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Fang L L - - 1997
PURPOSE: Lessened acuity for oblique contours as compared with horizontal and vertical contours, the oblique effect, is characteristic of humans and animals. The magnitude of the oblique effect in humans varies with ethnic origin. Three experiments were performed to determine the source and extent of this variation in Chinese and ...
Brown A M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Vernier acuity was measured longitudinally for comparison with published results on early stereopsis development. METHODS: Thirty-seven human infants were tested using forced-choice preferential looking. These included 29 pilot infants (9 or 12 weeks of age) and eight infants tested longitudinally (9 weeks to 11 to 15 weeks of age). ...
Mercuri E - - 1997
AIM: To examine the effects of early lesions in the visual pathway on visual function; and to identify early prognostic indicators of visual abnormalities. METHODS: The visual function of 37 infants with perinatal brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging was assessed using behavioural and electrophysiological variables. RESULTS: Normal visual behaviour ...
Quiñónez R E - - 1997
The purposes of this investigation were to determine 1) if auditory peripheral maturity is present in the newborn; 2) if not, at what age maturational changes occur in the peripheral auditory system from preterm to full-term; and 3) how results of tests used to identify auditory dysfunction in neonates, such ...
Ottar W L - - 1997
An accurate visual acuity assessment is an important part of the ophthalmic examination. Each patient needs his or her vision assessed whether an adult, a baby, or a child. The purpose of this article is to review some of the testing methods used to assess vision in the less than ...
Boller K - - 1997
The effect of passively exposing infants to visual information in a sensory preconditioning paradigm was assessed in five experiments with seventy-eight 6-month-olds. In the basic paradigm, infants were simultaneously exposed to two contexts (S1 and S2), trained in one of them (S1), and tested in the other (S2). Infants learned ...
Riddell P M - - 1997
PURPOSE: This study compares the development of acuity in the same infants during one testing session using Teller acuity cards (TAC) and sweep visual evoked potentials (sVEP). We asked whether different testing methods in two centers would produce different developmental time courses. METHODS: Forty-eight infants were tested in two centers. ...
Jacobs M - - 1997
PURPOSE: We set out to assess the development of pursuit eye movements in normal infants in an objective, longitudinal fashion. We asked whether smooth pursuit (SP) was present under 2 months of age and how the saccade ratio changed with increasing infant age. METHODS: Smooth pursuit was recorded longitudinally from ...
Littleford R C - - 1997
In vivo nailfold capillary microscopy was performed on 10 men with vibration white finger (VWF) and 10 age-matched male controls. The observed nailfold capillaries required adaptation of Maricq's classifications and addition of new morphological scoring systems. These new classifications produced numerical scores for assessing capillary: dropout, tortuosity, elongation, visualization of ...
Rasengane T A - - 1997
The time course for the development of the temporal contrast sensitivity function in humans is uncertain. Some studies indicate that temporal contrast sensitivity is immature in infants. However, earlier work suggests that critical flicker fusion is adult-like by 2 months. We traced the development of temporal contrast sensitivity to uniform ...
Blumenthal T D - - 1997
In the present study, I investigated the effect of stimulus repetition on human startle eyeblink reflex inhibition (PPI) by a prepulse. Participants were assigned to one of three groups (n = 14 each), in which they received 18 trials of (a) noise startle stimuli presented alone or preceded by 1000-Hz ...
Reinecke R D - - 1997
Current concepts of idiopathic infantile nystagmus are summarized, with special attention to treatment and differential diagnosis of this condition. Advantages of the Anderson procedure over the Kestenbaum procedure are suggested for head turn associated with this condition, and the need for further studies is acknowledged. The importance of the extended ...
Currie D C - - 1997
We investigated the roles that blur, proximity and vergence cues play in the development of accommodation. Accommodative responses to targets incorporating one or more of these cues were measured for four adults and eight infants at 1.5 and 3 months of age using eccentric photorefraction. Adults showed accurate accommodation to ...
Mercuri E - - 1997
Thirty-one full term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) were studied with a battery of tests designed to evaluate visual function in infancy and with serial MRI. Their age ranged between 5 and 31 months. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the degree of HIE or the site ...
Richards J E - - 1997
The effect of attention to a focal stimulus on 3- to 6-month-old infants' peripheral stimulus localization was examined. Fixation was engaged on a central visual stimulus, and a stimulus was presented in the periphery after discrete time intervals (0 to 12 s) or until changes in heart rate (HR) occurred. ...
van Zalen-Sprock R M - - 1997
We investigated the development of the skeleton in the embryonic and early fetal period both with ultrasonography and radiology. Eight normal embryos/fetuses were studied weekly with real-time transvaginal sonography between 8 and 16 weeks of gestation to establish the ultrasonographic characteristics of normal ossification. Additionally, ossification was studied in radiographs ...
