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Results 251 - 300 of 1096
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Tondel Grazyna M - - 2008
Achieving simultaneous single and clear visual experience during postnatal development depends on the temporal relationship between accommodation and vergence, in addition to their accuracies. This study was designed to examine one component of the dynamic relationship, the latencies of the responses. Infants and adults were tested in three conditions (i) ...
McKinnon Joseph F - - 2008
Complacent responses by staff to repeated "false" alarms have resulted in circumventing infant protection systems by kidnappers, reports the author, who makes the case for taking a new approach to and new attitude about the purpose and functioning of hospital alarm systems. Rather than looking at a so-called false alarm ...
Hunnius Sabine - - 2008
Several studies on visual development support the notion that healthy, low-risk preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to the visual world. It has been suggested, however, that mainly early developing sensory and motor processes are enhanced as a result of visual experience and early exercise, whereas later maturing processes ...
Simmer K - - 2008
The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids linolenic acid and linoleic acid are precursors of the n-3 and n-6 long chain fatty acids (LCPUFA). Infant formula has historically only contained the precursor fatty acids. Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are also essential nutrients in infancy. Over the last few years, some ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2008
In the current study we investigated infants' communication in the visual and auditory modalities as a function of the recipient's visual attention. We elicited pointing at interesting events from thirty-two 12-month olds and thirty-two 18-month olds in two conditions: when the recipient either was or was not visually attending to ...
Birtles Deirdre B DB Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2007
Orientation-specific cortical responses develop earlier in infancy than motion-specific responses. The maturation of orientation-reversal and direction-reversal visual evoked potentials was evaluated in 17 healthy, low risk, preterm infants (born <32 weeks gestation), compared with a group of 26 infants born at term. Both groups were studied at a corrected age ...
Mercuri Eugenio - - 2007
Disorders of visual function are common findings in children with neonatal brain lesions of antenatal and perinatal onset. In the last few years the development of age appropriate batteries for assessing visual function in the first years and the combined use of neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques have allowed to achieve ...
van der Meer Audrey L H - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of auditory information for rotation of the shortest way in twelve 6- to 9-month-old sighted infants. Behavior was manipulated by means of an auditory stimulus presented in four different directional angles (90 degrees , 112.5 degrees , 135 degrees , ...
Kayed Nanna S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A virtual object approaching on a collision course will elicit defensive blinking in infants. Previous research has shown that when precisely timing their blinks, full-term infants shift from using a strategy based on visual angle/angular velocity to a strategy based on time between 22 and 30 weeks of age. ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We have previously developed and described a battery of 9 items suitable for assessing different clinical aspects of visual function in newborn infants. AIM OF THE STUDY: Application of the test battery to a cohort of low risk term-born infants at 48 and 72 h after birth 1) to ...
Mazlan Rafidah - - 2007
This study aimed to compare the high frequency (1 kHz) tympanometry (HFT) and acoustic reflex (AR) measures obtained from infants at birth and at 6-7 weeks of age. HFT results and AR thresholds using a 2-kHz tone and broadband noise activators were obtained from 42 healthy full-term neonates (15 boys ...
Elliott Glen R D - - 2007
In response to mechanical stimuli the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Spongillidae) carries out a series of peristaltic-like contractions that is effective in expelling clumps of waste material from the aquiferous system. Rates of contraction depend on the region of tissue they are propagating through: 0.3-1 microm s(-1) in ...
Werner Lynne A - - 2007
It was previously reported that infants and adults exhibit masking of a tone by two tones of constant, remote frequencies. Neither informational nor energetic masking would be expected for adults under these conditions. In the present experiment, infants' and adults' detection of a tone masked by two constant frequency tones ...
Sandmeyer Lynne S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in Appaloosa horses in western Canada, investigate the association with the leopard complex of white spotting patterns, and further characterize the clinical and electroretinographic aspects of CSNB in the Appaloosa. ANIMALS STUDIED: Three groups of 10 Appaloosas were studied ...
O'Connor A R - - 2007
As survival of preterm infants improves, the long-term care of consequent ophthalmic problems is an expanding field. Preterm birth can inflict a host of challenges on the developing ocular system, resulting in the visual manifestations of varied significance and pathological scope. The ophthalmic condition most commonly associated with preterm birth ...
Lloyd I C - - 2007
Congenital and infantile cataracts produce deprivation amblyopia and can thus cause lifelong visual impairment. Successful management is dependent on early diagnosis and referral for surgery when indicated. Accurate optical rehabilitation and postoperative supervision are essential.The timing of surgery and its relationship to the duration of deprivation is important. Unilateral congenital ...
