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Results 701 - 750 of 1106
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Gravel J S - - 1992
Experience with the behavioral assessment of hearing sensitivity is reported for 211 babies and toddlers aged 6-24 months. The visually reinforced head-turn procedure, visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA), was utilized to obtain threshold estimates for infants evaluated for both research and clinical purposes. At the initial test session, 90% of the ...
Fetter W P - - 1992
Visual development was studied in 10 very-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1500 g) with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) stage 3+ who had been treated with cryocoagulation in both eyes. Binocular visual acuity (acuity cards method) and binocular visual fields (kinetic perimetry) were assessed repeatedly in the first year of life. At ...
Gibson N A - - 1992
Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded from surface electrodes in 40 healthy term infants (range 36.5-43 weeks postmenstrual age). Electrical stimulation at 5 Hz was used, averaging the response to several runs of 1024 stimuli to each median nerve, bandpass 10-3000 Hz, sweeptime 100 msec. Identifiable potentials were ...
Ashmead D H - - 1991
Postural sway was measured in 12-14-month-old human infants and in adults while they were standing in the light and dark. Spectral density analyses conducted on all frequencies, at specific frequencies, and for individual subjects showed that infants generally did not sway significantly more in the dark than in the light, ...
Zamrini E Y - - 1991
The P3 event-related potential has been widely employed in both clinical and research investigations. In the present study, P3 latency and amplitude intersession reliability were evaluated in 4 sessions over an average of 33 days in 24 healthy adults using the P3 tonal oddball paradigm. Mean group latencies ranged from ...
Patel S - - 1991
In the literature, there is evidence supporting the notion that visual display unit (VDU) use decreases the blink rate and possibly reduces the stability of the precorneal tear film. In this investigation the blink rate and tear stability were measured using noninvasive techniques, in relation to VDU use. In normal ...
Werner L A LA Child Development and Mental Retardation Center, University of Washington, Seattle - - 1991
Previous work has demonstrated that infants' thresholds for a pure tone are elevated by a masker more than would be predicted from their critical bandwidths. The present studies explored the nature of this additional masking. In Experiment 1, detection thresholds of 6-month-old infants and of adults for a 1-kHz tone ...
Chiarenza G A - - 1991
Modifications of brain-stem acoustic evoked potentials (BAEPs) in the first 5 days of life of normal full-term infants are reported. BAEPs were recorded using rarefaction clicks at 70, 60, 40, 20 dB HL. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate chronological and gestational age differences for all positive and ...
Apkarian P - - 1991
The diagnosis of albinism is indicated by the presence of visual pathway misrouting in which temporal retinal fibers erroneously decussate at the optic chiasm disrupting the normal topographical distribution of retinal geniculate-cortical projections. Detection of misrouted fibers is effected by non-invasive electrophysiological assessment of the topographical representation of the visual ...
Fulton A B - - 1991
The rhodopsin content of 20 eyes of infants and children ages 27 weeks gestation to 8 years (11 donors) was assayed and compared to the rhodopsin content of adults (36 eyes; 19 donors). Infants have significantly lower rhodopsin contents than adults. On average the rhodopsin content of young infants is ...
Brookhouser P E - - 1991
Prenatal and perinatal correlates of abnormal auditory brainstem responses in neonates have been studied extensively. In contrast, vestibular function during the first year of life has received sparse attention. Using a specially modified vestibular test battery, 65 infants (17 low-risk, 48 high-risk) were initially evaluated during their first 6 months ...
Mercer M E - - 1991
We have developed a new test which can rapidly evaluate basic color vision in individual infants. The test consists of a series of large cards constructed with Munsell Hues. It uses a modified preferential looking procedure (FPL) and, to control brightness cues, incorporates a two-phase systematic variation of luminance. First, ...
Cox T D - - 1991
Magnetic resonance images of the pituitary glands in 48 endocrinologically normal neonates and infants were analyzed to determine the changes in pituitary gland size, shape, and signal intensity that occur during the 1st year of life. A progressive increase in the length--but not height--of the gland was seen throughout the ...
Hopkisson B - - 1991
Targets comprising a horizontal black line 5' thick offset by 1' were printed on strips to stick to the drums of the Catford Visual Acuity Apparatus. The 'vernier' targets so produced corresponded to the different sizes of Snellen letters from 6/6 to 2/60 when presented at 50 cm. Twenty-five children ...
Sonksen P M - - 1991
A developmentally based programme (PVD) to promote the visual development of babies with severe visual impairment was evaluated in 58 infants aged between one month and 13 months of age. Progress in nine aspects of visual development was significantly greater for babies receiving the programme. This benefit extended to those ...
Primus M A - - 1991
This study examined test-retest reliability of infant auditory thresholds in a single evaluation session. Eight- to 11-month-olds were assessed in both operant and nonoperant audiometric procedures. Operant testing produced an average of 8.5 thresholds. Mean threshold level did not shift significantly over the course of the operant session, although some ...
Millar W S - - 1991
Response decrement and recovery to a novel visual stimulus was examined in 4-12-mth old infants. High (HR) and low (LR) perinatal risk groups were compared to well babies. For abstract stimuli, well babies showed response decrement and recovery to novelty; LR infants revealed some decrement, but no recovery; and the ...
