Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1095
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Belson A - - 2001
Infants with chronic renal insufficiency have multiple risk factors for developing pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) and are at particular risk for being diagnosed with PTC late, because of their inability to express symptoms. We describe a 13-month-old infant dependent on peritoneal dialysis, without evidence of central nervous system infection or inflammation, ...
Rasengane T A - - 2001
In the present study we investigate the dependence of photopic contrast thresholds on retinal illuminance in infants and adults. Contrast thresholds were measured at five retinal illuminances between about 6 and about 20,000 Td in subjects in both age groups. The forced-choice preferential looking technique was used in 3-month-old infants, ...
Guzzetta A - - 2001
In the last two decades there has been a considerable increase in the understanding of visual maturation in the young infant and it has been possible to develop methods for testing visual function that are applicable in the neonatal period and early infancy. Several studies have reported that various aspects ...
Kawabata H - - 2001
Four groups of eight 4-month-old infants were each habituated to one of four displays consisting of a grating of either low (0.4 cycle deg(-1) or high (1.2 cycles deg(-1) spatial frequency, whose central portion was covered up with a horizontal occluder which was either narrow (1.33 deg) or broad (4.17 ...
Dannemiller J L - - 2001
Luminance increments and decrements of equal magnitude are processed asymmetrically in the adult visual system. At detection threshold, decrements are slightly easier to detect than increments. At suprathreshold contrast levels decrements appear to have more contrast than increments when both differ from the background by the same absolute amount. Two ...
Houston Derek M - - 2001
Families of infants who are congenitally deaf now have the option of cochlear implantation at a very young age. In order to assess the effectiveness of early cochlear implantation, however, new behavioral procedures are needed to measure speech perception and language skills during infancy. One important component of language development ...
Mazur A - - 2001
Clinical use of stored electrogram (EGM) configurations currently used in ICDs is limited. The hypothesis that EGMs recorded from electrodes on the ICD surface may improve diagnostic capabilities of the device was tested in the present study. The Buttons on Active Can Emulator (BACE), an ICD-sized device containing four button ...
Simmer K - - 2001
The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids linolenic acid and linoleic acid are precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain fatty acids (LCPUFA). Infant formula has historically only contained the precursor fatty acids. Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are also essential nutrients in infancy. Over the last few years some manufacturers ...
Hansen R M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To obtain and analyze scotopic increment threshold functions to test the hypothesis that rod photoreceptor immaturity accounts for the elevation of infants' over controls' dark-adapted thresholds and elevation of parafoveal over peripheral thresholds in infants. METHODS: Using a preferential looking method, thresholds for detection of 2(o), 50 msec, blue ...
Day J - - 2000
Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA) with insert-earphone stimulus delivery provides a means of obtaining early ear-specific information on the auditory status of infants. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of VRA in young infants, and to compare the use of sound field and insert-earphone stimulus presentation. VRA ...
Hicks C B - - 2000
The determination of auditory thresholds by means of behavioral techniques in young infants can be difficult. This could be the result of limitations in methodology, a lack of observable auditory responsiveness, or both. In the current study, 2- and 4-month old infants were tested under enhanced conditions for obtaining behavioral ...
SanGiovanni J P - - 2000
Neonatal cerebral white matter echolucencies predict visual resolution acuity deficits in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. We examined maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle, intrapartum, infant birth/perinatal, and ocular motor/refractive characteristics to determine whether they accounted for this association in infants who were tested once between postnatal age 25 and 56 weeks (corrected for gestational ...
Birch E E - - 2000
PURPOSE: Poor response rates and/or the confounding of motion and offset responses make it difficult to interpret results of previous studies of infant hyperacuity. The aim of the present study was to design a protocol that overcomes these limitations and to investigate the normal maturation of hyperacuity. METHODS: Hyperacuity of ...
Pye S D - - 2000
The directional responses of a range of ultraviolet radiometers commonly used for irradiance measurements of UVB and UVC have been studied. Radiometers with 24 diffuser/filter combinations were assessed using a deuterium source, and three different diffuser/filter designs were assessed using a monochromatic source. The directional responses of the radiometers have ...
Deák G O - - 2000
Factors affecting joint visual attention in 12- and 18-month-olds were investigated. In Experiment 1 infants responded to 1 of 3 parental gestures: looking, looking and pointing, or looking, pointing, and verbalizing. Target objects were either identical to or distinctive from distractor objects. Targets were in front of or behind the ...
SanGiovanni J P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To derive combined estimates of visual resolution acuity differences between healthy preterm infants consuming different compositions and ratios of essential fatty acids (EFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). DATA SOURCES: Electronic biomedical reference database (Medline and Health Star from 1965 to July ...
