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Results 501 - 550 of 1096
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Lange-Küttner C - - 1999
Infants from 16 to 20 weeks were presented with objects moving across a 60-cm distance. Tracking increased between 16 and 18 weeks, reaching increased at 18 weeks, and arm lifts (swipes) showed no age change. A right spatial field bias in tracking disappeared gradually. Swipes occurred most often in front ...
Gibson R A - - 1999
At the Consensus and Controversies Conference held in Barcelona in November 1996, one of the sessions focused on an evaluation of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on infant visual development. The intervention trials in preterm and term infants were reviewed and discussed in detail. Results of these ...
Holmström G - - 1999
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prematurely born infants are known to have an increased rate of ophthalmological morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual acuity and ocular alignment in a population of preterm infants in a geographical area, in infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: A prospective ...
Weinacht S - - 1999
PURPOSE: To compare development of visual acuity and binocular vision in preterm and full-term infants in a prospective study that used testers masked to subject's gestational age. METHODS: Seventy-nine healthy full-term infants, mean gestational age 40 weeks, and 18 low-risk preterm infants, mean gestational age 33 weeks, were examined biweekly ...
Jacobson S W - - 1999
The aims of this paper are (i) to consider how best to examine effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional supplementation or deficiency on infant neurobehavioral development, after controlling for other factors that might influence outcome, including maternal demographic, intellectual, and personality characteristics, and (ii) to present new findings on ...
Shepherd A J - - 1999
This paper investigates the prognostic value of flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded in preterm infants at birth and at term age with respect to severe neurological outcome. Flash VEPs were recorded in 81 preterm infants at birth (i.e. <35 weeks' gestation) and repeated in 56 of these infants at ...
Cassidy JW - - 1999
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for ...
Schwartz B B - - 1999
Infant spatial working memory was assessed in 96 nine-month-old human infants using a modification of the delayed-response procedure. A person was the hidden stimulus, gaze was used as the response modality, the response context was a naturalistic "peek-a-boo" game, and a salient cue (i.e. curtains opening to reveal two windows) ...
Berg K M - - 1999
In adult listeners, the signal-to-noise ratio at masked threshold remains constant with increases in masker level over a wide range of stimulus conditions. This relationship was examined in 7-month-old infants by obtaining masked thresholds for .5- and 4-kHz tones presented in four levels of continuous masking noise. Adults were also ...
Lothian J A - - 1999
In answer to a reader's question about the necessity of prenatal sonograms, this column asserts that, unl there is a serious medical problem, mothers should depend less on technology and more on their natural abilities to foster the all-important bond with their babies.
McNamara F - - 1998
Arousal is considered to be an important response to a life-threatening stimulus. Recently, it has been shown that the infant arousal response to an elevated inspired CO2 level occurs as a sequence of events involving presumptive brain stem responses before awakening (A. Lijowska, N. Reed, B. Chiodini, and B. T. ...
Crognale M A - - 1998
Most prior visual evoked potential (VEP) research on the development of color vision has employed pattern-reversing stimuli that are not optimal for producing chromatic responses. We measured infant VEPs using low spatial frequency, onset-offset stimuli, modulated along the three axes of a cone-based color space (Derrington et al. [J. Physiol ...
Stroganova T A - - 1998
This work was designed to investigate EEG indices of Internally and Externally Controlled Attention in infancy. EEG was recorded in 15 infants aged 7-8 months under three experimental conditions: (1) visual attention to a new stimulation (Externally Controlled Attention or baseline condition); (2) attention guided by internal cognitive schemata during ...
Bieber M L - - 1998
Genetic analyses were performed on five male children (approximately 3 years), two suspect color-normals and three suspects for congenital color vision deficiencies. These classifications were based on visually-evoked potential (VEP) responses to M- and L-cone-isolating stimuli obtained in a previous study when each subject was either 4- or 8-weeks old. ...
Cioni G G Stella Maris Scientific Institute-INPE, University of Pisa, Calambrone Pisa, Italy. - - 1998
Visual information processing for faces were tested by means of the Fagan test of infant intelligence (FTII) in six infants of approximately 12 months of age affected by congenital unilateral brain lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine the side and size of the lesions. In addition to ...
Gingold M K - - 1998
To determine when the plantar response becomes reliably flexor in infants, 169 infants underwent serial evaluation from 2 weeks to 12 months of age during routine well-child visits. The plantar response, elicited in a standardized fashion, was extensor in 95.5%, 64.8%, 10.9%, 0.7%, and 0% of the infants at 2, ...
Marshall-Baker A - - 1998
The article reports a study documenting preterm infants' responses to visual patterns placed in their incubators in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the effects of long-term exposure to the patterns. In the first experiment, 20 preterm infants were exposed to a visual pattern in two conditions, stationary and ...
