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Results 201 - 250 of 1098
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- - 2010
To compare the use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses (IOLs) for the optical correction of unilateral aphakia during infancy. In a randomized, multicenter (12 sites) clinical trial, 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataracts were assigned to undergo cataract surgery with or without IOL implantation. Children randomized to IOL treatment ...
Farzin Faraz - - 2010
Our visual world is dynamic in nature. The ability to encode, mentally represent, and track an object's identity as it moves across time and space is critical for integrating and maintaining a complete and coherent view of the world. Here we investigated dynamic object processing in typically developing (TD) infants ...
Boers K E KE Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands. - - 2010
To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Eight academic and 44 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands between November 2004 and November 2008. Pregnant women ...
Shirai Nobu N Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku Niigata-city, Niigata 950-2181, Japan. - - 2010
Visual radial expansion/contraction motion provides important visual information that is used to control several adaptive actions. We investigated radial motion perception in infant Japanese macaque monkeys using an experimental procedure previously developed for human infants. We found that the infant monkeys' visual preference for the radial expansion pattern was greater ...
Bowman Richard - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to investigate the association between the distance at which infants fixate their own reflections and visual acuity card testing, and to determine whether this could form the basis of a new clinical test of visual function in infants. METHODS: 78 healthy infants under 9 months of ...
Walker Peter P Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YF, United Kingdom. - - 2010
Stimulation of one sensory modality can induce perceptual experiences in another modality that reflect synaesthetic correspondences among different dimensions of sensory experience. In visual-hearing synaesthesia, for example, higher pitched sounds induce visual images that are brighter, smaller, higher in space, and sharper than those induced by lower pitched sounds. Claims ...
Shirai Nobu N Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University, Japan. - - 2009
We report asymmetrical cortical responses (steady-state visual evoked potentials) to radial expansion and contraction in human infants and adults. Forty-four infants (22 3-month-olds and 22 4-month-olds) and nine adults viewed dynamic dot patterns which cyclically (2.1 Hz) alternate between radial expansion (or contraction) and random directional motion. The first harmonic ...
Simonsz H J - - 2009
Eleven infant boys presented with chin-up head posture, tonic downgaze and, on attempted upgaze, large-amplitude upward saccades with deceleration during the slow phase downward. The gaze-evoked upward saccades disappeared at the age of 2 or 3 years. In addition, they had high-frequency, small-amplitude horizontal pendular nystagmus that remained. Among these ...
Whitham Justine N - - 2010
This study compared the neurological development of 4 month old infants exposed to buprenorphine or methadone during pregnancy to that of a control group of non-exposed infants. Participants were 30 buprenorphine-maintained women, 22 methadone-maintained women and 33 non opioid-dependent controls, and their infants. Women were enrolled during pregnancy as part ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2009
Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants ...
Richardson Heidi L - - 2010
Previous studies have examined infant arousal responses to various arousal stimuli; however it is unclear whether the patterns of responses to different stimuli are comparable within subjects across early development. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of both respiratory and somatosensory stimulation on arousal processes in ...
Alaerts Jane - - 2010
Multiple-stimulus auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) were assessed in 111 ears of 70 infants between -4 and 19 weeks of age at risk for hearing loss. ASSR thresholds obtained in infants with normal hearing (n = 69 ears) were compared with normal adult ASSR thresholds (n = 32 ears), and the ...
Izard Véronique - - 2009
Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language ...
Renault F - - 2009
AIM: Hydroxychloroquine therapy during pregnancy is thought to be safe for foetuses. Normal visual function has been showed on clinical grounds in infants exposed in utero to hydroxychloroquine, but there are few visual neurophysiological data. Our study was designed to assess retina and visual pathways using electroretinogram and visual evoked ...
Aslin Richard N - - 2009
The role of early visual experience in human infant development has been inferred primarily by studies of visual deprivation (e.g., cataracts). Another approach, described here, is to provide a detailed description of the visual input gathered by normal infants in their natural environment. Recently, several labs have begun the laborious ...
Brown Angela M - - 2009
This is a targeted review of the critical immaturities limiting psychophysical luminance contrast detection in human infants. Three-month-old infants are 50 times less sensitive to contrast than adults are. Rod experiments suggest that early-stage immaturities, like the short length of infant rod outer segments, have only a modest direct effect ...
García-Quispe Leticia A - - 2009
The visual system undergoes major developmental changes in infancy and continues to mature throughout childhood. This study was designed to investigate the developmental change in the contrast response function and the neural mechanisms that contribute to this change. Participants were 29 infants from 15 to 28 weeks of age, two ...
