Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1078
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Smit B J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional and longitudinal reference values of cortical N(1) peak latency of the median nerve SEP in very preterm infants. METHODS: In infants in a placebo control group within an L-thyroxine supplementation trial, born at less than 30 weeks' gestation, cortical N(1) peak latency was measured at 2 weeks, at ...
Csibra G - - 2000
The spike potential is a sharply timed positivity which precedes eye movements in adults, and is thought to indicate cortical planning of saccades. While the spike potential is observed under most conditions in adults, it has not been reported in young infants. In the present study we shed light on ...
Cioni G - - 2000
AIM: To evaluate the correlation between visual function and neurodevelopmental outcome in children with periventricular leucomalacia at 1 and 3 years. METHOD: Visual acuity, visual field, ocular motility, and optokinetic nystagmus were tested in 29 infants with periventricular leucomalacia by brain magnetic resonance imaging. All infants also had a structured ...
Adams R J - - 2000
Retest variability of a new infant contrast sensitivity (CS) card procedure was assessed by binocular measurement of a group of 20 6-month-olds twice within a 1-week period. Coefficient of reliability analyses showed that within-subject variability between tests was only slightly less than variation across subjects, which suggests that results from ...
Lewis T L - - 2000
We quantified OKN asymmetry in 140 normal infants, 3-24 months old, by varying spatial frequency to determine OKN acuity for temporal-to-nasal (T-N) versus nasal-to-temporal (N-T) motion. At all ages, OKN acuity was asymmetrical (better for T-N than for N-T motion) but the size of the asymmetry decreased from 3.2 to ...
Richards J E - - 2000
This study examined covert shifts of attention in infants aged 14, 20, and 26 weeks of age with scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). The infants were tested in a spatial cuing procedure. The reaction time to localize the target showed covert attention shifts (e.g., response facilitation or inhibition of return depending ...
Verghese S T - - 2000
Central venous cannulation allows accurate monitoring of right atrial pressure and infusion of drugs during the anaesthetic management of infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. In this prospective, randomized study, we compared the success and speed of cannulation of the internal jugular vein in 45 infants weighing less than 10 kg using ...
Suttle C M - - 2000
The visual evoked potential is commonly used to estimate visual acuity in infants. The stimulus used is temporally modulated in order to drive the cortical response. Here it is proposed that distortion products generated by a front-end nonlinearity may contaminate the acuity estimate. Specifically, the nonlinearity might convert temporal modulation ...
Molteno A C - - 2000
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Gobin's theory of strabismus emphasizes the importance of diagnosis and correction of oblique muscle dysfunction when operating on the horizontal muscles to correct eso- and exodeviations in infancy. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes for the two schools for this type of strabismus. METHODS: ...
Triviño A - - 2000
The immunohistochemical location of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was used to study the state of maturation of retinal astrocytes from an 18-mo-old infant and to compare it with the situation in the adult. Infant astrocytes showed intense GFAP immunoreactivity in the perikarya and possessed spindle-like enlargements in their processes, ...
Bobier W R - - 2000
Convergence-accommodation, one of several cross-linkages in the oculomotor system is manifested by opening the accommodative feedback loop and increasing the vergence input. We elicited this response in human infants aged 3-6 months by placing a 15 delta prism (base-out) before one eye while they viewed a diffuse patch of light. ...
Simmer K - - 2000
This section is under preparation and will be included in the next issue. The n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids alpha linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of the n-3 and n-6 longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Controversy exists over whether LCPUFA are essential nutrients during infancy. The ...
Nozza R J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The purposes were to determine the degree to which infant unmasked thresholds differed from those of adults, to determine the effect of signal frequency on those differences, and to determine whether there is a difference in minimum effective masking as a function of age and frequency. The data were ...
Bakker E C - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: In term infants the relationship between visual acuity and dietary fatty acid composition is not consistent, possibly due to confounders, which were mostly neglected in the studies concerned. In the current study, therefore, the influence of the essential fatty acid status and potential confounders on the visual acuity was ...
King A J - - 1999
We have examined the effects on auditory spatial acuity in the horizontal plane of depriving ferrets of patterned visual cues by binocular eyelid suture in infancy or for a comparable period in adulthood. Minimum audible angles (MAAs) were measured for 500-, 100- and 40-ms broadband noise bursts at the midline ...
Amin S B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to describe and quantify the sequential morphological changes in the auditory brain stem response (ABR) during the first postnatal week of life in very premature infants < or = 32 wk gestational age. These normative data could be useful in predicting neurological outcome ...
Kawabata H - - 1999
Four groups of eight infants (3 weeks of age on average) were each habituated to one of four displays consisting of a grating of either low (0.4 cpd) or high (1.2 cpd) spatial frequency, whose central portion was covered up with a horizontal occluder which was either narrow (1.33 degrees) ...