Kushiro Keisuke K Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Nihonmatsucho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, - - 2007
The visual and vestibular systems begin functioning early in life. However, it is unclear whether young infants perceive the dynamic world based on the retinal coordinate (egocentric reference frame) or the environmental coordinate (allocentric reference frame) when they encounter incongruence between frames of reference due to changes in body position. ...
Ng H S - - 2007
Emboli monitoring is nowadays based on the assessment of microembolic signals by Doppler ultrasound. However, the present systems have problems in detecting multiple emboli. A more dedicated algorithm for post-processing of the recorded Doppler signals was proposed. Based on the hypothesis that single and multiple gaseous emboli can be quantified ...
Ricci D - - 2007
The aim of this study was to assess various aspects of visual function in children with single-suture, non-syndromic craniosynostosis. Thirty-eight infants (28 males, 10 females; age range 3.5-13mo, mean age 7mo, 11 with plagiocephaly, 12 with trigonocephaly, and 15 with scaphocephaly), were assessed with a battery of tests specifically designed ...
McCleery Joseph P - - 2007
A wealth of data has documented impairments in face processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, the suggestion has been made that these impairments may arise from abnormal development of a subcortical system involved in face processing that originates in the magnocellular pathway of the primate visual system. ...
Wakai R T - - 2007
To follow the development of the auditory evoked on- and off-responses in early infancy. The subjects were healthy infants, studied at conceptional age (CA) 39-66 weeks. Serial auditory evoked responses (AERs) were recorded in 17 subjects in response to tones of frequency 1.5 kHz and duration 1.0 s in order ...
Sann Coralie - - 2007
The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to touch ...
Reddy Vasudevi - - 2007
We used a double video Live-Replay-Live procedure to explore self-self interactions in fourteen 9-week-old infants, repeated at 13-weeks with 10 of these infants. Using multiple measures of behavioural response we found that (1) in all cases where age effects held, duration of response was greater at 9- than at 13-weeks, ...
Eilander A - - 2007
The present paper evaluates the most recent randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation (with or without n-6 LCPUFA) during pregnancy, lactation, infancy and childhood on visual and cognitive development. Available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on cognitive ...
Needelman Howard - - 2007
The authors report the natural history of closure of the cavum Septi pellucidi in premature infants 26 to 27 weeks postconception at birth and compare the developmental outcome in these infants who had closure by 42 weeks postconception to those who still had a cavum septum pellucidi visualized on ultrasound ...
Amin Sanjiv B - - 2007
Our goal was to determine if multiple courses of antenatal betamethasone affect auditory neural maturation in 28 to 32 weeks' gestational age infants. A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare auditory neural maturation between premature infants exposed to 1 course of betamethasone and infants exposed to > or = ...
Sotomi O - - 2007
Best medical evidence indicates that surgical treatment of significant congenital cataracts is required within the first 3 months of life for optimal visual outcome. The aim of the present study was to review when the diagnosis of congenital cataracts was made in our region, by whom it was made, and ...
Brown Angela M - - 2007
PURPOSE: To determine what critical immaturity is responsible for the poor binocular stereopsis of human infants. METHODS: Infant and adult psychometric functions were measured for detection of stereoscopic depth in a random-texture display. A test stimulus defined by horizontal binocular disparity and a distracter stimulus defined by vertical disparity were ...
Sodian Beate - - 2007
Twelve- and 14-month-old infants' ability to represent another person's visual perspective (Level-1 visual perspective taking) was studied in a looking-time paradigm. Fourteen-month-olds looked longer at a person reaching for and grasping a new object when the old goal-object was visible than when it was invisible to the person (but visible ...
McDonald Craig G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the morphology of flash visual evoked potentials (fVEPs) obtained from infants hospitalized with severe, chronic malnutrition (marasmus). METHODS: A covariance-based principal component analysis with Promax factor rotation was applied to fVEPs obtained from malnourished infants and age-matched control subjects. RESULTS: The analysis suggests the presence of a ...
Tondel Grazyna M - - 2007
A young infant's environment routinely consists of moving objects. The dynamics of the infant accommodative system are almost unknown and yet have a large impact on habitual retinal image quality and visual experience. The goal of this study was to record infants' dynamic accommodative responses to stimuli moving at a ...
Atkinson Janette J Visual Development Unit, University College London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2007
To report on two population screening programs designed to detect significant refractive errors in 8308 8- to 9-month-old infants, examine the sequelae of infant hyperopia, and test whether early partial spectacle correction improved visual outcome (strabismus and acuity). The second program also examined whether infant hyperopia was associated with developmental ...
Slaughter Virginia - - 2007
One hundred and one published articles that used visual habituation or violation-of-expectation techniques with infants of 12 months or younger were surveyed. Information was compiled on the number of infants who failed to complete experimental procedures due to "fussiness" or other factors. Also noted for each experiment was whether or ...