Guzzetta Andrea - - 2009
Environmental enrichment (EE) was shown recently to accelerate brain development in rodents. Increased levels of maternal care, and particularly tactile stimulation through licking and grooming, may represent a key component in the early phases of EE. We hypothesized that enriching the environment in terms of body massage may thus accelerate ...
Hollich George - - 2009
How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type ...
Van Maanen Anna - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) to stimuli modulated at approximately 80 Hz are a promising technique for threshold estimation in infants, but additional data are required. RESEARCH DESIGN: We obtained multiple ASSRs to air-conducted (AC) stimuli. STUDY SAMPLE: There were 54 children in two age groups: > ...
Elsabbagh Mayada M Centre for Brain & Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK. - - 2009
Recent studies of infant siblings of children diagnosed with autism have allowed for a prospective approach to examine the emergence of symptoms and revealed behavioral differences in the broader autism phenotype within the early years. In the current study we focused on a set of functions associated with visual attention, ...
Suk Debbie - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography has become an important tool for assessing cortical status noninvasively. Newer units have the additional feature of visualizing the raw electroencephalogram, which has resulted in the identification of frequent artifacts. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the problem of artifacts and to introduce caution when using the amplitude-integrated electroencephalography technique ...
Ackles Patrick K - - 2009
This study tested theoretical accounts of the Nc component of the event-related brain potentials in six-month-old infants by replicating and extending a previous study [Ackles, P. K., & Cook, K. G. (2007). Attention or memory? Effects of familiarity and novelty on the Nc component in event-related brain potentials in six-month-old ...
Tsuruhara Aki - - 2009
We examined whether infants could visually discriminate the orientation of a grating surrounded by an oblique square (experiment 1) and a vertical square (experiment 2). A familiarisation-novelty preference procedure was used. In experiment 1, infants aged 4 to 6 months did not visually distinguish the orientation of a grating surrounded ...
Bulf Hermann - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to investigate how perceptual binding and selective attention operate during infants' and adults' visual search of an illusory figure. An eye-tracker system was used to test adults and infants in two conditions: illusory and non-illusory (real). In the illusory condition, a Kanizsa triangle ...
Bosworth Rain G - - 2009
In order to investigate the contributions of visual experience vs. preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, the current study compared contrast sensitivity in preterm vs. fullterm infants. If development is tied to time since conception, preterm infants should match the developmental trajectories of fullterm infants when plotted in postterm age. By ...
Dobkins Karen R - - 2009
To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are ...
Barbu-Roth Marianne - - 2009
This experiment examined whether newborn stepping, a primitive form of bipedal locomotion, could be modulated by optical flow. Forty-eight 3-day-old infants were exposed to optical flows that were projected onto a horizontal surface above which the infants were suspended. Significantly more air steps were elicited by exposure to a terrestrial ...
Reynolds Greg D - - 2009
Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to ...
Lowery Kristy J - - 2009
PURPOSE: To compare response patterns to video visual reinforcement audiometry (VVRA) and conventional visual reinforcement audiometry (CVRA) in infants 7-16 months of age. METHOD: Fourteen normal-hearing infants aged 7-16 months (8 male, 6 female) participated. A repeated measures design was used. Each infant was tested with VVRA and CVRA over ...
Rovet Joanne - - 2008
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of visual impairment. However, not all visual deficits can be fully explained by the typical prematurity morbidity factors. In addition, children born preterm often exhibit transient hypothroxinemia of prematurity (THOP) due to premature severing of the maternal supply of thyroid hormones. Because ...
Nys Gudrun M S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hemi-neglect is a disorder characterized by a disregard of contralesional stimuli. Some neglect patients also show an "exaggerated attention" for the ipsilesional field, reflected in perseverative responses, such as repetitive fixations in the ipsilesional field, ipsilesional revisitings on standard cancellation, or exaggerations in drawings on the ipsilesional side. OBJECTIVE ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) assess visual function in low-risk preterm infants at 35 and 40 weeks' postmenstrual age, (2) compare preterm visual abilities at term-equivalent age with term-born infants, and (3) evaluate effects of preterm extrauterine life on early visual function. METHODS: Visual function was ...
Jovanovic Bianca - - 2008
Infants' visual processing of objects is characterised by a developmental trend from a predominantly analytical to a configural processing mode. In two studies with 6- and 8-month-old infants, we sought to replicate this finding in a purely visual condition (inspecting objects), and to examine how far redundant visual-haptic information present ...