Candy T R - - 1999
We measured the resolution of the optics and receptoral processes in human infants. To do so, we recorded visual-evoked potentials (VEPs) to sampled sinewave gratings, stimuli that generate highly visible distortion products at a nonlinearity early in the retina. We varied the spatial frequency content of the stimulus to determine ...
Riddell P M - - 1999
Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the ...
Coles C D - - 1999
To evaluate the effect of prenatal polydrug exposure on infant attention, 105 8-week-old African-American infants were presented a series of stimuli and their heart rates (HRs) were recorded. Infants were identified postnatally based on mothers' substance use. Four groups were tested: 1) preterm drug-exposed infants (n = 25); 2) full-term, ...
Dobkins K R - - 1999
In order to investigate the development of luminance and chromatic temporal contrast sensitivity functions (tCSFs), we obtained chromatic and luminance contrast thresholds from individual 3- and 4-month old infants, and compared them to previously obtained functions in adults. Stimuli were moving sinusoidal gratings of 0.27 cyc/deg, presented at one of ...
Hansen R M - - 1999
PURPOSE: To measure the developmental course of infants' rod-mediated thresholds. METHODS: Thresholds for detecting stimuli (2 degrees diameter, 50 msec duration) presented at 10 degrees (parafoveal site) or 30 degrees (peripheral site) from a central fixation target were estimated using a preferential-looking method. Nine infants were tested at both stimulus ...
Masataka N - - 1999
L. J. Trainor (1996) reported preferences for infant-directed versus infant-absent singing in English in 4-7-month-old hearing infants of English-speaking hearing parents. In this experiment, the author tested preferences for infant-directed singing versus adult-directed singing in 15 two-day-old hearing infants of deaf parents for a Japanese and an English play song. ...
Frick J E - - 1999
The current study investigated whether individual and developmental differences in look duration are correlated with the latency for infants to disengage fixation from a visual stimulus. Ninety-four infants (52 3-month-olds, 42 4-month-olds) were tested in a procedure that measured ocular reaction time to shift fixation from a central target to ...
Orekhova E V - - 1999
The neurophysiological basis of attention control has been investigated in infants during the second half of the first year of life. The marked improvement of voluntary control of attention and action is known to occur during this age period. EEG was registered in 60 infants aged 8-11 months under three ...
Boyadjian A - - 1999
Without visual information, human subjects are not able to maintain displacement in a straight line. This tendency is called veering. The goal of this paper was to investigate the origin of veering in a population of subjects who were homotropic during walking (i.e. veering consistently in the same direction on ...
Leppänen P H - - 1999
Infants born to families with a background of developmental dyslexia have an increased risk of becoming dyslexic. In our previous study no major group or stimulus effects in the event-related potentials (ERPs) of at-risk and control infants were found until the age of 6 months. However, in the current study, ...
Werner L A - - 1999
Psychophysical forward-masked thresholds were estimated for 3- and 6-month-old infants and for adults. Listeners detected a repeated 1000-Hz probe, with 16-ms rise time, no steady-state duration, and 16-ms fall time. Unmasked thresholds were determined for one group of listeners who were trained to respond when they heard the probe but ...
Gong Q - - 1999
Retinal axons in Drosophila make precise topographic connections with their target cells in the optic lobe. Here we investigate the role of the Netrins and their receptor Frazzled in the establishment of retinal projections. We find that the Netrins, although expressed in the target, are not required for retinal projections. ...
Roy M S - - 1999
The aim of this study was to determine, in infants born at < or =29 weeks postmenstrual age until 32 weeks postmenstrual age, whether reduction to light stimulation by occlusion of eyes affected central visual development. The pattern visual-evoked potential responses at 41 and 51 weeks postmenstrual age and 3 ...
Pike A A - - 1999
Flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded from 67 infants of < 33 weeks gestation with normal neurological outcome at 24 months corrected age. Cross sectional and longitudinal data showed the emergence of peak components of the waveform with increase in maturity. The first major negative peak, with a latency ...
Trachterna M - - 1999
The diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is of great interest for paediatric gastroenterologists. pH monitoring is the commonly used procedure for GOR diagnosis but a major amount of postprandial GOR is missed due to the mostly non-acidic gastric contents in infants. The multiple intraluminal impedance technique is based on the ...
Lange-Küttner C - - 1999
Infants from 16 to 20 weeks were presented with objects moving across a 60-cm distance. Tracking increased between 16 and 18 weeks, reaching increased at 18 weeks, and arm lifts (swipes) showed no age change. A right spatial field bias in tracking disappeared gradually. Swipes occurred most often in front ...