Zeng ShaoJu - - 2007
The distribution of Met-enkephalin (ENK), substance P (SP) and serotonin (5-HT) differs between the core and shell regions of the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of the turtle [Belekhova et al., 2002]. These neurochemical distinctions are also found in other tetrapods (mammals, birds and amphibians). The distribution of ENK, SP ...
Hunnius Sabine - - 2007
Looking behavior plays a crucial role in the daily life of an infant and forms the basis for cognitive and social development. The infant's visual attentional systems undergo rapid development during the first few months of life. During the last decennia, the study of visual attentional development in infants has ...
Hammarrenger Benoit - - 2007
This study investigated the effect of very preterm birth (gestation < or =30wks) and very low birth weight (< or =1500g) on the development of magnocellular and parvocellular visual processing streams. Participants were preterm infants (n=55: 31 females, 24 males) born between 24 and 30 weeks'gestation (mean 27.4wks [SD 1.3]), ...
Flom Ross R Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA. - - 2007
This research examined the developmental course of infants' ability to perceive affect in bimodal (audiovisual) and unimodal (auditory and visual) displays of a woman speaking. According to the intersensory redundancy hypothesis (L. E. Bahrick, R. Lickliter, & R. Flom, 2004), detection of amodal properties is facilitated in multimodal stimulation and ...
Kayed Nanna Sønnichsen - - 2007
Blinking is a good indication of awareness to optical collisions in early infancy. In the current longitudinal study, infants were presented with the image of a looming virtual object approaching on a collision course under different constant velocities and constant accelerations. The aim was to investigate which timing strategies the ...
Cottin F - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to implement a new method for assessing the ventilatory thresholds from heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. ECG, VO2, VCO2, and VE were collected from eleven well-trained subjects during an incremental exhaustive test performed on a cycle ergometer. The "Short-Term Fourier Transform" analysis was applied ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2007
The aim of this study was to assess visual function in 13 infants with evidence of prenatal post haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. Infants were assessed at 5, 12 and 24 months using a battery of tests specifically designed to assess various aspects of visual function in infancy. Visual findings were correlated ...
Zemach Iris - - 2007
Infants show spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli [Adams, R. J. (1987). An evaluation of color preferences in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 143-150; Bornstein, M. H. (1975). Qualities of color vision in infancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19 (3), 401-419.]. These differences in preference have ...
Arditi Hadar - - 2006
In two experiments we examined the effects of human contact and vagal regulation on newborns' pain reactivity and visual attention. Baseline cardiac vagal tone was measured during quiet sleep and during the experiment, and vagal withdrawal was indexed as change in vagal tone from baseline to pain (study 1) or ...
Valenza Eloisa - - 2006
Despite decades of studies of human infants, a still open question concerns the role of visual experience in the development of the ability to perceive complete shapes over partial occlusion. Previous studies show that newborns fail to manifest this ability, either because they lack the visual experience required for perceptual ...
Blaga Otilia M - - 2006
Young infants have repeatedly been shown to be slower than older infants to shift fixation from a midline stimulus to a peripheral stimulus. This is generally thought to reflect maturation of the neural substrates that mediate the disengagement of attention, but this developmental difference may also be attributable to young ...
Laucht Manfred - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate the association between visual exploratory behaviour in early infancy, novelty seeking in adolescence, and the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genotype. METHODS: Visual attention was measured in 232 three-month-old infants (114 males, 118 females) from a prospective longitudinal study using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm. ...
Kato Toru - - 2006
We reviewed studies on the predictive value of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in the newborn. VEPs demonstrated a good correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome in full-term infants with birth asphyxia. However, their prognostic value in preterm infants is controversial. In preterm infants, most studies showed high specificities for neurodevelopmental outcome, but ...
Bortfeld Heather - - 2007
Sensitivity to spoken language is an integral part of infants' formative development, yet relatively little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie the emerging ability to perceive and process speech. This is in large part because there are a limited number of non-invasive techniques available to measure brain functioning ...
Vesper Stephen J - - 2007
The results of a traditional visual mold inspection were compared to a mold evaluation based on the Relative Moldiness Index (RMI). The RMI is calculated from mold-specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) measurements of the concentration of 36 species of molds in floor dust samples. These two prospective mold evaluations were used ...
Guzzetta A - - 2006
Psychological tests based on visual information processing have shown to be promising in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in infants at risk. In the present study we prospectively investigated the early development in a group of 20 high-risk preterm infants by means of i) the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence at 7, ...
Fellman Vineta - - 2006
The possibility of recording changes in electroencephalography potentials following perception of sound was reported several decades ago. The recent expanding research on auditory cortical event-related potentials (AERPs) for assessing sound discrimination abilities in children and infants has indicated that several methodological issues need to be addressed before it can be ...
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