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Ozawa Mio - - 2011
Aim:  We examined whether previous experience of repeated skin punctures altered the correlation between prefrontal cortical pain responses and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores, compared with infants who had no experience of skin puncture. Methods:  Eighty infants at 37-42 weeks of gestational age were observed during clinically required blood sampling: ...
Slaughter Virginia - - 2011
A violation-of-expectation paradigm was used to test whether infants infer a person based on the presence of hands alone. Infants were familiarized to a pair of hands that extended out from a curtain to play with a rattle, after which the curtain was opened to reveal either a real person ...
Adolph Karen E - - 2010
In uncertain situations such as descending challenging slopes, social signals from caregivers can provide infants with important information for guiding action. Previous work showed that 18-month-old walking infants use social information selectively, only when risk of falling is uncertain. Experiment 1 was designed to alter infants' region of uncertainty for ...
Cicak Biserka - - 2010
Community-acquired bacterial pneumonias generally have a good prognosis, given a good response to the antibiotic treatment applied, and complications such as pleural effusion, empyema, abscess and necrotizing pneumonia with pneumatocele formation (cavitary necrosis) are rare. Although cavitary necrosis is manifested as a severe disease, most children show complete recovery even ...
Yang Jiale - - 2010
There have been numerous studies of the Munker-White illusion, but few have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of the Munker-White illusion in infants. In this study, we created two kinds of Munker-White illusion patterns that had different subjective ...
Hurley Karinna B - - 2010
We examined how experience at home with pets is related to infants' processing of animal stimuli in a standard laboratory procedure. We presented 6-month-old infants with photographs of cats or dogs and found that infants with pets at home (N=40) responded differently to the pictures than infants without pets (N=40). ...
Adolph Karen E - - 2010
Three experiments investigated whether 14- and 15-month-old infants use information for both friction and slant for prospective control of locomotion down slopes. In Experiment 1, high- and low-friction conditions were interleaved on a range of shallow and steep slopes. In Experiment 2, friction conditions were blocked. In Experiment 3, the ...
Elmir Rakime - - 2010
This study presents the findings a meta-ethnographic study reporting women's perceptions and experiences of traumatic birth. Childbirth is viewed by many as a life transition that can bring a sense of accomplishment. However, for some women, birth is experienced as a traumatic event with a minority experiencing post-traumatic stress. A ...
Curley James P - - 2011
Though there are multiple routes through which parents can influence their offspring, recent studies of environmentally induced epigenetic variation have highlighted the role of non-genomic pathways. In addition to the experience-dependent modification of DNA methylation that can be achieved via mother-infant interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic ...
Gaal Barbara J - - 2010
Siblings have unique relationships; however, not all sibling relationships are typical. In North America, the preterm birth rate ranks second only to Africa in a global climate of rising preterm birth rates. A paucity of literature exists for sibling relationships when one sibling is born prematurely. In this hermeneutic phenomenological ...
Humphrey Virginia - - 2010
This article discusses the activation of the transcendent function as it operates through a series of complex parallel processes occurring within a Tavistock Model Infant Observation Group whose location is Palo Alto, California. We follow the observer, a seasoned female analyst, through her final two observations as she is caught ...
Kim Gi Beom - - 2010
An increase in the number of preterm infants and a decrease in the gestational age at birth have resulted in an increase in the number of patients with significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH contributes significantly to the high morbidity and mortality in the BPD patients. ...
dos Santos Monteiro Juliana Cristina - - 2011
to identify women's feelings after early contact with their newborn infants in the delivery room, and to identify how health professionals involved in mother and infant care behave in the intrapartum setting. a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews and observation. Content analysis was used to derive the three themes that ...
Bornstein Marc H - - 2010
What processes do infants employ in categorizing? Infants might categorize on line as they encounter category-related entities; alternatively, infants might depend on prior experience with entities in formulating categories. These alternatives were tested in forty-four 5-month-olds. Infants who were familiarized in the laboratory with a category of never-before-seen objects subsequently ...
Girard Martine - - 2010
In a recent paper, Fulgencio shows how Winnicott rejected the basic speculative concepts of Freud's metapsychology - Trieb, psychical apparatus and libido - and replaced them with non-speculative concepts that promoted a factual theorization. In this paper, the author examines some of Winnicott's concepts and attempts to demonstrate how, rather ...
Anderson Ben - - 2010
We describe our experience with the closure of a synthetic Blalock-Taussig shunt using an Amplatzer vascular occluding device placed with the aid an exteriorised guidewire loop in an infant with congenital cardiac disease. The technique used in a neonate and the physiological benefits of this approach are discussed. We highlight ...
