Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1078
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Neuringer M - - 1994
Low levels of dietary n-3 fatty acids during development lead to changes in the electroretinogram and visual acuity in rats, monkeys, and human infants. Additional aspects of vision can be measured in infants and may provide further useful information about the nature of the changes induced by n-3 fatty acid ...
Bronson G W - - 1994
Visual scanning patterns of 6-13-week-old infants are derived from some 50 half-minute assessments in which the infants viewed static geometric figures. Measures include fixation dwell-times, saccade lengths, and the choices and sequences of saccadic targets. From the patterns of change across 3 age periods, it appears that as infants grow ...
Hamer R D - - 1994
Using the sweep visual evoked potential (VEP), we have measured oscillatory displacement thresholds (OMTs) in 49 infants ranging in age from 7 to 54 weeks of age. The stimuli were high-contrast (80%), sine-wave gratings (1 c/deg) undergoing oscillatory displacements at 6 Hz. In addition to the motion thresholds, contrast thresholds ...
Fern K D - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Resistance to occlusion and fix and follow are often used to make inferences about the acuity of young children. In this study, the acuity of 6- to 12-month-old infants was degraded monocularly to elicit resistance to occlusion or loss of fixation. METHODS: Occlusion foils and optical blur were used ...
Safran A B - - 1994
We treated five patients with vestibular neuritis who had strabismus. Three of them spontaneously noted vertical diplopia. During the following weeks and months, strabismus progressively resolved, indicating the recently acquired nature of the oculomotor condition. In three of these individuals, a change in visual vertical and cyclo-torsion of the globes ...
Brown A M - - 1994
It has been shown previously that relatively low stimulus levels (L1 = 55, L2 = 40 dB SPL) elicit recordable levels of ADP from healthy adult ears (Gaskill and Brown, 1990). We have used the same stimulus levels in healthy term infants within 6 days of birth. The results from ...
Worley G - - 1994
Thirty-seven infants with myelomeningocele received brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) at a median age of eight days. No infant had brainstem dysfunction at the time of testing. Median follow-up was at 30 months. Of 12 infants who subsequently developed brainstem dysfunction at a median age of three months, 11 had ...
Alais D - - 1994
When motion aftereffects (MAEs) are measured by adapting to a drifting plaid (simultaneous adaptation) or by adapting to the plaid's component gratings in alternation (alternating adaptation), it has been shown that the velocity and duration of the MAE are smaller in the latter case [Wenderoth, P., Bray, R. & Johnstone, ...
Rudduck G A - - 1994
We have previously reported on the development of black/white pattern reversal VEPs in premature babies of more than 30 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). Unlike the flash VEP, the pattern reversal VEP shows a similar morphology to that of the full term infant and the major positive component (P1) decreased in ...
Hermans A J - - 1994
Visual functions (grating acuity, visual field size, optokinetic nystagmus and eye alignment) were tested as part of a longitudinal study in 96 low-birth-weight infants (birth weight 1500-2500 g) at one year of corrected age. Except for optokinetic nystagmus, deficit rates of all visual functions were low, and the obtained values ...
Cocker K D - - 1994
PURPOSE: To determine the age of onset of the pupil grating response (PGR). To compare estimates of resolution acuity obtained by pupillometric and behavioral methods in early infancy. METHODS: Dynamic infrared pupillometry was undertaken on 19 newborn infants while they fixated a uniform background upon which a 0.1 c/deg sine ...
Hansen R M - - 1994
The large critical areas for complete spatial summation in infants may be due to immaturities of receptive field organization in both dark and light adapted scotopic conditions. Scotopic lateral excitatory/inhibitory interactions have been previously studied in adults using Westheimer's [(1965) Journal of Physiology, London, 181, 881-894] paradigm. We modified this ...
Hansen R M - - 1994
PURPOSE: To compare psychophysical and reflexive optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) estimates of dark-adapted scotopic thresholds mediated by the posterior retina in 10-week-old infants and adults. METHODS: A staircase procedure was used to determine the stimulus intensity needed to produce an OKN response to a moving 19 degrees x 19 degrees grating. ...
Thorn F - - 1994
PURPOSE: To measure and compare the development of ocular alignment, sensory binocularity, and convergence in infants during the first 5 months of life. METHODS: Healthy infants were tested between 2 and 21 weeks of age. Ocular alignment was measured by the Hirschberg test; convergence was determined by visual examination as ...
Riddell P M - - 1994
PURPOSE: The Hirschberg ratio has been defined as the ratio of the change in angular position of the line of sight to the change in location of the first Purkinje image relative to the pupil center. This study was designed to determine empirically whether the adult value of the Hirschberg ...
De Vries L S - - 1994
The data reported in the literature and our own findings have shown, that evoked potentials (EPs) can be performed at the bedside and provide additional information about the integrity of the central nervous system. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) are especially useful for early identification of audiological problems and whenever possible, ...