Kennedy K A - - 1997
AIMS: To examine the effects of light on retinal development and function in preterm infants as measured by the electroretinogram (ERG). Secondary outcomes included visual acuity testing, the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity, and general wellbeing, reflected in feeding tolerance, rate of weight gain, and length of hospital stay. METHODS: ...
Jankowski J J - - 1997
In this study, the relationships between the length, number, and distribution of looks were investigated. To this end, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-old infants were familiarized for 24 or 36 s with two identical geometric forms and tested with a novel form paired with the familiar one. The distribution of individual ...
Mix K S - - 1997
This article examines an important finding from the literature on infant numerical competence. The finding, reported by P. Starkey, E. S. Spelke, and R. Gelman (1990), was that infants looked longer toward a visual display that was equal in number to an auditory set. In Experiment 1, when the procedures ...
Teller D Y - - 1997
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the capacity of infants to code the direction of motion of moving tritan-modulated gratings. Infant and adult subjects were tested with 0.2 c/d sinusoidal gratings moving at a speed of 20 deg/sec. Three conditions were tested: luminance-modulated gratings, tritan-modulated gratings, and ...
Rosenblum L D - - 1997
In the McGurk effect, perceptual identification of auditory speech syllables is influenced by simultaneous presentation of discrepant visible speech syllables. This effect has been found in subjects of different ages and with various native language backgrounds. But no McGurk tests have been conducted with prelinguistic infants. In the present series ...
White-Traut R C - - 1997
PURPOSE: To examine the immediate responses of preterm infants to two forms of unimodal [auditory only (A) and tactile only (T)] and two forms of multimodal sensory stimulation [auditory, tactile and visual (ATV); auditory, tactile, visual and vestibular (ATVV)]. METHOD: A convenience sample of 54 clinically stable preterm infants (33-34 ...
Courage M L - - 1997
The increased viability of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (those weighing less than 1,000 g) and the associated increased risk of visual impairment has highlighted the need for reliable indices of visual functioning for this population. By use of the Teller Acuity Cards, we assessed grating visual acuity in ...
Tellinghuisen D J - - 1997
Two experiments investigated the role of distractor characteristics and type of object-directed attention on infants' distraction latencies during object exploration. In Experiment 1, 7- and 10-month-old infants' distraction latency was a function of both attention and the characteristics of the distractors. Infants took longer to turn toward distractors during focused ...
Dougherty T M - - 1997
A longitudinal study investigated the relation between infant expectations and reaction time (RT) and childhood IQ and RT. Measures of visual anticipation and visual RT were taken at 3.5 months and 4 years of age. In addition, manual RT and verbal and performance IQ were measured at 4 years of ...
Clarke M P - - 1997
The results of flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in 44 infants blind or severely visually impaired from non-ocular causes are presented, and related to the subsequent visual outcome. Ocular causes of visual impairment were excluded by clinical examination and electroretinography. Using a 2 x 2 contingency table, a significant association ...
Hafström M - - 1997
A new method for automatic analysis of non-nutritive sucking in newborn infants is described, which uses a specially designed computer program that analyses an analogue signal obtained from a pressure transducer inside a pacifier. Validation is done with four independent methods: electromyogram, visual identification, control of the automatic treatment and ...
Ekert P G - - 1997
Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have proved to be accurate predictors of outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Parallels between term asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic injury in the preterm brain suggested the hypothesis that VEPs may predict the development of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and later cerebral palsy. 123 infants less than ...
Aitkin L - - 1996
The development of hearing was studied in the Northern Quoll, a nocturnal marsupial carnivore whose young are born into a pouch in an immature state after about 21 days in utero. Startle responses to noise bursts of 105 dB sound pressure level first appeared at 60 days after arrival in ...
Snir M - - 1996
A 2-month-old female infant with intractable congenital glaucoma and diffuse corneal opacification underwent trabeculectomy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) injection in both eyes followed by penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) combined with partial cyclocryotherapy in the right eye. The latter procedure was undertaken despite the B-scan ultrasonographic finding of extensive optic disc cupping in ...
Fujii M - - 1996
It is difficult to estimate the accurate onset of symptoms clinically resulting from Chiari II malformation. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) may be a useful method in the selection of potential candidates for surgery. We studied 153 BAEPs in 131 asymptomatic infants under 6 months of age with meningomyelocele (MMC). ...
Lewkowicz D J - - 1996
Using a habituation/test procedure, the author investigated adults' and infants' perception of auditory-visual temporal synchrony. Participants were familiarized with a bouncing green disk and a sound that occurred each time the disk bounced. Then, they were given a series of asynchrony test trials where the sound occurred either before or ...
Rovee-Collier C - - 1996
The effects of set size and novelty on visual pop-out in 6-month-old infants was assessed in a perceptual-identification (memory reactivation) paradigm in which infants, trained and tested in their own homes, viewed a mobile containing a unique novel or familiar object amidst different numbers of familiar or novel distractors, respectively. ...