Berg K M - - 1998
A visually reinforced operant paradigm was employed to examine the relationship between the difference limen (DL) for intensity and level of the standard during infancy. In Experiment 1, 7-month-old infants and adults detected increments in continuous noise presented via headphones at each of four levels ranging from 28 to 58 ...
Mercuri E - - 1998
The onset and maturation of visual cortical mechanisms can be recorded by using steady-state visual evoked potentials. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare orientation-reversal (OR) and phase-reversal (PH) VEP as indicators of the maturation of cortical function in a population of fullterm infants with brain lesions ...
Westall C A - - 1998
PURPOSE: To investigate the correlation between directional asymmetry in ocular responses to monocularly viewed optokinetic stimuli (monocular optokinetic nystagmus, MOKN) and sensory fusion in infants and toddlers with early-onset esotropia. METHODS: Subjects were 14 infants and toddlers with early-onset esotropia (7-26 months old; median, 10 months), and 16 with no ...
Csibra G - - 1998
Neural correlates of saccade planning in 6-month-old infants were investigated by high-density event-related potentials. Subjects made saccades to a target stimulus following a time gap from fixation stimulus offset (gap trials) or with the fixation stimulus still present (overlap trials). Like adults, infants were slower to make a saccade to ...
Nelson C A - - 1998
The present study sought to compare adult and infant ERP responses in analogous tests of visual recognition memory. Adults were tested under two test conditions, in which they were given either explicit instructions to respond to a previously-seen stimulus, or no instructions. Testing in both conditions took place after either ...
Karrer J H - - 1998
Development of cerebral inhibitory processes among individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may be delayed at an early age. In support of this hypothesis, sensory-evoked potentials (EPs) and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) have previously delineated altered habituation to stimuli among infants with DS. The purpose of the current study was to ...
Ahn MO - - 1998
> Objective: To describe the perinatal characteristics of neurologically impaired infants with normal intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns. Methods: In a registry of 300 neurologically impaired singleton term infants, a retrospective chart review was undertaken to analyze those patients with a normal intrapartum FHR pattern, i.e. reactive FHR pattern ...
Sireteanu RH - - 1998
Visual acuity was measured in infants with the forced-choice preferential looking technique, using videotaped material from live observations. There was excellent agreement between the acuity values estimated with the two procedures, suggesting that observations on videotaped material can replace "live" observations in the estimation of visual functions in infancy.
Bieber M L - - 1998
Field sensitivities were measured under conditions of M- and L-cone isolation for seven infants (8-12 weeks-old) and two adults, using silent-substitution and the visually evoked potential (VEP). The efficacy of the receptor-isolation conditions were first verified by measuring psychophysical and VEP-derived action spectra from two color-normal adults under conditions of ...
Meek J H - - 1998
This study presents the first measurements using near infrared spectroscopy of changes in regional hemodynamics as a response to a visual stimulus in awake infants. Ten infants aged 3 d to 14 wk viewed a checkerboard with a 5-Hz pattern reversal. The emitter and detector (optodes) of a near infrared ...
Rose S A - - 1998
The present study demonstrated that individual differences in cross-modal transfer showed continuity over a 10-year span. Tactual-visual tasks, requiring visual recognition of shapes that had previously been felt but not seen, were given to full-term and preterm children at 2 ages, 1 and 11 years. Cross-modal performance showed a left-hand ...
Onat T - - 1998
To establish the incidence and course of right ventricular (RV) conduction delay during the regression of right ventricular dominance, 12 serial ECGs were recorded at regular intervals until age 36 months in a cohort of 43 normal neonates. Additionally, ECGs were recorded similarly in 6 infants from the age of ...
Bianchi P E - - 1998
Two infants who presented with wide-amplitude and high-frequency nystagmus and lack of visual awareness in the first 3 months of life were studied. No ocular abnormalities were found. Neurodevelopmental examination, visual evoked potentials and electroretinograms were normal. One infant underwent MRI which resulted in normal findings. Two months later both ...
Dannemiller J L - - 1998
Four experiments are reported on exogenous (stimulus-driven) orienting in 3.5-month-old infants. A small moving bar embedded in a field of static bars was used to draw the infant's attention to one side of the display or the other. The bars could be either red or green. In all four of ...
Wentworth N - - 1998
The microdevelopment of infants' visual expectations was examined by analysis of the eye movements that 80 three-month-old human infants made during interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of an alternating picture sequence. For comparison, identical eye movement data were gathered from 10 infants who watched an irregular sequence. Shifts during ISIs were exhibited ...
McCulloch D L - - 1998
The infant patient presents a challenge to the optometrist who must structure an examination within the infant's limited capabilities and then manage a rapidly developing visual system. The present paper provides an overview of infant visual development and the visually guided behaviours expected during normal development. Techniques for assessing vision ...
Koester L S - - 1998
The authors examine the effects that results when 9-month-old deaf and hearing infants break eye contact during face-to-face interactions with their deaf or hearing mothers. Of particular interest are mothers' responses when their infant looks away, and mothers' degree of success at regaining visual attention by using active bids in ...
