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Results 201 - 250 of 1078
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Elsabbagh Mayada M Centre for Brain & Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK. - - 2009
Recent studies of infant siblings of children diagnosed with autism have allowed for a prospective approach to examine the emergence of symptoms and revealed behavioral differences in the broader autism phenotype within the early years. In the current study we focused on a set of functions associated with visual attention, ...
Suk Debbie - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography has become an important tool for assessing cortical status noninvasively. Newer units have the additional feature of visualizing the raw electroencephalogram, which has resulted in the identification of frequent artifacts. OBJECTIVE: To highlight the problem of artifacts and to introduce caution when using the amplitude-integrated electroencephalography technique ...
Ackles Patrick K - - 2009
This study tested theoretical accounts of the Nc component of the event-related brain potentials in six-month-old infants by replicating and extending a previous study [Ackles, P. K., & Cook, K. G. (2007). Attention or memory? Effects of familiarity and novelty on the Nc component in event-related brain potentials in six-month-old ...
Tsuruhara Aki - - 2009
We examined whether infants could visually discriminate the orientation of a grating surrounded by an oblique square (experiment 1) and a vertical square (experiment 2). A familiarisation-novelty preference procedure was used. In experiment 1, infants aged 4 to 6 months did not visually distinguish the orientation of a grating surrounded ...
Bulf Hermann - - 2009
The aim of the present study was to investigate how perceptual binding and selective attention operate during infants' and adults' visual search of an illusory figure. An eye-tracker system was used to test adults and infants in two conditions: illusory and non-illusory (real). In the illusory condition, a Kanizsa triangle ...
Bosworth Rain G - - 2009
In order to investigate the contributions of visual experience vs. preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, the current study compared contrast sensitivity in preterm vs. fullterm infants. If development is tied to time since conception, preterm infants should match the developmental trajectories of fullterm infants when plotted in postterm age. By ...
Dobkins Karen R - - 2009
To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are ...
Barbu-Roth Marianne - - 2009
This experiment examined whether newborn stepping, a primitive form of bipedal locomotion, could be modulated by optical flow. Forty-eight 3-day-old infants were exposed to optical flows that were projected onto a horizontal surface above which the infants were suspended. Significantly more air steps were elicited by exposure to a terrestrial ...
Reynolds Greg D - - 2009
Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to ...
Lowery Kristy J - - 2009
PURPOSE: To compare response patterns to video visual reinforcement audiometry (VVRA) and conventional visual reinforcement audiometry (CVRA) in infants 7-16 months of age. METHOD: Fourteen normal-hearing infants aged 7-16 months (8 male, 6 female) participated. A repeated measures design was used. Each infant was tested with VVRA and CVRA over ...
Rovet Joanne - - 2008
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of visual impairment. However, not all visual deficits can be fully explained by the typical prematurity morbidity factors. In addition, children born preterm often exhibit transient hypothroxinemia of prematurity (THOP) due to premature severing of the maternal supply of thyroid hormones. Because ...
Nys Gudrun M S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hemi-neglect is a disorder characterized by a disregard of contralesional stimuli. Some neglect patients also show an "exaggerated attention" for the ipsilesional field, reflected in perseverative responses, such as repetitive fixations in the ipsilesional field, ipsilesional revisitings on standard cancellation, or exaggerations in drawings on the ipsilesional side. OBJECTIVE ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to (1) assess visual function in low-risk preterm infants at 35 and 40 weeks' postmenstrual age, (2) compare preterm visual abilities at term-equivalent age with term-born infants, and (3) evaluate effects of preterm extrauterine life on early visual function. METHODS: Visual function was ...
Jovanovic Bianca - - 2008
Infants' visual processing of objects is characterised by a developmental trend from a predominantly analytical to a configural processing mode. In two studies with 6- and 8-month-old infants, we sought to replicate this finding in a purely visual condition (inspecting objects), and to examine how far redundant visual-haptic information present ...
González-Frankenberger Berta - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether habituation of flash visual evoked potentials is already present during the first 3 months of life, and to explore differences between healthy infants, term infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and preterm infants with PVL. METHODS: Referential recordings to stimuli consisting of photic stimulation presented in blocks ...
van Dijk Wilco W - - 2008
The authors tested the hypothesis that the more individuals are responsible for their own misfortune, the more schadenfreude (i.e., pleasure derived from another's misfortune) and less sympathy the misfortune evokes in others. The results support the hypothesis, thereby providing further evidence for the role responsibility plays in emotional reactions to ...
Uchiyama Ichiro - - 2008
Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. Visual proprioception refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls ...
Laughlin Nellie K - - 2008
High lead levels adversely affect visual function in humans and laboratory animals. The effects of lower lead levels are less certain. This study compared the development of photopic spatial acuity in rhesus monkeys exposed to lead (n = 43) with monkeys (n = 23) not exposed to lead. Lead exposure ...
