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Adolph Karen E - - 2008
The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants' perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation--descending steep and shallow slopes--while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable sloping walkway as their mothers encouraged and ...
van Tellingen C - - 2008
Near-death experience (NDE) is an intriguing phenomenon that invites more questions than answers. Hitherto emphasis has been laid on apparent similarities in accounts of NDE to prove a supernatural origin while in fact unique differences besides gross similarities support a neurophysiological explanation. A teleological approach is suggested to explain the ...
Chow Virginia - - 2008
In two experiments, we examined whether 14-month-olds understand the subjective nature of gaze. In the first experiment, infants first observed an experimenter express happiness as she looked inside a container that either contained a toy (reliable looker condition) or was empty (unreliable looker condition). Then, infants had to follow the ...
Meltzoff Andrew N - - 2008
Using a gaze-following task, the authors assessed whether self-experience with the view-obstructing properties of blindfolds influenced infants' understanding of this effect in others. In Experiment 1, 12-month-olds provided with blindfold self-experience behaved as though they understood that a person wearing a blindfold cannot see. When a blindfolded adult turned to ...
Sommerville Jessica A - - 2008
Prior work suggests that active experience affects infants' understanding of simple actions. The present studies compared the impact of active and observational experience on infants' ability to identify the goal of a novel tool-use event. Infants either received active training and practice in using a cane to retrieve an out-of-reach ...
Butcher Paul A - - 2008
We completed 2 experiments to quantify the mortality and physical damage (fin, blood and scale loss) of angled dusky flathead Platycephalus fuscus during a live weigh-in tournament (Expt 1) and after being immediately released by anglers (Expt 2). In each experiment, 84 and 79 angled P. fuscus were placed into ...
van Elk M - - 2008
Lately, neuroscience is showing a great interest in examining the functional and neural mechanisms which support action observation and understanding. Recent studies have suggested that our motor skills crucially affect the way in which we perceive the actions generated by others, by showing stronger motor resonance for observation of actions ...
Ratwani Raj M - - 2008
Most theories of graph comprehension posit the existence of a graph schema to account for people's prior knowledge of how to understand different graph types. The graph schema is, however, a purely theoretical construct: No empirical studies have explicitly examined the nature of the graph schema. We sought to determine ...
Lozano-Alvarez Enrique - - 2008
Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus are socially gregarious, preferring shelters harboring conspecifics over empty shelters. In laboratory trials, however, healthy lobsters strongly avoided shelters harboring lobsters infected with the highly pathogenic Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Because PaV1 is transmitted by contact, this behavior may thwart its spread in wild ...
Suanda Sumarga H - - 2008
When are the precursors of ordinal numerical knowledge first evident in infancy? Brannon (2002) argued that by 11 months of age, infants possess the ability to appreciate the greater than and less than relations between numerical values but that this ability experiences a sudden onset between 9 and 11 months ...
Kafka Helene - - 2008
This is a clinical/theoretical study of mutual healing in the maternal transference/countertransference. Therapist and patient began their work when each was in extreme mourning. I detail sensory, affective transactions between them that proved transformative. I deem these basic to the healing that was unusually rapid. It broke through the patient's ...
Hammarberg K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The proportion of women who give birth after assisted reproduction technology (ART) treatment is increasing. To date, little is known about their experience of childbirth. One of the aims of this study was to investigate the experience of childbirth and the post-natal healthcare after ART. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal ...
Clearfield Melissa W - - 2008
This study investigated how infants gather information about their environment through looking and how that changes with increases in motor skills. In Experiment 1, 9.5- and 14-month-olds participated in a 10-min free play session with both a stranger and ambiguous toys present. There was a significant developmental progression from passive ...
Ateah Christine A CA Faculty of Nursing, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. - - 2008
The objectives of this study were to determine mothers' practices and experiences of bedsharing with their infants and also to determine their knowledge of the risks. A self-report questionnaire was mailed to 1,122 mothers of infants. Manitoba, Canada. The participants in this study were the mothers of infants aged 3 ...
Madjidian Josefin A - - 2008
Biological invasions might constitute a major threat to mutualisms. Introduced pollinators might competitively displace their native counterparts, which in turn affects the pollination of native plants, if native and alien visitors differ in pollinator effectiveness. Since its invasion in 1994 into south-west Argentina, the introduced European bumblebee Bombus ruderatus has ...
Lewkowicz David J DJ Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA. - - 2008
The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying the developmental decline in cross-species intersensory matching first reported by Lewkowicz and Ghazanfar [Lewkowicz, D.J., & Ghazanfar, A.A., (2006). The decline of cross-species intersensory perception in human infants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(17), 6771-6774] and whether the decline persists into ...
Dahlen Hannah G - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: to explore first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia. DESIGN: a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. SETTING: Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave in a public hospital ...