Bronson G W - - 1991
To clarify the basis for infant differences in rate of visual encoding, the eye movements of a sample of 9 12-week-old infants were recorded throughout an encoding experiment. Results showed that the more slowly encoding infants scanned less extensively over the stimulus, often spent extended intervals in the continuous inspection ...
Anday E K - - 1991
This study compared the results of reflex modification (RM)--an objective technique for assessing brainstem sensorineural processing--with those of auditory brainstem response (ABR) for a group of high-risk infants at comparable postconceptional ages. For the RM procedure, an eyeblink-eliciting tap to the glabella was presented either alone or accompanied by a ...
Norcia A M - - 1991
Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded monocularly in response to vertical gratings that underwent oscillatory apparent motion at a temporal frequency of 10 Hz. In normal infants 6 months or younger and in patients with a history of constant strabismus onset before 6 months of age, the oscillatory motion VEP ...
Birch E E - - 1991
Monocular grating acuities of preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were measured using a forced-choice preferential-looking (FPL) procedure. Eyes were independently graded by a retinal specialist and/or pediatric ophthalmologist and assigned to anatomic outcome categories on the basis of cicatricial residua of ROP. Eyes assigned to the normal/regressed and ...
Maas E F - - 1991
We studied the ocular motor abnormalities in 4 patients chronically addicted to sniffing glue containing toluene. They showed acquired pendular nystagmus with horizontal and vertical components. One patient also showed saccadic oscillations. The pendular nystagmus may be a manifestation of a disturbance in brainstem-cerebellar connections secondary to the toxic effect ...
Bryant P R - - 1991
Normal values for the soleus H-reflex were established in 83 preterm and term infants 31 to 45 weeks postconceptional age. Infants at conceptional ages 31 to 34 weeks (n = 30) had a mean H-latency (msec) of 19.2 +/- 2.16; infants 35 to 39 weeks (n = 26), 16.67 +/- ...
Chandna A - - 1991
A selective review of the contemporary understanding of development of infant visual acuity is presented together with recent developments in methodology to detect this change. References are confined, wherever possible, to human infant studies relating to factors explaining the development of acuity. Results obtained from a two year study of ...
Rothschild L J - - 1991
Microbial mat communities are one of the first and most prevalent biological communities known from the Precambrian fossil record. These fossil mat communities are found as laminated sedimentary rock structures called stromatolites. Using a modern microbial mat as an analog for Precambrian stromatolites, a study of carbon fixation during a ...
Wattam-Bell J - - 1991
The development of visual motion mechanisms has been studied in infants with a visual evoked potential (VEP) technique which isolates responses from directionally-selective mechanisms. In adults, the amplitude of this directional VEP increased with velocity up to a maximum at 15-20 deg/sec, and then declined with further increases in velocity. ...
Yoshimoto Y - - 1991
A case of acquired nystagmus alternans (alternating nystagmus) is reported. The patient was a 14-year-old boy who presented with fever and headache, followed by dysbasia, truncal ataxia, and positional vertigo. Neuro-otological examinations revealed spontaneous downbeat nystagmus, bilateral gaze nystagmus and rebound nystagmus. Both cell count and protein volume were elevated ...
Hansen R M - - 1991
Full field, scotopic b-wave stimulus/response functions of 10-week-old infants and adults were measured in the dark-adapted condition, and in the presence of steady backgrounds. Dark adapted b-wave sensitivity (log sigma) differed significantly between infants and adults; the median dark adapted sensitivity of infants was 0.50 log unit less than that ...
Slater A - - 1991
An experiment is described in which newborn infants' processing of stimulus compounds was investigated. After familiarization to two alternately presented stimuli which differed in colour and orientation, the newborns showed significant preferences for a stimulus which had a novel colour/orientation combination: the novel stimulus was produced by recombining features of ...
Sanders D G - - 1991
The value of pattern electroretinography (PERG) for the detection and differentiation of senile macular degeneration (SMD) was assessed. A group of patients with atrophic SMD and a group with exudative SMD were compared with an age-matched reference group. Differences were only found in visual acuity and in the amplitude of ...
Pinckers A - - 1991
The term scotopization refers to the intrusion of rod activity in colour vision when assessed under photopic observation conditions. Scotopization is an important symptom of cone dystrophies. The detection of scotopization is not easy. With the Nagel-II anomaloscope scotopization can be detected in two ways. One method is new and ...
Fulton A B - - 1991
The effect of stimulus duration on the b-wave and psychophysical responses of dark-adapted 10-week-old infants and adult control subjects is reported. Both infant and adult b-wave sensitivities vary with stimulus duration, show summation for brief duration stimuli, critical durations estimated at 88-155 msec, and little variation in sensitivity for longer ...
Leguire L E - - 1991
Pattern visual-evoked response binocular summation (VERBS) was recorded in normal infants, between the ages of 1-58 months, and in similar-aged esotropic infants before and at various times after corrective surgery. The normal subjects had no significant VERBS at 1.5 months of age, developed a rapid acceleration of VERBS between 1.5-3 ...