Purhonen Maija - - 2008
The present study evaluated the impact of stimulus type and early motherhood on attentional processing. Auditory ERPs were recorded with a modified novelty oddball paradigm both in mothers who had recently given birth and in control women who were not in the state of early motherhood. Conventional tone pips were ...
Hansen Ronald M - - 2009
To assess function of the central retina in 10-week-old infants, multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs) were recorded. mfERG responses represent postreceptor retinal activity. In infants (n = 23) and adults (n = 10), mfERG responses to both unscaled and scaled 61 hexagon arrays were recorded. Amplitude and implicit time of negative (N(1), ...
Small Susan Anne - - 2008
The objective of this study was to compare bone-conduction (BC) auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) for infants and adults with normal hearing to investigate the time course of maturation of BC hearing sensitivity. Bone-conduction multiple ASSRs were recorded in 0-11-month-old (n=35), and 12-24-month-old infants (n=13), and adults (n=18). Low-frequency BC ASSR ...
Colombo John - - 2009
The use of visual habituation in the study of infant cognition and learning is reviewed. This article traces the history of the technique, underlying theory, and procedural variation in its measurement. In addition, we review empirical findings with respect to the cognitive processes that presumably contribute to habituation, studies of ...
Vasco G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: to investigate visual function pre- and post surgery in children with single-suture non-syndromic craniosynostosis DESIGN: Twenty-nine infants (12 with sagittal synostosis, 10 with trigonocephaly and 7 with anterior plagiocephaly) were longitudinally evaluated using a battery of tests assessing various aspects of visual function, including ocular behaviour, acuity, visual fields ...
Abel Larry A - - 2008
PURPOSE: To investigate the proper usage of wavelet analysis in infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) and determine its limitations and abilities. METHODS: Data were analyzed from accurate eye-movement recordings of INS patients. Wavelet analysis was performed to examine the foveation characteristics, morphologic characteristics and time variation in different INS waveforms. Also ...
Atkinson J J Visual Development Unit, Department of Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2008
To test two measures of visual cortical function in the first year of life as early markers of functionally significant brain damage in infants born preterm: orientation-reversal visual event-related potentials (OR-VERP) and a behavioural test of cortically controlled visual attention-fixation shifts under competition (FS). Also to examine how these measures ...
Rothstein Jacob B - - 2008
Human participants played a computer game in which choices among five alternatives were concurrently reinforced according to dependent random-ratio schedules. "Dependent" indicates that choices to any of the wedges activated the random-number generators governing reinforcers on all five alternatives. Two conditions were compared. In the hold condition, once scheduled, a ...
Rose Isabelle - - 2008
Thirty-six 3-month old infants and the same number of 6-month old infants underwent three visual habituation procedures differentiated by degree of behavioural contingency. Results showed significant differences between conditions only for the six-month olds: the lower the contingency, the higher the visual fixation scores. Results support some of the propositions ...
Innis Sheila M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important to neural development. Whether DHA intakes are low enough in some pregnant women to impair infant development is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether DHA deficiency occurs in pregnant women and contributes to poor infant development. DESIGN: Biochemical cutoffs, dietary intakes, or developmental ...
McGlone L - - 2008
We investigated the effects of maternal drug misuse on neonatal visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Flash VEPs were recorded within 4 days of birth from 21 term infants of mothers misusing drugs and prescribed substitute methadone and 20 controls. Waveforms were classified as typical, atypical, immature or non-detectable, and amplitude and ...
Yin Rong - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether central auditory function in preterm infants correlates with peripheral auditory threshold and whether threshold elevation affects central auditory function. METHODS: Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) was recorded at term age using maximum length sequence (MLS) with 91-910/s clicks in 133 preterm infants (gestation 28-36 weeks). The ...
Bassi Laura L NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, University of Milan, - - 2008
Children born prematurely have a high incidence of visual disorders which cannot always be explained by focal retinal or brain lesions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that visual function in preterm infants is related to the microstructural development of white matter in the optic radiations. ...
Moiseyev Gennadiy - - 2008
Cones recover their photosensitivity faster than rods after bleaching. It has been suggested that a higher rate regeneration of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore for visual pigments, is required for cones to continuously function under bright light conditions. RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase catalyzing a key step in regeneration of 11-cis-retinal. The present ...
Tondel Grazyna M - - 2008
Achieving simultaneous single and clear visual experience during postnatal development depends on the temporal relationship between accommodation and vergence, in addition to their accuracies. This study was designed to examine one component of the dynamic relationship, the latencies of the responses. Infants and adults were tested in three conditions (i) ...
McKinnon Joseph F - - 2008
Complacent responses by staff to repeated "false" alarms have resulted in circumventing infant protection systems by kidnappers, reports the author, who makes the case for taking a new approach to and new attitude about the purpose and functioning of hospital alarm systems. Rather than looking at a so-called false alarm ...