Sohani Nooshin Zandi - - 2008
Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the functional and numerical responses of Eretmocerus mundus Mercet parasitizing cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. Parasitoids were isolated singly for 24 h in 5 cm petri dishes with either 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 or 100 second nymphal stages of B. tabaci. Results showed ...
Xu Fei - - 2008
Human learners make inductive inferences based on small amounts of data: we generalize from samples to populations and vice versa. The academic discipline of statistics formalizes these intuitive statistical inferences. What is the origin of this ability? We report six experiments investigating whether 8-month-old infants are "intuitive statisticians." Our results ...
Somerstein Lynn - - 2008
This study of malevolent narcissism examines the relationship between the Washington Snipers, Muhammad and Malvo, from the perspectives of attachment theory and Kleinian theory. Muhammad embodied a perverted understanding of manliness. Malvo was desperate for the love of a father, and fused with the omnipotent destructiveness of John Muhammad. Together ...
Dzakpasu Susie - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) is an initiative of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Its primary objective is to provide representative, pan-Canadian data on women's experiences during pregnancy, birth, and the early postpartum period. METHODS: The development of the survey involved input from a multidisciplinary study group, an extensive ...
McGuire Sandra L - - 2008
Research literature over the past 50 years has addressed ageism, but few studies have examined the measurement of ageism or how to combat it. This study utilized Palmore's Ageism Survey to measure the frequency of occurrence of ageism and to examine the types of ageism reported by older adults in ...
Repacholi Betty M - - 2008
Two experiments investigated 18-month-olds' understanding of the link between visual perception and emotion. Infants watched an adult perform actions on objects. An emoter then expressed neutral affect or anger toward the adult in response to the adult's actions. Subsequently, infants were given 20 s to interact with each object. In ...
Bell Aleeca F AF College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA. - - 2008
This paper is a report of a concept analysis of neonatal neurobehavioural organization for healthy full-term infants. The neonatal period is an opportune time for researchers and clinicians to assess and intervene for optimal neurobehavioural organization. Yet there is inconsistency and lack of clarity in a scientifically grounded definition of ...
Yasumoto Akiko A - - 2008
Reproductive failure of backcross could play important roles in determining the evolutionary outcome of hybridization. However, such studies have been somewhat fewer than those of the F1-producing cross and F1 x F1 cross. We conducted hand-pollination backcross experiments using Hemerocallis fulva, H. citrina, and their F1 hybrids. Seed set per ...
Iwasaki E - - 2008
The kinetics and mechanism of the reaction Cl + CH3(CH2)3CHO was investigated using absolute (PLP-LIF) and relative rate techniques in 8 Torr of argon or 800-950 Torr of N2 at 295 +/- 2 K. The absolute rate experiments gave k[Cl+CH3(CH2)3CHO] = (2.31 +/- 0.35) x 10(-10) in 8 Torr of ...
Killias Martin - - 2008
Based on a systematic review of some 23 (out of 300 originally located) studies, it is concluded that most studies show lower rates of re-offending following a non-custodial compared to a custodial sanction. However, this outcome may be biased because, in most quasi-experiments of this kind, subjects with the worst ...
Keating Annette - - 2009
to explore midwives' experiences of facilitating normal birth in an obstetric-led unit. a feminist approach using semi-structured interviews focusing on midwives' perceptions of normal birth and their ability to facilitate this birth option in an obstetric-led unit. Ireland. a purposeful sample of 10 midwives with 6-30 years of midwifery experience. ...
White Katherine S - - 2008
We explore whether infants can learn novel phonological alternations on the basis of distributional information. In Experiment 1, two groups of 12-month-old infants were familiarized with artificial languages whose distributional properties exhibited either stop or fricative voicing alternations. At test, infants in the two exposure groups had different preferences for ...
Wang Su-hua SH Department of Psychology, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. - - 2008
As they observe or produce events, infants identify variables that help them predict outcomes in each category of events. How do infants identify a new variable? An explanation-based learning (EBL) account suggests three essential steps: (1) observing contrastive outcomes relevant to the variable; (2) discovering the conditions associated with these ...
Bryanton Janet - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors that predict women's perceptions of the childbirth experience and to examine whether these vary with the type of birth a woman experiences. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The postpartum units of two eastern Canadian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred fifty two women and their newborns. DATA ...
Broadbent J M - - 2008
Dental caries is a chronic, cumulative disease, but no studies have investigated longitudinal patterns of caries experience. The objective of this study was to identify and describe developmental trajectories of caries experience in the permanent dentition to age 32. Longitudinal caries data for 955 participants in a longstanding birth cohort ...
Hayes Margaret O - - 2008
The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological preliminary study was to gain a better understanding of the experience of mothering after prison. In-depth interviewing was conducted with two participants for a period of 4 months after their release from prison. All interviews were focused on the research question, "What has been ...