Adams R J - - 1996
A recently developed psychophysical "card" technique was used to evaluate monocular contrast sensitivity in ninety 3-, 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old human infants. Results showed that for 3-, 6-, 24-, and 36-month-olds, monocular contrast sensitivity functions were very similar to binocular contrast sensitivity functions estimated in a previous experiment. However, ...
Katbamna B - - 1996
We evaluated the effect of electrode montage on the spectrum of the infant auditory brainstem response (ABR). Spectral profiles of ipsilateral, contralateral, noncephalic, and horizontal recordings obtained in response to slow and fast repetition rates and at low and high stimulus intensities were also evaluated. Findings indicate that the spectrum ...
Eldredge L - - 1996
Bilateral ABRs were recorded from 452 infants 32-45 weeks conceptional age. Differences in laterality, gender and appropriateness for gestational age were investigated in order to increase our understanding of developmental processes in early life. Rate effects were also studied in a subsample of infants (145 ears). All subjects were free ...
Malcuit G - - 1996
In experiments on infant attention, the sudden presentation of a stimulus elicits an orienting response (OR). Its persisting presence then reinforces its visual exploration. When subsequently projected, this stimulus comes to signal the availability of something to look at. The aim of the present study was to sort out the ...
Harland R E - - 1996
This study examined the relationship between birth risk factors and sensory capacity in 1245 young adults (mean age = 19.9 years). Nine birth risk factors were included (long labour, breech birth, breathing difficulty, instrument delivery, Caesarian delivery, multiple birth, premature birth, low birth weight, and high-risk birth order) and six ...
Fledelius H C - - 1996
An ophthalmic follow-up comprised 88 children aged 7-10 years who had regular screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after their pre-term delivery 1982-84. Mean values of birth weight and gestational age in the 88 were 1467 g and 31 weeks. Out of 28 with early evidence of ROP four had ...
Hadders-Algra M - - 1996
1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training can affect the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants. 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics ...
Birch E - - 1996
Dynamic random dot fusion, stereopsis and stereoacuity were evaluated in 149 healthy, fullterm infants, using both forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) and steady-state visual evoked potential (VEP) protocols. Few infants aged 2-3 months demonstrated fusion or stereopsis in either the FPL or VEP protocol; most infants aged 5 months and older ...
Lambert S R - - 1996
Cataracts are one of the most treatable causes of visual impairment during infancy. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that they have a prevalence of 1.2 to 6.0 cases per 10,000 infants. The morphology of infantile cataracts can be helpful in establishing their etiology and prognosis. Early surgery and optical correction ...
Frick J E - - 1996
In 5 experiments, 4-month-old infants were tested for their ability to recognize degraded visual targets as a function of individual differences in fixation duration. Targets were degraded by removing 10% of the total contour either from vertices (vertex-absent) or from midsegments (vertex-present). Both qualitative and quantitative differences were found in ...
Gregory N G - - 1996
Sixty-one calves were electrically stunned with 100-250 V currents (103-1806 mA) and the prevalence and duration of insensibility was assessed from their physical behaviour, the presence of epileptiform activity in their electrocorticograms, and the absence of visual evoked responses in their electrocorticograms. A current applied at 100 V across the ...
Eken P - - 1996
A longitudinal prospective follow-up study looking at the correlation between haemorrhagic-ischaemic lesions on neonatal cranial ultrasound (US) and the development of cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in infancy resulted in the detection of nine infants with severe visual impairment, which was not due to opthalmological abnormalities. Extensive cystic leukomalacia proved to ...
Braddick O - - 1996
A variety of behavioural and electrophysiological studies agree that the onset of functional binocular interaction in human visual cortex normally occurs between 10 and 16 weeks of age. Measures of sensitivity to binocular correlation and to disparity agree closely, and behavioural and visual evoked potential measures on the same infant ...
Dobkins K R - - 1996
In order to investigate the presence of directionally selective mechanisms in 3-month-old infants, we employed a summation-near-threshold paradigm previously developed for studies of adult vision (Levinson & Sekuler, 1975 Journal of Physiology (London), 250, 347-366); Watson, Thompson, Murphy & Nachmias, 1980 Vision Research, 20, 341-347). The degree of contrast summation ...
Kiorpes L - - 1996
Interpretation of measurements of visual performance in infants must be based on knowledge of the locus of highest sensitivity in the infant retina. While we know that adult contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution is highest at the fovea, recent anatomical data show that the infant fovea is relatively immature. We ...
Brockway P D - - 1996
The postnatal development of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulus-secretion coupling was examined in rabbit ileum. A positive correlation between age and ANP-induced secretory responsiveness was observed. The short circuit current (Isc) response in 14-day animals was significantly (p < 0.05) less than that seen in 21-day, 28-day and adult animals. ...
Brown A M - - 1995
Infant color vision is poor, and most psychophysical experiments agree that infant color vision emerges between ages 3 weeks and 3 months. Presumably, the color vision of infants is poor during the months immediately after it has emerged. We have tested two alternative explanations for the poor color vision of ...
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