Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 648
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Nunes S - - 2000
We describe temporal patterns of change in paternal behaviour and urinary concentrations of the steroid hormones testosterone (T) and oestradiol (E(2)) in male black tufted-ear marmosets, Callithrix kuhlii, relative to the birth of their young, and test predictions of the hypotheses that (1) high levels of T are incompatible with ...
Wakeley A - - 2000
Three experiments (N = 68), using Wynn's procedure, tested 5-month-old infants' looking time reactions to correct and incorrect results of simple addition and subtraction transformations. The aim was to investigate both the robustness and the parameters of infants' arithmetic competence. Experiments 1 and 2 (N = 44) were replications of ...
Najm-Briscoe R G - - 2000
Various factors have been identified that influence the robust phenomenon of novelty preference in infants. The present study consisted of two experiments that investigated whether conditioned 'value' is another variable that influences infants' preferences. In Experiment 1, novelty preference was established to simple tones despite the tones differing only in ...
Gao F - - 2000
We investigated infants' sensitivity to amount of continuous quantity and to change in amount of continuous quantity. Using a habituation procedure, Experiment 1 examined whether 6-month-old infants can distinguish between different amounts of liquid in a container. Infants looked significantly longer at a novel quantity than at the familiar quantity. ...
Reznick J S - - 2000
The development of expectations was investigated by using the Visual Expectations Procedure. In Experiment 1, 128 infants aged 6-, 9-, and 12-months-old saw two 40-trial sequences of a videotaped mechanical toy appearing in various locations. The sequences represented an alternation pattern (i.e., ABAB) or a complex pivot pattern (i.e., ABCBABCB). ...
Uller C - - 2000
Does the chimpanzee attribute goals to others? Recent infant studies using the looking time measure have been interpreted as evidence that human infants attribute goals. An experiment modeled on these studies was carried out on chimpanzees, and the chimpanzees responded the way infants do. This indicates that chimpanzees also attribute ...
Wu B M - - 2000
ABSTRACT Experiments to identify the factors affecting survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia after deposition on lettuce leaves were conducted in growth chambers and outdoors under ambient conditions. Lettuce seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with B. lactucae sporangia under dry conditions. Sporangia deposited on lettuce seedlings were incubated at ...
Zentall T R - - 2000
Divergent choose-absence retention functions typically found in pigeons following presence/absence-sample matching have been attributed to the development of a single-code/default coding strategy. However, such effects may result from adventitious differential responding to the samples. In Experiment 1, retention functions were divergent only when differential sample responding could serve as the ...
Casasola M - - 2000
Six experiments examined infants' ability to associate nonsense words with 2 causal actions: pushing and pulling. Although Experiment 1 found that 14-month-olds failed to form word-action associations, 18-month-olds in Experiment 2 provided reliable evidence of doing so. Additional experiments explored why 14-month-olds may not have formed such an association. Experiment ...
Lindrea K B - - 2000
This article describes a case study of infant massage for a neonate in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant massage is grounded in the theory of touch. In an NICU, the infant's tactile experiences can be uncomfortable or painful. This can lead to touch aversion. It is possible that ...
Greyson B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Some people who come close to death report having experiences in which they transcend the boundaries of the ego and the confines of time and space. Such near-death experiences (NDEs) share some features with the phenomenon of dissociation, in which a person's self identity becomes detached from bodily sensation. ...
Adler S A - - 2000
Reinstatement and reactivation are procedurally different reminder paradigms used with infants and children, but most developmental psychologists do not distinguish between them. In 4 experiments with 102 three-month-olds, we asked if they differ functionally as well. Independent groups of infants received either a reactivation or a reinstatement reminder 3 days ...
Roy C A - - 2000
The posttraumatic stress disorder model has been used to describe some children's experience with cancer. This article presents the case of a 5-month-old infant in whom a neuroblastoma was diagnosed at age 2 weeks. His symptoms at the time of the psychiatric consultation were consistent with the criteria for traumatic ...
Trainor L J - - 2000
Adults and 8-month-olds were presented with sequences in which every third complex tone was either longer or more intense. Segmentation was measured by comparing the detection of silent gaps inserted into three possible locations in each pattern: Silent gaps inserted at perceived segmentation boundaries are harder to detect than gaps ...
LaMothe R - - 2000
In this article, utilizing an emended version of Winnicott's notion of transitional objects and recent parent-infant research, the author offers a perspective on the development of individuals' experience of being alive and real in relation to objects and persons. Primary transitional objects, which represent parent-infant interactions, facilitate the infant's transition ...
Chotro M G - - 1999
Generalization of a conditioned taste aversion in infant rats and how this is affected by stimulus preexposure was investigated in a series of experiments. In Experiment 1 generalization of a conditioned aversion between two tastes (sweet and salty) was found, and the effect of tastes preexposure was a reduction in ...