Barnes Glenna L - - 2008
Twice as many African-American infants die each year when compared to White infants. This study explores the lived experiences of African-American women to identify factors related to this racial gap in infant mortality. Thirteen African-American women from two Virginia towns participated in either a focus group or in-depth interviews. Content ...
Stamati Fotini - - 2008
The hydrologic and geochemical conditions that prevail in Mediterranean temporary ponds (MTPs), create a unique environment for many rare and endangered species. Mediterranean temporary ponds are habitats of high ecological value, which are vulnerable to imminent climatic changes, as well as to human activities. This article examines the hydrology and ...
Bastos R K X - - 2008
This paper presents the results of an experiment on salad crop irrigation with waste stabilisation pond effluents, conducted in Southeast Brazil. Over about 18 months several trials were carried out using different effluent qualities to irrigate lettuce, kale, arugula, spinach, and green pepper. Equations for predicting the bacterial quality of ...
Watanabe-Nakayama Takahiro - - 2008
F(1)-ATPase is a rotary molecular motor powered by the torque generated by another rotary motor F(0) to synthesize ATP in vivo. Therefore elucidation of the behavior of F(1) under external torque is very important. Here, we applied controlled external torque by electrorotation and investigated the ATP-driven rotation for the first ...
Kinnally E L EL Department of Psychology, and California National Primate Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA. - - 2008
The moderating effect of early experience on gene-behavior associations has been well characterized. The molecular events that allow for such moderation are not well understood, however. We assessed the impact of early experience and serotonin transporter linked promoter polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) genotype on peripheral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) regulation in response to ...
Beacom John F - - 2007
We consider dark matter annihilation into standard model particles and show that the least detectable final states, namely, neutrinos, define an upper bound on the total cross section. Calculating the cosmic diffuse neutrino signal, and comparing it to the measured terrestrial atmospheric neutrino background, we derive a strong and general ...
Chen Li-Chiou LC Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2611, USA. - - 2008
Postural control is an important factor for early motor development; however, compared with adults, little is known about how infants control their unperturbed upright posture. This lack of knowledge, particularly with respect to spatial and temporal characteristics of infants' unperturbed independent standing, represents a significant gap in the understanding of ...
Lundqvist Pia - - 2007
Open interviews with 13 fathers were performed, using a hermeneutic phenomenological method, to illuminate their lived experience of caring for their preterm infant. Their lived experience was expressed as a process moving from initial feelings of distance toward feelings of proximity. The process was described as a pendulum that was ...
Salomonsson Björn - - 2007
The author addresses issues that emerge when we compare psychoanalytic experiences with adults and with infants. Two analyses-one with a 35 year-old woman and one with a 2 week-old boy and his mother-illustrate that infant psychoanalytic experiences help us understand and handle adult transference. However, we cannot extrapolate infant experiences ...
Webster Arvie M - - 2007
Attaining verification as a Level II Trauma Center requires dedication, flexibility, and continuous education. This article contains the history, birth, and growth of a Level II Trauma Center through a trauma resource clinician's experiences. It is intended to share the thoughts, processes, and technological advances of establishing a Level II ...
Sevelinges Yannick - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Early life adverse experience alters adult emotional and cognitive development. Here we assess early life learning about adverse experience and its consequences on adult fear conditioning and amygdala activity. METHODS: Neonatal rats were conditioned daily from 8-12 days-old with paired odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) .5mA shock, unpaired, odor-only, or ...
Rakison David H - - 2008
Previous studies with various non-human animals have revealed that they possess an evolved predator recognition mechanism that specifies the appearance of recurring threats. We used the preferential looking and habituation paradigms in three experiments to investigate whether 5-month-old human infants have a perceptual template for spiders that generalizes to real-world ...
Kirkham Natasha Z - - 2007
We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test; 8-month-olds preferred the novel ...
Walden Tedra T Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. - - 2007
Young infants tend to look longer at physical events that have unexpected outcomes than those that have expected outcomes, suggesting that they have knowledge of physical principles such as numerosity and occlusion (Baillargeon & Graber, 1987; Wynn, 1992). Although infants are typically tested in the presence of a caregiver, the ...
Sukontason Kabkaew L - - 2007
In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide ...
Fonagy Peter - - 2007
The authors explore the interpersonal aspects of the early development of an experience of external reality and the roots of this experience in primary intersubjectivity. They suggest some implications that this has for psychoanalytic work with the patient's experience of external reality. They argue that the external world is not ...
Fritschi Felix B - - 2007
Pierce's disease is a major threat to the California grape industry. The disease-causing bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is vectored by a number of leafhoppers including Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Experiments were conducted to study H. vitripennis preference, feeding, and survivorship in response to four Vitis genotypes. Plants of V. vinifera ...
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