Gibson R A - - 1999
At the Consensus and Controversies Conference held in Barcelona in November 1996, one of the sessions focused on an evaluation of the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on infant visual development. The intervention trials in preterm and term infants were reviewed and discussed in detail. Results of these ...
Holmström G - - 1999
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prematurely born infants are known to have an increased rate of ophthalmological morbidity. The aim of the present study was to investigate visual acuity and ocular alignment in a population of preterm infants in a geographical area, in infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: A prospective ...
Weinacht S - - 1999
PURPOSE: To compare development of visual acuity and binocular vision in preterm and full-term infants in a prospective study that used testers masked to subject's gestational age. METHODS: Seventy-nine healthy full-term infants, mean gestational age 40 weeks, and 18 low-risk preterm infants, mean gestational age 33 weeks, were examined biweekly ...
Jacobson S W - - 1999
The aims of this paper are (i) to consider how best to examine effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional supplementation or deficiency on infant neurobehavioral development, after controlling for other factors that might influence outcome, including maternal demographic, intellectual, and personality characteristics, and (ii) to present new findings on ...
Shepherd A J - - 1999
This paper investigates the prognostic value of flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded in preterm infants at birth and at term age with respect to severe neurological outcome. Flash VEPs were recorded in 81 preterm infants at birth (i.e. <35 weeks' gestation) and repeated in 56 of these infants at ...
Cassidy JW - - 1999
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for ...
Schwartz B B - - 1999
Infant spatial working memory was assessed in 96 nine-month-old human infants using a modification of the delayed-response procedure. A person was the hidden stimulus, gaze was used as the response modality, the response context was a naturalistic "peek-a-boo" game, and a salient cue (i.e. curtains opening to reveal two windows) ...
Berg K M - - 1999
In adult listeners, the signal-to-noise ratio at masked threshold remains constant with increases in masker level over a wide range of stimulus conditions. This relationship was examined in 7-month-old infants by obtaining masked thresholds for .5- and 4-kHz tones presented in four levels of continuous masking noise. Adults were also ...
Lothian J A - - 1999
In answer to a reader's question about the necessity of prenatal sonograms, this column asserts that, unl there is a serious medical problem, mothers should depend less on technology and more on their natural abilities to foster the all-important bond with their babies.
McNamara F - - 1998
Arousal is considered to be an important response to a life-threatening stimulus. Recently, it has been shown that the infant arousal response to an elevated inspired CO2 level occurs as a sequence of events involving presumptive brain stem responses before awakening (A. Lijowska, N. Reed, B. Chiodini, and B. T. ...
Crognale M A - - 1998
Most prior visual evoked potential (VEP) research on the development of color vision has employed pattern-reversing stimuli that are not optimal for producing chromatic responses. We measured infant VEPs using low spatial frequency, onset-offset stimuli, modulated along the three axes of a cone-based color space (Derrington et al. [J. Physiol ...
Stroganova T A - - 1998
This work was designed to investigate EEG indices of Internally and Externally Controlled Attention in infancy. EEG was recorded in 15 infants aged 7-8 months under three experimental conditions: (1) visual attention to a new stimulation (Externally Controlled Attention or baseline condition); (2) attention guided by internal cognitive schemata during ...
Bieber M L - - 1998
Genetic analyses were performed on five male children (approximately 3 years), two suspect color-normals and three suspects for congenital color vision deficiencies. These classifications were based on visually-evoked potential (VEP) responses to M- and L-cone-isolating stimuli obtained in a previous study when each subject was either 4- or 8-weeks old. ...
Cioni G G Stella Maris Scientific Institute-INPE, University of Pisa, Calambrone Pisa, Italy. - - 1998
Visual information processing for faces were tested by means of the Fagan test of infant intelligence (FTII) in six infants of approximately 12 months of age affected by congenital unilateral brain lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine the side and size of the lesions. In addition to ...
Gingold M K - - 1998
To determine when the plantar response becomes reliably flexor in infants, 169 infants underwent serial evaluation from 2 weeks to 12 months of age during routine well-child visits. The plantar response, elicited in a standardized fashion, was extensor in 95.5%, 64.8%, 10.9%, 0.7%, and 0% of the infants at 2, ...
Marshall-Baker A - - 1998
The article reports a study documenting preterm infants' responses to visual patterns placed in their incubators in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the effects of long-term exposure to the patterns. In the first experiment, 20 preterm infants were exposed to a visual pattern in two conditions, stationary and ...
Berg K M - - 1998
A visually reinforced operant paradigm was employed to examine the relationship between the difference limen (DL) for intensity and level of the standard during infancy. In Experiment 1, 7-month-old infants and adults detected increments in continuous noise presented via headphones at each of four levels ranging from 28 to 58 ...
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