Rossi-George A - - 1999
Three experiments assessed the effect of the similarity and timing of interpolated information on retroactive interference in human infants. After 3-month-olds learned to move a mobile (the cue) in a distinctive context by kicking, they were exposed to novel stimuli and were tested 24 hr later for recognition of their ...
Siegel A C - - 1999
Because baby walkers enable precocious locomotion in very young, otherwise prelocomotor infants, walker experience might be conceptualized in terms of early enrichment. However, walker devices prevent visual access to the moving limbs by design. Therefore, prelocomotor walker experience may be conceptualized in terms of early deprivation, reminiscent of that created ...
Rovee-Collier C - - 1999
The present experiments with human infants asked whether periodic nonverbal reminders could maintain a memory established at 2 months of age over a substantial period of development. In Experiment 1, a reactivation reminder recovered infants' forgotten memory after 3 weeks, but a reinstatement reminder did not. In Experiment 2, 2-month-olds ...
Goursaud A P - - 1999
The first sucking bouts have strong rewarding properties in the establishment of a preference for the mother by newborn lambs. In this study we designed an artificial teat (Experiment 1) and a method of tube feeding (Experiment 2) to investigate the role of nonnutritive sucking and colostrum intake as reinforcers ...
Vaslamatzis G - - 1999
Containment and interpretation are two inseparable aspects of the psychoanalytic technique. This is better understood by Bion's clinical metaphors of "container-contained" relationship and the capacity for reverie. Bion, continuing and expanding Klein's concept of projective identification, has transposed this from what happens to an infant to what happens in the ...
Ward C D - - 1999
Several studies have found that human infants recognize the sight, sound, smell, and touch of their mothers. Maternal recognition occurs early in development, often being influenced by prenatal experiences. In contrast, the development of infants' recognition of their fathers is not understood. We investigated whether 4-month-old human infants preferred their ...
Amaechi B T - - 1999
This study aimed to determine the effect of xylitol on the development and remineralization of caries in vitro, and to compare this effect with that of fluoride alone and in combination. Two experiments were devised. In experiment 1, bovine incisors were each sectioned into 4 portions which were randomly assigned ...
Graham S A - - 1999
Two experiments were conducted to examine infants' reliance on object shape versus colour for word generalization to animate and inanimate objects. A total of seventy-three infants aged 1;4 to 1;10 were taught labels for either novel vehicles or novel animals using a preferential looking procedure (Experiment 1) or an interactive ...
Lotto R B - - 1999
If Mach bands arise as an empirical consequence of real-world luminance profiles, several predictions follow. First, the appearance of Mach bands should accord with the appearance of naturally occurring highlights and lowlights. Second, altering the slope of an ambiguous luminance gradient so that it corresponds more closely to gradients that ...
Hesse E - - 1999
Unresolved/disorganized (U) states of mind are identified in the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) through brief lapses in the monitoring of reasoning or discourse during the discussion of potentially traumatic experiences such as loss or abuse. These lapses have been hypothesized to indicate temporary alterations in normal states of consciousness. In ...
Bradford D T - - 1999
In 1744, the 56-yr.-old scientist Emanuel Swedenborg underwent a transformative event that could be characterized as convulsive. He subsequently became a visionary and spent the remaining 28 years of his life exploring the spirit world and describing his experiences in an extensive corpus of writings. Retrospective analysis of his visions ...
Eimas P D - - 1999
In a series of four experiments, the ability of 3- to 4-month-old infants to form categorical representations to syllable-initial consonants in monosyllabic stimuli (experiments 1 and 2) and to initial and final syllables in bisyllabic stimuli (experiments 3 and 4, respectively) was investigated. Experiment 1 yielded no evidence of categorical ...
Rivera S M - - 1999
Two experiments investigated whether infants would look longer at a rotating "drawbridge" that appeared to violate physical laws because they knew that it was causally impossible, as claimed by R. Baillargeon, E. S. Spelke, and S. Wasserman (1985) and R. Baillargeon (1987a). Using a habituation paradigm, they reported that infants ...
Gomez R L - - 1999
Four experiments used the head-turn preference procedure to assess whether infants could extract and remember information from auditory strings produced by a miniature artificial grammar. In all four experiments, infants generalized to new structure by discriminating new grammatical strings from ungrammatical ones after less than 2 min exposure to the ...
Hills O F - - 1999
Regressive phenomena involving alterations of perceptual and other ego functions are exemplified by the Isakower phenomenon. Originally considered to be a defensive process involving regression to the oral phase in the face of conflict, a number of additional dimensions have been clarified in the literature over time. This paper describes ...
Lee R R - - 1999
Exploration of the clinical literature shows an awareness that an infant's experience as a selfobject often is traumatic, but if there is an experience of mutuality, the trauma might be avoided. Where such mutuality does not occur, an infant's experience of constantly repairing a depressed parent, or of being blamed, ...