Birch E E - - 2000
PURPOSE: To determine the maturational course of nasotemporal asymmetry in infantile esotropia and to define the relationships among the symmetry of the motion visual evoked potential (MVEP), eye alignment, fusion, and stereopsis. METHODS: Sixty healthy term infants and 34 infants with esotropia participated. Nasotemporal MVEP asymmetry was assessed by the ...
Smit B J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values of cortical N(1) peak latency of the median nerve SEP in very preterm infants. METHODS: In infants in a placebo control group within an L-thyroxine supplementation trial, born at less than 30 weeks' gestation, cortical N(1) peak latency was measured at 2 weeks, at ...
Csibra G - - 2000
The spike potential is a sharply timed positivity which precedes eye movements in adults, and is thought to indicate cortical planning of saccades. While the spike potential is observed under most conditions in adults, it has not been reported in young infants. In the present study we shed light on ...
Cioni G - - 2000
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between visual function and neurodevelopmental outcome in children with periventricular leucomalacia at 1 and 3 years. METHOD: Visual acuity, visual field, ocular motility, and optokinetic nystagmus were tested in 29 infants with periventricular leucomalacia by brain magnetic resonance imaging. All infants also had a structured ...
Adams R J - - 2000
Retest variability of a new infant contrast sensitivity (CS) card procedure was assessed by binocular measurement of a group of 20 6-month-olds twice within a 1-week period. Coefficient of reliability analyses showed that within-subject variability between tests was only slightly less than variation across subjects, which suggests that results from ...
Lewis T L - - 2000
We quantified OKN asymmetry in 140 normal infants, 3-24 months old, by varying spatial frequency to determine OKN acuity for temporal-to-nasal (T-N) versus nasal-to-temporal (N-T) motion. At all ages, OKN acuity was asymmetrical (better for T-N than for N-T motion) but the size of the asymmetry decreased from 3.2 to ...
Richards J E - - 2000
This study examined covert shifts of attention in infants aged 14, 20, and 26 weeks of age with scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). The infants were tested in a spatial cuing procedure. The reaction time to localize the target showed covert attention shifts (e.g., response facilitation or inhibition of return depending ...
Verghese S T - - 2000
Central venous cannulation allows accurate monitoring of right atrial pressure and infusion of drugs during the anaesthetic management of infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. In this prospective, randomized study, we compared the success and speed of cannulation of the internal jugular vein in 45 infants weighing less than 10 kg using ...
Suttle C M - - 2000
The visual evoked potential is commonly used to estimate visual acuity in infants. The stimulus used is temporally modulated in order to drive the cortical response. Here it is proposed that distortion products generated by a front-end nonlinearity may contaminate the acuity estimate. Specifically, the nonlinearity might convert temporal modulation ...
Molteno A C - - 2000
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Gobin's theory of strabismus emphasizes the importance of diagnosis and correction of oblique muscle dysfunction when operating on the horizontal muscles to correct eso- and exodeviations in infancy. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes for the two schools for this type of strabismus. METHODS: ...
Triviño A - - 2000
The immunohistochemical location of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was used to study the state of maturation of retinal astrocytes from an 18-mo-old infant and to compare it with the situation in the adult. Infant astrocytes showed intense GFAP immunoreactivity in the perikarya and possessed spindle-like enlargements in their processes, ...
Bobier W R - - 2000
Convergence-accommodation, one of several cross-linkages in the oculomotor system is manifested by opening the accommodative feedback loop and increasing the vergence input. We elicited this response in human infants aged 3-6 months by placing a 15 delta prism (base-out) before one eye while they viewed a diffuse patch of light. ...
Simmer K - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. The n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are essential nutrients during infancy. The ...
Nozza R J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The purposes were to determine the degree to which infant unmasked thresholds differed from those of adults, to determine the effect of signal frequency on those differences, and to determine whether there is a difference in minimum effective masking as a function of age and frequency. The data were ...
Bakker E C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: In term infants the relationship between visual acuity and dietary fatty acid composition is not consistent, possibly due to confounders, which were mostly neglected in the studies concerned. In the current study, therefore, the influence of the essential fatty acid status and potential confounders on the visual acuity was ...
King A J - - 1999
We have examined the effects on auditory spatial acuity in the horizontal plane of depriving ferrets of patterned visual cues by binocular eyelid suture in infancy or for a comparable period in adulthood. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) were measured for 500-, 100- and 40-ms broadband noise bursts at the midline ...
Amin S B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to describe and quantify the sequential morphological changes in the auditory brain stem response (ABR) during the first postnatal week of life in very premature infants < or = 32 wk gestational age. These normative data could be useful in predicting neurological outcome ...
