 24 weeks of life. In order to do so, F-VEP were ...
Hansen Ronald M - - 2005
PURPOSE: To study deactivation of the rod photoresponse in infants using a paired-flash procedure. Rhodopsin content increases and scales the parameters of the activation of rod phototransduction as rods develop. However, little is known about the kinetics of deactivation in the rods of young infants. METHODS: ERG responses to pairs ...
Yoo Seung-Schik - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of visualizing a 3-dimensional structure of cerebral white matter fiber tracts in preterm infants, postconceptional age (PCA) 28 weeks to term, by using volumetric diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We combined tractography algorithms and ...
Brown Angela M - - 2005
Infant and adult vernier acuity differed by a factor of only 4 to 6 when the stimuli were periodic and results were expressed in units of spatial phase. This ratio was much smaller than the factor of 50 to 100 obtained when we expressed our results and those of others ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2005
The capacity to represent the world in terms of numerically distinct objects (i.e., object individuation) is a milestone in early cognitive development and forms the foundation for more complex thought and behavior. Over the past 10 to 15 yr, infant researchers have expended a great deal of effort to identify ...
Morale Sarah E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the critical period during which the dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the maturation of visual cortical function in term infants. AIM: To define the relationship between duration of dietary LCPUFA supply and visual acuity at 52 weeks of age. STUDY ...
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