Rakison D H - - 1998
Three experiments with object-manipulation tasks examined the effect of object structure on 14-, 18-, and 22-month-olds' categorization. In Experiment 1, categorization of animals and vehicles was tested when object structure was normal and when it was violated by moving parts (legs or wheels) into a novel configuration. In Experiment 2, ...
Mandler J M - - 1998
Imitation of events was used to explore the inductive generalizations that 14-month-olds have made about animals, vehicles, and household artifacts. In Experiment 1 infants generalized domain-specific properties such as drinking to animals but not to vehicles, whereas they generalized domain-neutral properties such as going into a building to exemplars from ...
Lemaitre-Sillère V - - 1998
From the hypothesis that vitality and creativity in the individual depend on the quality of the dialogue between the ego and the unconcious, the author seeks to show from observations of infant-parent interactions how this dialogue develops. The notion of the experience of the self helps us to describe the ...
Adolph K E - - 1998
The effects of infants' age, body dimensions, and experience on the development of crawling was examined by observing 28 infants longitudinally, from children's first attempts at crawling until they began walking. Although most infants displayed multiple crawling postures en route to walking, development did not adhere to a strict progression ...
Selfe J - - 1998
Many new measurement tools are becoming available for physiotherapists; however, there is often a lack of data to support their validity and reliability. This study attempts to address this issue with respect to the Peak 5 video analysis system. Five experiments were conducted. Experiment A investigated the validity of static ...
Mennella J A - - 1998
Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though ...
Aguiar A - - 1998
The present research examined whether 8.5-month-old infants take into account the width and compressibility of an object when determining whether it can be inserted into a container. The infants in Experiment 1 saw 2 test events. At the start of each event, a tall container rested on the apparatus floor. ...
Schreuder B E - - 1998
Preliminary findings have indicated that in naturally infected sheep, fully susceptible to scrapie (VRQ-homozygous), PrPSc can be detected in the tonsils approximately one year before the expected onset of clinical disease, whereas no immunostaining can be detected in animals with a semi-resistant genotype. This paper describes the technique for taking ...
Yang J F - - 1998
Transient disturbances were applied to the lower limbs of infants (3-10 mo of age) while they were supported to stepped on a treadmill. The aim was to determine how stepping infants respond to novel disturbances that would disrupt equilibrium during independent walking. Their responses were also compared with those from ...
Urban E - - 1998
This paper examines the Jungian concept of identity and distinguishes it from projective identification and participation mystique, which also refer to nondifferentiation between self and object but involve projective mechanisms. Clinical work by Fordham and a psychoanalytic infant observation are used to illustrate early perceptual operations defined by experimental researches. ...
Wysocki S - - 1998
Oral contraceptives (OCs) are highly effective in protecting against pregnancy if used correctly and consistently. They also offer noncontraceptive health benefits. The prescriber must understand the myriad factors contributing to success with OCs and other birth control methods, including characteristics and habits of successful users, real and perceived fears about ...
Masataka N - - 1998
N. Masataka (1996) reported results of an experiment in which 6-month-old deaf infants were presented with videotapes that showed 5 identical scripts signed in Japanese Sign Language by 5 deaf mothers toward their deaf infants or toward their deaf friends. The experiment demonstrated that infants showed greater attentional and affective ...
Reickert C A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although percutaneous cannulation has been previously described in adult and pediatric patients older than 3 years, its use in neonates for venovenous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has not been previously described. METHODS: Twenty neonates of weight 3.4 +/- 0.6 kg (range, 2.3 to 4.9 kg.) with severe respiratory failure ...
Iwanaga M - - 1998
Previous studies have indicated inconsistently that preferred tempo was moderate or fast. The basis for inconsistency might be differences in methods, i.e., differences in tempo operation and subjects' experience of listening to musical pieces. The present study examined the preference for tempo using known and unknown melodies which were presented ...
Angeletti S - - 1998
One of the aims of this paper is to avoid giving readers a headache! People suffering from headache are generally not easy to deal with, and headache can affect a wide range of people from infants to the elderly. Furthermore, each patient experiences the same pathology in a different way. ...
Waska R T - - 1998
Four possible outcomes of projective identification (Klein, 1946) are identified. First is a parallel sending, receiving, and giving back between both parties. Second, there is an inability to access the receiver, leading to annihilation anxieties. Third is an experience of the receiver not being able to process the message, leading ...
Wayenberg J L - - 1998
On the basis of an experience of more than 400 recordings, we demonstrate the usefulness of the anterior fontanelle pressure monitoring (AFP) in several clinical conditions. Main indications for AFP monitoring are the evaluation and the differential diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy and the assessment of infants with enlarged ventricular spaces, ...
Lécuyer R - - 1998
Many researchers have examined the perception of the third dimension or the preference for three-dimensional versus two-dimensional stimuli in infants, but little is known about infants' representation of the third dimension in a two-dimensional display. Two experiments were conducted to study this capacity. The first experiment was a replication of ...
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