Hunnius Sabine - - 2008
Several studies on visual development support the notion that healthy, low-risk preterm infants benefit from their early exposure to the visual world. It has been suggested, however, that mainly early developing sensory and motor processes are enhanced as a result of visual experience and early exercise, whereas later maturing processes ...
Simmer K - - 2008
The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids linolenic acid and linoleic acid are precursors of the n-3 and n-6 long chain fatty acids (LCPUFA). Infant formula has historically only contained the precursor fatty acids. Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are also essential nutrients in infancy. Over the last few years, some ...
Liszkowski Ulf - - 2008
In the current study we investigated infants' communication in the visual and auditory modalities as a function of the recipient's visual attention. We elicited pointing at interesting events from thirty-two 12-month olds and thirty-two 18-month olds in two conditions: when the recipient either was or was not visually attending to ...
Birtles Deirdre B DB Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2007
Orientation-specific cortical responses develop earlier in infancy than motion-specific responses. The maturation of orientation-reversal and direction-reversal visual evoked potentials was evaluated in 17 healthy, low risk, preterm infants (born <32 weeks gestation), compared with a group of 26 infants born at term. Both groups were studied at a corrected age ...
Mercuri Eugenio - - 2007
Disorders of visual function are common findings in children with neonatal brain lesions of antenatal and perinatal onset. In the last few years the development of age appropriate batteries for assessing visual function in the first years and the combined use of neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques have allowed to achieve ...
van der Meer Audrey L H - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of auditory information for rotation of the shortest way in twelve 6- to 9-month-old sighted infants. Behavior was manipulated by means of an auditory stimulus presented in four different directional angles (90 degrees , 112.5 degrees , 135 degrees , ...
Kayed Nanna S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A virtual object approaching on a collision course will elicit defensive blinking in infants. Previous research has shown that when precisely timing their blinks, full-term infants shift from using a strategy based on visual angle/angular velocity to a strategy based on time between 22 and 30 weeks of age. ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2008
BACKGROUND: We have previously developed and described a battery of 9 items suitable for assessing different clinical aspects of visual function in newborn infants. AIM OF THE STUDY: Application of the test battery to a cohort of low risk term-born infants at 48 and 72 h after birth 1) to ...
Mazlan Rafidah - - 2007
This study aimed to compare the high frequency (1 kHz) tympanometry (HFT) and acoustic reflex (AR) measures obtained from infants at birth and at 6-7 weeks of age. HFT results and AR thresholds using a 2-kHz tone and broadband noise activators were obtained from 42 healthy full-term neonates (15 boys ...
Elliott Glen R D - - 2007
In response to mechanical stimuli the freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Spongillidae) carries out a series of peristaltic-like contractions that is effective in expelling clumps of waste material from the aquiferous system. Rates of contraction depend on the region of tissue they are propagating through: 0.3-1 microm s(-1) in ...
Werner Lynne A - - 2007
It was previously reported that infants and adults exhibit masking of a tone by two tones of constant, remote frequencies. Neither informational nor energetic masking would be expected for adults under these conditions. In the present experiment, infants' and adults' detection of a tone masked by two constant frequency tones ...
Sandmeyer Lynne S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) in Appaloosa horses in western Canada, investigate the association with the leopard complex of white spotting patterns, and further characterize the clinical and electroretinographic aspects of CSNB in the Appaloosa. ANIMALS STUDIED: Three groups of 10 Appaloosas were studied ...
O'Connor A R - - 2007
As survival of preterm infants improves, the long-term care of consequent ophthalmic problems is an expanding field. Preterm birth can inflict a host of challenges on the developing ocular system, resulting in the visual manifestations of varied significance and pathological scope. The ophthalmic condition most commonly associated with preterm birth ...
Lloyd I C - - 2007
Congenital and infantile cataracts produce deprivation amblyopia and can thus cause lifelong visual impairment. Successful management is dependent on early diagnosis and referral for surgery when indicated. Accurate optical rehabilitation and postoperative supervision are essential.The timing of surgery and its relationship to the duration of deprivation is important. Unilateral congenital ...
Kushiro Keisuke K Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Nihonmatsucho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, - - 2007
The visual and vestibular systems begin functioning early in life. However, it is unclear whether young infants perceive the dynamic world based on the retinal coordinate (egocentric reference frame) or the environmental coordinate (allocentric reference frame) when they encounter incongruence between frames of reference due to changes in body position. ...
Ng H S - - 2007
Emboli monitoring is nowadays based on the assessment of microembolic signals by Doppler ultrasound. However, the present systems have problems in detecting multiple emboli. A more dedicated algorithm for post-processing of the recorded Doppler signals was proposed. Based on the hypothesis that single and multiple gaseous emboli can be quantified ...
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