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Mennella Julie A - - 2011
Infant formulas differ considerably in composition and sensory profiles. In this randomized study, we examined whether healthy infants fed an extensively protein hydrolysate formula (PHF) would differ in feeding behavior and growth from those fed cow-milk formula (CMF). Infants were randomly assigned to be fed CMF or PHF between 0.5 ...
Thompson Deanne K - - 2011
The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. ...
Soderstrom Melanie - - 2011
We examined infants' perception of the intonational characteristics of yes-no questions and declarative sentences in English. Both infants habituated to questions and those habituated to declaratives preferred the question forms at test, suggesting that infants process these two sentence types differently.
Leeman Lawrence M - - 2010
Objective. Determine whether infants exposed to chronic maternal methadone with abnormal intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns are more likely to require treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Study design. Intrapartum FHR tracings analyzed in 104 pregnancies at ≥34 weeks gestation for FHR variability, accelerations, and decelerations. FHR patterns compared between neonates ...
Bartok Cynthia J - - 2011
Abstract Background: Numerous studies have documented short- and long-term differences in growth and body composition based on whether an infant is breastfed or formula-fed. However, little is known about whether these differences result from the substance consumed (breastmilk vs. formula) or from the delivery method (breast vs. bottle). This prospective ...
Model Dmitri - - 2011
A novel automated method to measure eye misalignment in infants is presented. The method uses estimates of the Hirschberg ratio (HR) and angle Kappa (the angle between the visual and optical axis) for each infant to calculate the angle of eye misalignment. The HR and angle Kappa are estimated automatically ...
Ward Nancy - - 2010
Infants have been known to be able to discriminate two languages using just the visual cues to speech. [Weikum et al., "Visual language discrimination in infancy," Science, 316, 1159 (2007)]. There have been no studies that have investigated whether infants can use this ability in their language acquisition. We investigated ...
Janssen Renée M - - 2010
There are few published reports providing quantitative information of clinical feasibility for tone-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR) protocols. In this study, the authors reviewed charts of 188 ABR assessments during a 20-mo period: 116 sedated (median age, 23 mos) and 72 nonsedated (median age, 4 mos). Fifty-one percent of infants ...
Farzin Faraz - - 2010
Humans' conscious awareness of objects in their visual periphery is limited. This limit is not entirely the result of reduced visual acuity. Rather, it is primarily caused by crowding--the difficulty identifying an object when it is surrounded by clutter. The effect of crowding on visual awareness in infants has yet ...
Johnson Scott P - - 2010
The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from ...
Raniero Elaine P - - 2010
this study aimed to characterize the pattern and rate of motor skill acquisition among preterm infants from newborn to four months corrected age, in comparison with a group of full-term infants. twelve healthy preterm infants (mean gestational age=33.6 weeks ± 1.25) and 10 healthy full-term infants (mean gestational age=39.1 weeks ...
Qian Lin - - 2010
The longitudinal findings presented in this study suggest that with the maturational development, the conduction time of the auditory nerve decreases while the thresholds had no physiological changes within 0-6 months after birth. Comparing the tone-pip auditory brainstem response (ABR) with the auditory steady-state response (ASSR), the former had lower ...
Reynolds Greg D GD Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. - - 2010
In this study, we had 3 major goals. The 1st goal was to establish a link between behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures of infant attention and recognition memory. To assess the distribution of infant visual preferences throughout ERP testing, we designed a new experimental procedure that embeds a behavioral ...
Mani Nivedita - - 2010
Do infants implicitly name visually fixated objects whose names are known, and does this information influence their preference for looking at other objects? We presented 18-month-old infants with a picture-based phonological priming task and examined their recognition of named targets in primed (e.g., dog-door) and unrelated (e.g., dog-boat) trials. Infants ...
Taylor Heather B - - 2010
This study focuses on the development of early visual information processing among infants with spina bifida (SB) compared to typically developing infants using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Analyses were conducted in two stages. First infants were evaluated to determine if 18-month old infants (SB=47; Control=40) differed in their ability to shift ...
Glass H C - - 2010
Children born preterm are at risk for adverse outcome, including visual impairment. We examined the relationship between neonatal DTI and sVEP in children born preterm to determine whether visual outcomes are related to early measurements of brain microstructure. Subjects were born at <34 weeks gestation and imaged before term-equivalent age. ...
Carter Lyndal - - 2010
BACKGROUND: With the advent of newborn hearing screening programs, the need to verify the fit of hearing aids in young infants has increased. The recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) for this purpose is quite feasible, but rapid developmental changes that affect response morphology and the presence of electrophysiological ...