Mintz-Hittner H A - - 1994
PURPOSE: Flash and pattern visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded in 89 former preterm infants (< or = 1500 g birth weight), in whom retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) developed that spontaneously regressed without macular detachment (stages 2-4a). METHODS: Linear and stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine the correlations between transient ...
Eken P - - 1994
A prospective follow-up study was conducted of a cohort of 65 at-risk neonates to assess the predictive value of neonatal cranial ultrasound abnormalities for cerebral visual impairment in infancy. Visual function was assessed using the acuity card procedure and behavioural visual responses were tested. Normal visual function was found in ...
Morrone M C - - 1993
We have monitored the development of contrast sensitivity to equiluminant red-green chromatic patterns by monitoring visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 13 infants. The results confirm our previous report [Morrone, Burr and Fiorentini, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 242 (1990a)] that, before 7-8 weeks of age, there was no response ...
Allen D - - 1993
Chromatic sensitivity is very low in humans during the first few months of life. We examined whether low chromatic sensitivity reflects a deficiency among chromatic mechanisms or whether it is simply a manifestation of poor visual sensitivity in general. The sweep VEP was used to measure contrast sensitivity to gratings ...
Frank Y - - 1993
Fourteen infants and children with AIDS had serial BAER studies, with stimuli delivered at a frequency of 10 and 50 per second. The latencies of waves I, III, V and interpeak latencies I-III, III-V and I-V were measured, and their changes over time were calculated. A significant correlation was found ...
Berg K M - - 1993
Behavioral thresholds of 6-month-old infants and adults were determined for 1/3-octave filtered clicks and 300-msec noise bursts with center frequencies ranging from .5 to 8 kHz. For noise bursts, differences between infant and adult thresholds were largest at low frequencies and smallest at 8 kHz. For clicks, infants' thresholds were ...
Teller D Y - - 1993
Tested monocularly, young infants classically show directional eye movement asymmetries, with optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) being more readily elicited by stimuli moving in the temporal-to-nasal (T-N) than in the nasal-to-temporal (N-T) direction. Since a counterphase grating is physically identical to two superimposed sinusoidal components moving in opposite directions, we wondered whether ...
Hansen R L - - 1993
Prenatal exposure to cocaine and amphetamines has been associated with many adverse effects in infants, including neurological abnormalities. Recent evidence shows that the visual system may be useful in infancy to evaluate neurological functioning. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and visual recognition memory testing were carried out on eight infants with ...
Holmes J M - - 1993
The feasibility of a practical preferential looking technique, similar to Teller acuity cards, was investigated for the assessment of vernier acuity in preverbal infants. Forty-two infants ages 1 to 13 months were tested with cards having vernier offsets of 2 to 64 minutes of arc and spatial frequencies of 0.25 ...
Hartnett M E - - 1993
Despite surgical reattachment of the retina in infants with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), visual acuity may decline. We performed gonioscopy and applanation tonometry on 26 eyes of 17 infants with severe ROP who were randomly selected and followed prospectively for 2 years. Of these 26 eyes, one eye of ...
Friendly D S - - 1993
Behavioral improvement in the quality of infant vision parallels neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic brain development. Progressive refinement of acuity can be tracked by means of tests that employ fixation and following, optokinetic nystagmus, preferential viewing, and pattern-evoked visual responses. These methods of evaluating vision in the preverbal child differ from each ...
Freeseman L J - - 1993
Cognitive performance and development is negatively correlated with fixation duration patterns during infancy, and evidence suggests that long-looking infants may process visual information more slowly than short-looking infants. 3 experiments described here tested the possibility that these differences may be due to differential sensitivity to global and local visual information. ...
Morrow J D - - 1993
The purpose of this article is to provide the pediatric nurse practitioner with an introduction to the literature on the use of visual-attention measures to screen for cognitive deficits in the infant. These measures rely on an infant's preference for novelty, that is, the tendency to look at a new ...
Carlson S E - - 1993
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is important for normal visual development. We hypothesized that preterm infants fed formulas with marine oil as a source of DHA would have better visual acuity than infants fed formulas without marine oil, as measured by the Teller Acuity Card procedure. Marine oil (P < 0.001) ...
Flinn J M - - 1993
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to click and name stimuli were recorded for 23 malnourished infants on admission to and 17 on discharge from hospital, together with those from age-matched controls. The number of peaks on the AEPs and the amplitude were examined. The malnourished infants' AEPs to click stimuli differed ...
Catherwood D - - 1993
The robustness of infant haptic memory was assessed in terms of its capacity to withstand either a brief delay or potential retroactive "interference" from other haptic input. 48 infants (mean age 8 months) were familiarized haptically to a small cube or sphere with smooth or rough surface texture and subsequently ...
Peterzell D H - - 1993
How many and what kinds of processes mediate infant visual attention? Are they influenced by stimulus "complexity?" Analyses were performed on visual fixation data from ninety 4-month-old infants; the time each infant spent looking at a black and white checkerboard pattern containing either 4 x 4, 12 x 12, or ...