Hood B - - 1990
The ability of infants to shift their gaze laterally from a central target (fixation shift) was investigated in normal one- and three-month-old infants in two visual tasks; competition (central fixating stimulus remained visible while peripheral target was presented) and non-competition (central fixating stimulus replaced by peripheral target). The younger infants ...
Morrone M C - - 1990
We have monitored the development of infant colour vision by measuring chromatic contrast sensitivity and acuity in eight young infants over a period of 6 months. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (VEPS) were recorded in response to both chromatic (red-green) and luminance (red-black or green-black) patterns that were reversed in contrast ...
Derick R J - - 1990
We reviewed the records of 27 infants with abnormal eye examinations and visual-evoked response (VER) testing (mean age, 10.5 months) who subsequently underwent a long-term follow-up ophthalmology examination (mean duration, 41 months). The infants were initially diagnosed with various ocular disorders including cortical blindness (eight), optic nerve hypoplasia (six), congenital ...
Stuart A - - 1990
The effect of bone conduction vibratory placement on the temporal area, revealed by the auditory brain stem response (ABR), in newborn infants, was investigated. Twenty-five full term neonates were tested at 48 to 72 hours postparturition. ABR wave V latencies were obtained from three different temporal area postauricular vibrator placements ...
Tresidder J - - 1990
Delayed visual maturation (DVM) can present as an isolated anomaly (type 1A), but can be compounded by perinatal problems (type 1B), severe neurodevelopmental delay (type 2), or ocular anomalies/nystagmus (type 3), in which group the common feature appears to be nystagmus. The neurodevelopmental and ophthalmic aspects of 26 infants with ...
Grant-Webster K S - - 1990
The Infant Primate Research Laboratory at the University of Washington utilizes a range of test procedures to study perceptual-cognitive development in nonhuman primate infants at high and low risk for poor developmental outcome. These test procedures rely on the visual preferences of infants and are employed in research with both ...
Kohelet D - - 1990
Seven essentially healthy term infants who received gentamicin starting on the 1st day of life for prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal fever were compared with nine healthy term infants to determine whether this drug induces alterations in the auditory pathway. The auditory pathway was studied on the 3rd day ...
Dobson V - - 1990
The primary outcome measure of the effectiveness of cryotherapy in the original design of the Multicenter Trial of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) was the anatomic status of the retina, as documented by fundus photography 3 months and 12 months after infants had received treatment. The authors describe the ...
Petersen S - - 1990
The latency and amplitude of the first negative peak of visual evoked potentials (VEP) were evaluated in 52 term infants, investigated within 48 h after birth. Sixteen were light-for-gestational-age (LGA), 16 were appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and 20 were infants of diabetic mothers (IDM). The VEP latency was shorter in LGA infants ...
Morrongiello B A - - 1990
Infants' acuity in localizing sounds within hemifields was examined by determining the smallest sound shift off 60 degrees and along the horizontal axis that infants could discriminate reliably, that is, minimum audible angle (MAA). Infants 6, 12, and 18 months of age were tested using a Go/No-Go conditioned head-turn procedure ...
Kivlin J D - - 1990
A retrospective study was made of 16 premature infants who were visually inattentive despite normal eye findings and a lack of factors predisposing them to cerebral blindness. A comparison of this study group with other premature infants who were visually attentive revealed a much greater incidence of upper motor neuron ...
Groenendaal F - - 1990
Behavioural methods were used to assess the visual development of two infants with a history of severe perinatal hypoxia. Both infants were born fullterm and showed hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and subsequent cerebral palsy. Low visual acuity, small and asymmetrical visual fields, asymmetrical binocular and monocular OKN, and absent visual threat response ...
Beverley D W - - 1990
Sixty-two preterm infants were followed up with flash visual evoked responses (VERs), brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) and neurodevelopmental assessments for 18 months after term. Cranial ultrasonography showed that 18 infants developed intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) during the newborn period and four of six infants with grade III or IV haemorrhage ...
Bronson G W - - 1990
The characteristics of visual scanning over the 2- to 14-week age period were examined through repeated assessments conducted on a sample of 10 infants. Scanning patterns were measured using a bright-pupil corneal reflex system, and the stimuli consisted of various sets of static, moving, or flickering geometric figures. There appear ...
Bygrave C J - - 1990
A device was constructed to measure infant head rotation during orienting reflexes to sound stimuli. An experiment was devised to compare the device output with visual observation of the infant. Four stimulus and four no-stimulus control trials were presented randomly to each of 24 infants. Fourteen scorers examined a hardcopy ...
Bronson G W - - 1990
The visual scanning characteristics of 10 infants were assessed repeatedly over the 2- to 14-week age period, using a bright-pupil/corneal reflection technique. The present report focuses on the calibration process--a procedure by which stimulus figures are mapped onto the raw scanning data. It is concluded that the major calibration parameters ...
Cohn T E - - 1990
The wallpaper illusion, first described over a century ago, can occur when a person with normal binocular vision views a pattern that is periodic in the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Escalator trends present such a pattern. Evidence is presented favoring the view that disorientation experienced by escalator riders ...
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