Feng Jing-Jing - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Increased prevalence of visual impairments has been reported in preterm populations. However, it remains unclear about the long-term visual electrophysiological outcomes and their association with visual cognitive functions in premature infants. We investigated visual electrophysiological outcome of 2-year-old infants of different birth weights by flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) ...
Wunsch R - - 2011
Sonographic evaluation of the infant hip joint according to the method of Graf has proven to be an important pediatric investigative instrument. Our goal was to investigate quantitatively whether (and in what ways) the clinically relevant infant hip joint structures visualize differently when utilizing trapezoidal as opposed to linear transducers. ...
Hyde Daniel C - - 2010
Behavioral work demonstrates human infants are sensitive to a host of intersensory properties and this sensitivity promotes early learning and memory. However, little is known regarding the neural basis of this ability in infants. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) with infants and adults, we show that during passive viewing auditory evoked ...
Kärtner Joscha - - 2010
This study analyzed German and Nso mothers' auditory, proximal, and visual contingent responses to their infants' nondistress vocalizations in postnatal Weeks 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Visual contingency scores increased whereas proximal contingency scores decreased over time for the independent (German urban middle-class, N = 20) but not the ...
Simic Nevena - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for neonatal morbidity, transiently reduced thyroid hormone (TH) levels, and impaired visual abilities. To determine the interrelationship between these factors, we measured TH levels in the period ex utero and compared their visual abilities with those of term infants at 6 months (corrected) of ...
Liao Steve M - - 2010
The neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants is a major clinical concern with many infants displaying neurobehavioral deficits in childhood. Functional neuroimaging may provide early recognition of neural deficits in high-risk infants. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the advantage of providing functional neuroimaging in infants at the bedside. ...
Birch Eileen E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The range of human milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations worldwide is much broader than the range explored in randomized clinical trials to date. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the effect of 4 amounts of DHA supplementation on the visual acuity of formula-fed infants at 12 mo of ...
Vermeulen R Jeroen - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To develop subjective (visual) and objective (morphometric) rating scales for the classification of MRI in infants who had microcephaly with a simplified gyral pattern (MSGP) and to validate the first by the latter. METHODS: We compared the MRI of 12 patients with MSGP and of 5 term-born control infants. ...
Lin Yuan-Shan - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess visual function in low-risk preterm infants at 3, 5, and 12 months corrected age to determine whether the maturation of visual function in the first year is similar to that reported in term-born infants. STUDY DESIGN: Seventy-five low-risk infants (25.0-30.9 weeks gestation) underwent ophthalmological examinations and a ...
Ricci Daniela - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported on various aspects of visual function at term age and in the first months after birth but less has been reported in preterm infants before they reach termequivalent age. AIMS: To assess the suitability of a battery of tests of visual function for use in infants ...
Lindsay Richard G - - 2010
The visual outcomes for infants 18 months or younger with cataracts have improved dramatically over the past couple of decades. Earlier detection of infantile cataract and prompt surgical removal-with subsequent visual rehabilitation with contact lenses-mean that these patients now have a much better visual prognosis. Advances in contact lens technology ...
LoBue Vanessa - - 2010
The ability to quickly detect potential threat is an important survival mechanism for humans and other animals. Past research has established that adults have an attentional bias for the detection of threat-relevant stimuli, including snakes and spiders as well as angry human faces. Recent studies have documented that preschool children ...
- - 2010
To compare the use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses (IOLs) for the optical correction of unilateral aphakia during infancy. In a randomized, multicenter (12 sites) clinical trial, 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataracts were assigned to undergo cataract surgery with or without IOL implantation. Children randomized to IOL treatment ...
Boers K E - - 2010
To compare the effect of induction of labour with a policy of expectant monitoring for intrauterine growth restriction near term. Multicentre randomised equivalence trial (the Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term (DIGITAT)). Eight academic and 44 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands between November 2004 and November 2008. Pregnant women ...
Farzin Faraz - - 2010
Our visual world is dynamic in nature. The ability to encode, mentally represent, and track an object's identity as it moves across time and space is critical for integrating and maintaining a complete and coherent view of the world. Here we investigated dynamic object processing in typically developing (TD) infants ...
Shirai Nobu N Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Nishi-ku Niigata-city, Niigata 950-2181, Japan. - - 2010
Visual radial expansion/contraction motion provides important visual information that is used to control several adaptive actions. We investigated radial motion perception in infant Japanese macaque monkeys using an experimental procedure previously developed for human infants. We found that the infant monkeys' visual preference for the radial expansion pattern was greater ...