Phelan JP - - 1998
>Objective: To describe the fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns of 300 term brain-damaged infants.Methods: The fetal monitor strips of 300 singleton term neurologically impaired neonates were retrospectively analyzed.Results: Of the 300 infants, the admission FHR patterns were: reactive, 152 (51%); nonreactive, 135 (45%); bradycardia, 9 (3%); or unclassifiable, 4 (1%). ...
Birch E E - - 1998
PURPOSE: The overall goal was to develop a simple test of random dot stereoacuity that can be used during the first 24 months of life to measure sensory outcomes following treatment of ophthalmopediatric disorders, both in the context of clinical trials and in the context of clinical management. METHODS: A ...
Skoczenski A M - - 1998
Visual contrast sensitivity is poor in newborn human infants, but improves rapidly to approach adult levels by 8 months of age. During this period, infant sensitivity can be limited by physical factors affecting photon capture, such as eye size and photoreceptor density. Here we show that infant visual sensitivity is ...
Quiñónez R E - - 1998
The purpose of this investigation was to determine what types of changes occur in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPE) latency with increasing postconceptual age. These DPE latency changes were then described in relation to developmental changes in conductive and cochlear mechanisms in the neonate. Longitudinal DPE latency measurements were ...
Sawaguchi K - - 1998
Waveform analyses of flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in neurologically normal preterm infants (postconceptional age 31-42 weeks) were performed using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model to interpret the evoked potentials as dynamic high-order responses to natural and experimental stimulation. Averaged VEP waveforms obtained were decomposed into 7-11 component impulse ...
Corkum V - - 1998
Two experiments examined the origins of joint visual attention with a training procedure. In Experiment 1, infants aged 6-11 months were tested for a gaze-following (joint visual attention) response under feedback and no feedback conditions. In Experiment 2, infants 8-9 months received feedback for either following the experimenter's gaze (natural ...
Bertenthal B I - - 1997
In this investigation of developmental changes in the coordination of perceived optical flow and postural responses, 4 age groups of infants (5-, 7-, 9-, and 13-month-olds) were tested while seated on a force plate in a "moving room." During each trial the walls oscillated in an anteroposterior direction for 12 ...
Richards J E - - 1997
Visual fixation in infants from 3 to 6 months of age was examined for its fit to the theory of "attentional inertia." This theory posits that during the progression of a look there is increasing attention toward the stimulus and an "inertia" to continue looking. An extended audiovisual stimulus was ...
Gilmore R O - - 1997
The nature of the spatial representations that underlie simple visually guided actions early in life were investigated through the application of a 'double-step' saccade paradigm to 3- and 7-month-old infants. Saccades in the older infants, like those observed in adults, were executed within body-centered spatial coordinates that take into account ...
Colombo J - - 1997
Although individual differences in visual habituation have long been interpreted in terms of processes derived from comparator theory, research over the last decade has suggested that arousal or arousability as manifest in sensitization may contribute to infants' attentional profiles, and thus, to individual differences in those profiles. We explored this ...
Boivin X - - 1997
We studied the ability of 32 lambs reared artificially in groups of four to discriminate between their shepherd and an unknown shepherd. Half of the lambs were bottle fed in isolation by one shepherd during the first 3 wk. The other half was fed alternately by three shepherds. Lambs had ...
Dobkins K R - - 1997
In order to investigate the development of temporal contrast sensitivity functions (tCSFs) for chromatic (red/green) stimuli, we obtained chromatic contrast thresholds from 3-month-old infants and adults using behavioral techniques. Stimuli were moving or counterphase-reversing sinusoidal gratings of 0.25 c/deg. Five temporal frequencies were used: 0.7, 2.1, 5.6, 11 and 17 ...
Fang L L - - 1997
PURPOSE: Lessened acuity for oblique contours as compared with horizontal and vertical contours, the oblique effect, is characteristic of humans and animals. The magnitude of the oblique effect in humans varies with ethnic origin. Three experiments were performed to determine the source and extent of this variation in Chinese and ...
Brown A M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Vernier acuity was measured longitudinally for comparison with published results on early stereopsis development. METHODS: Thirty-seven human infants were tested using forced-choice preferential looking. These included 29 pilot infants (9 or 12 weeks of age) and eight infants tested longitudinally (9 weeks to 11 to 15 weeks of age). ...
Mercuri E - - 1997
AIM: To examine the effects of early lesions in the visual pathway on visual function; and to identify early prognostic indicators of visual abnormalities. METHODS: The visual function of 37 infants with perinatal brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging was assessed using behavioural and electrophysiological variables. RESULTS: Normal visual behaviour ...
Quiñónez R E - - 1997
The purposes of this investigation were to determine 1) if auditory peripheral maturity is present in the newborn; 2) if not, at what age maturational changes occur in the peripheral auditory system from preterm to full-term; and 3) how results of tests used to identify auditory dysfunction in neonates, such ...
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