González-Frankenberger Berta - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether habituation of flash visual evoked potentials is already present during the first 3 months of life, and to explore differences between healthy infants, term infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and preterm infants with PVL. METHODS: Referential recordings to stimuli consisting of photic stimulation presented in blocks ...
van Dijk Wilco W - - 2008
The authors tested the hypothesis that the more individuals are responsible for their own misfortune, the more schadenfreude (i.e., pleasure derived from another's misfortune) and less sympathy the misfortune evokes in others. The results support the hypothesis, thereby providing further evidence for the role responsibility plays in emotional reactions to ...
Laughlin Nellie K - - 2008
High lead levels adversely affect visual function in humans and laboratory animals. The effects of lower lead levels are less certain. This study compared the development of photopic spatial acuity in rhesus monkeys exposed to lead (n = 43) with monkeys (n = 23) not exposed to lead. Lead exposure ...
Purhonen Maija - - 2008
The present study evaluated the impact of stimulus type and early motherhood on attentional processing. Auditory ERPs were recorded with a modified novelty oddball paradigm both in mothers who had recently given birth and in control women who were not in the state of early motherhood. Conventional tone pips were ...
Uchiyama Ichiro I Psychology Department, Doshisha University, Kyoto, - - 2008
Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. Visual proprioception refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls ...
Hansen Ronald M - - 2009
To assess function of the central retina in 10-week-old infants, multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs) were recorded. mfERG responses represent postreceptor retinal activity. In infants (n = 23) and adults (n = 10), mfERG responses to both unscaled and scaled 61 hexagon arrays were recorded. Amplitude and implicit time of negative (N(1), ...
Small Susan Anne - - 2008
The objective of this study was to compare bone-conduction (BC) auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) for infants and adults with normal hearing to investigate the time course of maturation of BC hearing sensitivity. Bone-conduction multiple ASSRs were recorded in 0-11-month-old (n=35), and 12-24-month-old infants (n=13), and adults (n=18). Low-frequency BC ASSR ...
Colombo John - - 2009
The use of visual habituation in the study of infant cognition and learning is reviewed. This article traces the history of the technique, underlying theory, and procedural variation in its measurement. In addition, we review empirical findings with respect to the cognitive processes that presumably contribute to habituation, studies of ...
Vasco G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: to investigate visual function pre- and post surgery in children with single-suture non-syndromic craniosynostosis DESIGN: Twenty-nine infants (12 with sagittal synostosis, 10 with trigonocephaly and 7 with anterior plagiocephaly) were longitudinally evaluated using a battery of tests assessing various aspects of visual function, including ocular behaviour, acuity, visual fields ...
Abel Larry A - - 2008
PURPOSE: To investigate the proper usage of wavelet analysis in infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) and determine its limitations and abilities. METHODS: Data were analyzed from accurate eye-movement recordings of INS patients. Wavelet analysis was performed to examine the foveation characteristics, morphologic characteristics and time variation in different INS waveforms. Also ...
Atkinson J J Visual Development Unit, Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2008
To test two measures of visual cortical function in the first year of life as early markers of functionally significant brain damage in infants born preterm: orientation-reversal visual event-related potentials (OR-VERP) and a behavioural test of cortically controlled visual attention-fixation shifts under competition (FS). Also to examine how these measures ...
Rothstein Jacob B - - 2008
Human participants played a computer game in which choices among five alternatives were concurrently reinforced according to dependent random-ratio schedules. "Dependent" indicates that choices to any of the wedges activated the random-number generators governing reinforcers on all five alternatives. Two conditions were compared. In the hold condition, once scheduled, a ...
Rose Isabelle - - 2008
Thirty-six 3-month old infants and the same number of 6-month old infants underwent three visual habituation procedures differentiated by degree of behavioural contingency. Results showed significant differences between conditions only for the six-month olds: the lower the contingency, the higher the visual fixation scores. Results support some of the propositions ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important to neural development. Whether DHA intakes are low enough in some pregnant women to impair infant development is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether DHA deficiency occurs in pregnant women and contributes to poor infant development. DESIGN: Biochemical cutoffs, dietary intakes, or developmental ...
McGlone L - - 2008
We investigated the effects of maternal drug misuse on neonatal visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Flash VEPs were recorded within 4 days of birth from 21 term infants of mothers misusing drugs and prescribed substitute methadone and 20 controls. Waveforms were classified as typical, atypical, immature or non-detectable, and amplitude and ...
Yin Rong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether central auditory function in preterm infants correlates with peripheral auditory threshold and whether threshold elevation affects central auditory function. METHODS: Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded at term age using maximum length sequence (MLS) with 91-910/s clicks in 133 preterm infants (gestation 28-36 weeks). The ...
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