Walker Peter - - 2010
Stimulation of one sensory modality can induce perceptual experiences in another modality that reflect synaesthetic correspondences among different dimensions of sensory experience. In visual-hearing synaesthesia, for example, higher pitched sounds induce visual images that are brighter, smaller, higher in space, and sharper than those induced by lower pitched sounds. Claims ...
Bowman Richard - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to investigate the association between the distance at which infants fixate their own reflections and visual acuity card testing, and to determine whether this could form the basis of a new clinical test of visual function in infants. METHODS: 78 healthy infants under 9 months of ...
Shirai Nobu N Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Niigata University, Japan. - - 2009
We report asymmetrical cortical responses (steady-state visual evoked potentials) to radial expansion and contraction in human infants and adults. Forty-four infants (22 3-month-olds and 22 4-month-olds) and nine adults viewed dynamic dot patterns which cyclically (2.1 Hz) alternate between radial expansion (or contraction) and random directional motion. The first harmonic ...
Simonsz H J - - 2009
Eleven infant boys presented with chin-up head posture, tonic downgaze and, on attempted upgaze, large-amplitude upward saccades with deceleration during the slow phase downward. The gaze-evoked upward saccades disappeared at the age of 2 or 3 years. In addition, they had high-frequency, small-amplitude horizontal pendular nystagmus that remained. Among these ...
Whitham Justine N - - 2010
This study compared the neurological development of 4 month old infants exposed to buprenorphine or methadone during pregnancy to that of a control group of non-exposed infants. Participants were 30 buprenorphine-maintained women, 22 methadone-maintained women and 33 non opioid-dependent controls, and their infants. Women were enrolled during pregnancy as part ...
Wang Su-hua - - 2009
Combining theoretical hypotheses of infant cognition and adult perception, we present evidence that infants can maintain visual representations despite their failure to detect a change. Infants under 12 months typically fail to notice a change to an object's height in a covering event. The present experiments demonstrated that 11-month-old infants ...
Richardson Heidi L - - 2010
Previous studies have examined infant arousal responses to various arousal stimuli; however it is unclear whether the patterns of responses to different stimuli are comparable within subjects across early development. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of both respiratory and somatosensory stimulation on arousal processes in ...
Alaerts Jane - - 2010
Multiple-stimulus auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) were assessed in 111 ears of 70 infants between -4 and 19 weeks of age at risk for hearing loss. ASSR thresholds obtained in infants with normal hearing (n = 69 ears) were compared with normal adult ASSR thresholds (n = 32 ears), and the ...
Izard Véronique - - 2009
Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language ...
Renault F - - 2009
AIM: Hydroxychloroquine therapy during pregnancy is thought to be safe for foetuses. Normal visual function has been showed on clinical grounds in infants exposed in utero to hydroxychloroquine, but there are few visual neurophysiological data. Our study was designed to assess retina and visual pathways using electroretinogram and visual evoked ...
Aslin Richard N - - 2009
The role of early visual experience in human infant development has been inferred primarily by studies of visual deprivation (e.g., cataracts). Another approach, described here, is to provide a detailed description of the visual input gathered by normal infants in their natural environment. Recently, several labs have begun the laborious ...
Brown Angela M - - 2009
This is a targeted review of the critical immaturities limiting psychophysical luminance contrast detection in human infants. Three-month-old infants are 50 times less sensitive to contrast than adults are. Rod experiments suggest that early-stage immaturities, like the short length of infant rod outer segments, have only a modest direct effect ...
García-Quispe Leticia A - - 2009
The visual system undergoes major developmental changes in infancy and continues to mature throughout childhood. This study was designed to investigate the developmental change in the contrast response function and the neural mechanisms that contribute to this change. Participants were 29 infants from 15 to 28 weeks of age, two ...
Guzzetta Andrea - - 2009
Environmental enrichment (EE) was shown recently to accelerate brain development in rodents. Increased levels of maternal care, and particularly tactile stimulation through licking and grooming, may represent a key component in the early phases of EE. We hypothesized that enriching the environment in terms of body massage may thus accelerate ...
Hollich George - - 2009
How much of infant behaviour can be accounted for by signal-level analyses of stimuli? The current paper directly compares the moment-by-moment behaviour of 8-month-old infants in an audiovisual preferential looking task with that of several computational models that use the same video stimuli as presented to the infants. One type ...
Van Maanen Anna - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) to stimuli modulated at approximately 80 Hz are a promising technique for threshold estimation in infants, but additional data are required. RESEARCH DESIGN: We obtained multiple ASSRs to air-conducted (AC) stimuli. STUDY SAMPLE: There were 54 children in two age groups: > ...
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