Cohen Y E - - 1993
PURPOSE: The development of the umbo response in the gerbil was studied in order to further elucidate the contribution of the middle ear to the development of auditory function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laser interferometry was used to study the development of umbo velocity in Mongolian gerbils between 10 days after ...
Makrides M - - 1993
Recent studies have reported that formula-fed preterm infants score lower on visual and developmental tests relative to breast-fed preterm infants. This phenomenon has been associated with the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, in breast milk and its absence from infant formula. To investigate the possibility that ...
Sudakoff G S - - 1993
Visualization of the posterior fossa during neonatal cranial sonography through the anterior fontanelle can at times be limited. To improve visualization of the posterior fossa, the foramen magnum was used as an acoustic window. Scans through the foramen magnum were obtained in addition to routine scans via the anterior fontanelle ...
Horwood A M - - 1993
Seventy-five infants of state-registered orthoptists were observed by their mothers from birth to at least 6 months of age, with particular attention paid to the nature of any deviations noticed in the first few weeks. Most of the infants showed brief periods of inaccurate vergence during the first 2 months, ...
Zhang Z - - 1993
The development of components of VEP was studied in 150 infants and children between 2 weeks and 9 years of age participated as subjects. Ten adult subjects, 25 to 35 years of age were also studied. The results indicated that the VEP had a simple wave form, consisting of only ...
Barnet A B - - 1993
This study evaluated the contribution of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to the assessment of brainstem dysfunction in infants with myelomeningocele and Arnold-Chiari malformation. 16 infants under one year of age were studied. Six had infant brainstem syndrome (IBS). 11 had abnormally prolonged ...
Foxe J J - - 1993
Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded to 500- and 2000-Hz bone-conducted (BC) tones from normal infants and adults. Infant ABR thresholds for the 500-Hz BC tones are significantly lower than their thresholds to 2000-Hz BC tones. Infant wave V latencies to 500-Hz BC tones are significantly shorter than those of ...
Parks T E - - 1993
A display in which a Kanizsa-like illusory-figure pattern of three notched circles was accompanied by several other notched circles was found to be relatively ineffective, thus confirming an important, but previously untested, suggestion. This ineffectiveness may have been due to a strengthened tendency of the visual system perceptually to 'explain' ...
Birch E - - 1993
The goal of the present study was to determine whether dietary supply of omega-3 essential fatty acid (EFA) influences visual development in healthy pre-term and full-term infants. Visual status was examined in human milk-fed infants (ample dietary omega-3 EFA supply) and corn oil-based formula-fed infants (no dietary omega-3 EFA; standard ...
Pasman J W - - 1992
Recent studies on the maturation of auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) present conflicting results, whereas only sparse reports exist with respect to the maturation of middle latency auditory evoked responses (MLRs) and auditory cortical evoked responses (ACRs). The present study reports the effect of preterm birth on the maturation of ...
Primus M A - - 1992
This study investigated the hypothesis that estimates of infant auditory threshold are lowered by extending the duration of individual test trials such that infants have more time to detect and respond to the acoustic signal. Forty 8- and 12-month-old infants were evaluated with an operant procedure to determine response latencies ...
Fulton A B - - 1992
The determinants of infants' low scotopic visual sensitivity are controversial. Some interpret infants' scotopic vision as indicative of immature rod photoreceptor function while others attribute infantile sensitivities mainly to post receptoral immaturities. To date the rod photoreceptor sensitivity of human infants has not actually been measured. In the work reported ...
Chen T C - - 1992
We examined 30 infants in whom cortical visual impairment was diagnosed during their first year of life to ascertain prognostic factors for the development of object vision, defined as the ability to recognize faces or hand-held toys. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months. The most ...
Tsai C H - - 1992
Seventeen infants who had been treated with gentamicin on the first day of life as prophylaxis for prolonged rupture of membranes or maternal fever. Twenty-seven weight-matched healthy infants were used as controls. The auditory brainstem responses were evaluated on the third day and again on the tenth day of life. ...
Allen D - - 1992
Grating acuity was measured in 16-week-old human infants. Three measurement techniques were used: forced-choice preferential-looking (FPL), and two visual-evoked-potential (VEP) techniques. The stimuli were counterphase flickering sinewave gratings with a space-average luminance of -1.0 or 2.0 log cd/m2. Slightly different luminance-dependent changes occur between FPL and VEP acuities, suggesting that ...
Kohelet D - - 1992
Ten premature infants with low serum thyroxine levels (less than 84 nmol/L) were compared with 10 biochemically euthyroid infants to determine whether hypothyroxinemia in such infants can lead to alterations in the auditory pathway. The auditory pathway was studied between 6 and 11 wk of life by analyzing brainstem evoked ...
Birch E E - - 1992
The influence of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supply on visual acuity development was evaluated in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants using visual-evoked potential (VEP) and forced-choice preferential-looking (FPL) procedures at 36 and 57 wk postconception. The VLBW infants born at 27-33 wk postconception were randomized to one of three ...
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