Kawabata H - - 1999
Four groups of eight infants (3 weeks of age on average) were each habituated to one of four displays consisting of a grating of either low (0.4 cpd) or high (1.2 cpd) spatial frequency, whose central portion was covered up with a horizontal occluder which was either narrow (1.33 degrees) ...
Candy T R - - 1999
We measured the resolution of the optics and receptoral processes in human infants. To do so, we recorded visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) to sampled sinewave gratings, stimuli that generate highly visible distortion products at a nonlinearity early in the retina. We varied the spatial frequency content of the stimulus to determine ...
Riddell P M - - 1999
Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the ...
Coles C D - - 1999
To evaluate the effect of prenatal polydrug exposure on infant attention, 105 8-week-old African-American infants were presented a series of stimuli and their heart rates (HRs) were recorded. Infants were identified postnatally based on mothers' substance use. Four groups were tested: 1) preterm drug-exposed infants (n = 25); 2) full-term, ...
Dobkins K R - - 1999
In order to investigate the development of luminance and chromatic temporal contrast sensitivity functions (tCSFs), we obtained chromatic and luminance contrast thresholds from individual 3- and 4-month old infants, and compared them to previously obtained functions in adults. Stimuli were moving sinusoidal gratings of 0.27 cyc/deg, presented at one of ...
Hansen R M - - 1999
PURPOSE: To measure the developmental course of infants' rod-mediated thresholds. METHODS: Thresholds for detecting stimuli (2 degrees diameter, 50 msec duration) presented at 10 degrees (parafoveal site) or 30 degrees (peripheral site) from a central fixation target were estimated using a preferential-looking method. Nine infants were tested at both stimulus ...
Masataka N - - 1999
L. J. Trainor (1996) reported preferences for infant-directed versus infant-absent singing in English in 4-7-month-old hearing infants of English-speaking hearing parents. In this experiment, the author tested preferences for infant-directed singing versus adult-directed singing in 15 two-day-old hearing infants of deaf parents for a Japanese and an English play song. ...
Frick J E - - 1999
The current study investigated whether individual and developmental differences in look duration are correlated with the latency for infants to disengage fixation from a visual stimulus. Ninety-four infants (52 3-month-olds, 42 4-month-olds) were tested in a procedure that measured ocular reaction time to shift fixation from a central target to ...
Orekhova E V - - 1999
The neurophysiological basis of attention control has been investigated in infants during the second half of the first year of life. The marked improvement of voluntary control of attention and action is known to occur during this age period. EEG was registered in 60 infants aged 8-11 months under three ...
Boyadjian A - - 1999
Without visual information, human subjects are not able to maintain displacement in a straight line. This tendency is called veering. The goal of this paper was to investigate the origin of veering in a population of subjects who were homotropic during walking (i.e. veering consistently in the same direction on ...
Leppänen P H - - 1999
Infants born to families with a background of developmental dyslexia have an increased risk of becoming dyslexic. In our previous study no major group or stimulus effects in the event-related potentials (ERPs) of at-risk and control infants were found until the age of 6 months. However, in the current study, ...
Gong Q - - 1999
Retinal axons in Drosophila make precise topographic connections with their target cells in the optic lobe. Here we investigate the role of the Netrins and their receptor Frazzled in the establishment of retinal projections. We find that the Netrins, although expressed in the target, are not required for retinal projections. ...
Roy M S - - 1999
The aim of this study was to determine, in infants born at < or =29 weeks postmenstrual age until 32 weeks postmenstrual age, whether reduction to light stimulation by occlusion of eyes affected central visual development. The pattern visual-evoked potential responses at 41 and 51 weeks postmenstrual age and 3 ...
Pike A A - - 1999
Flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from 67 infants of < 33 weeks gestation with normal neurological outcome at 24 months corrected age. Cross sectional and longitudinal data showed the emergence of peak components of the waveform with increase in maturity. The first major negative peak, with a latency ...
Trachterna M - - 1999
The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is of great interest for paediatric gastroenterologists. pH monitoring is the commonly used procedure for GOR diagnosis but a major amount of postprandial GOR is missed due to the mostly non-acidic gastric contents in infants. The multiple intraluminal impedance technique is based on the ...
Werner L A LA Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle 98105-6246, - - 1999
Psychophysical forward-masked thresholds were estimated for 3- and 6-month-old infants and for adults. Listeners detected a repeated 1000-Hz probe, with 16-ms rise time, no steady-state duration, and 16-ms fall time. Unmasked thresholds were determined for one group of listeners who were trained to respond when they heard the probe but ...
Lange-Küttner C - - 1999
Infants from 16 to 20 weeks were presented with objects moving across a 60-cm distance. Tracking increased between 16 and 18 weeks, reaching increased at 18 weeks, and arm lifts (swipes) showed no age change. A right spatial field bias in tracking disappeared gradually. Swipes occurred most often in front ...
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