Dunfield Kristen A - - 2010
One way to maintain cooperation between unrelated individuals and decrease the chance of providing costly aid to those who will not reciprocate is by selectively helping on the basis of the content of previous interactions. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the earliest instances of human helping ...
Berger Sarah E - - 2010
This research examined the development of inhibition in a locomotor context. In a within-subjects design, infants received high- and low-demand locomotor A-not-B tasks. In Experiment 1, walking 13-month-old infants followed an indirect path to a goal. In a control condition, infants took a direct route. In Experiment 2, crawling and ...
Shergill-Bonner Rita - - 2010
The incidence of infantile colic is between 5-20%. It occurs equally in breast- and bottle-fed infants, and in both sexes. The aetiology is unknown. The elimination of cow's milk protein and using extensively hydrolysed protein formula have been shown to be effective treatments for infantile colic. Partially hydrolysed milk has ...
Schiavone G - - 2010
In this paper we present a low-cost hardware and software solution for monitoring gaze and head movements in infants. The proposed device consists in a webcam and a magneto-inertial sensor mounted on a cap. Signal acquisition and elaboration is carried out on a common PC. Technological choices and calibration procedures ...
Lewkowicz David J - - 2010
Three experiments investigated perception of audio-visual (A-V) speech synchrony in 4- to 10-month-old infants. Experiments 1 and 2 used a convergent-operations approach by habituating infants to an audiovisually synchronous syllable (Experiment 1) and then testing for detection of increasing degrees of A-V asynchrony (366, 500, and 666 ms) or by ...
Surian Luca - - 2010
Using the violation-of-expectancy method, we investigated 10-month-old infants' ability to rely on dynamic features in object individuation processes. Infants were first familiarized to events in which two different objects repeatedly appeared and disappeared, one at a time from behind a screen; at test, the screen was removed, revealing either one ...
Chan R V Paul - - 2010
To investigate the associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment. Retrospective analyses of inborn preterm infants screened for severe ROP at the Weill Cornell Medical Center Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital by single factor logistic regression and multifactor models. ...
Kawabe Takahiro - - 2010
Perceived spatial intervals between successive flashes can be distorted by varying the temporal intervals between them (the "tau effect"). A previous study showed that a tau effect for visual flashes could be induced when they were accompanied by auditory beeps with varied temporal intervals (an audiovisual tau effect). We conducted ...
Bruzek Jennifer L - - 2009
Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in this negative reinforcement ...
Falconer Jackie - - 2009
In most infants, GOR is a normal occurrence that is self-limiting and they will outgrow it. However, in those who experience more severe symptoms, a combination of medical and dietetic management under the care of a multidisciplinary team is important. Where feeding problems exist, input should include behavioural and psychological ...
Miller Stacie S - - 2009
An infant rat's chance of survival is increased when it remains close to the nest. Early olfactory learning supports such adaptive behavior. Previous experiments indicated that non-associative odor exposure immediately after birth promoted later attachment to a similarly scented artificial nipple. The goal of the current experiments was to extend ...
Yamamoto Shinya - - 2009
Humans employ various strategies, including selfish and altruistic strategies, depending on the situation. In order to examine whether non-human animals show such flexibility or not, we analyzed chimpanzees' selfish and cooperative behavior in two types of social problem situations. In this study, we tested chimpanzee mother-infant pairs in two adjacent ...
Pauen Sabina - - 2009
This paper investigates the role of static and dynamic attributes for the animate-inanimate distinction in category-based reasoning of 7-month-olds. Three experiments tested infants' responses to movement events involving an unfamiliar animal and a ball. When either the animal or the ball showed self-initiated irregular movements (Experiment 1), infants expected the ...
Sevelinges Yannick - - 2009
We recently showed that odorizing mother's nipples from birth to weaning attenuated adult conditioned odor aversion (COA). The present study evaluated whether shorter durations of preweaning olfactory experiences could induce similar long-term effects. We first showed that late preweaning odorization (PN13-PN25) impaired adult COA similarly to odorization from birth to ...
Sharma J - - 2009
We report interesting echocardiographic images of the atrial septum in two growing premature infants related to the previous use of umbilical venous lines in the neonatal period. Complications related to central venous lines are well documented but when they are identified in follow up after several months, their relevance is ...
Cassia Viola Macchi - - 2009
Research has shown that experience acquired in infancy dramatically affects face-discrimination abilities. Yet much less is known about whether face processing retains any flexibility after the 1st year of life. Here, we show that early experience with an individual infant face can modulate the recognition performance of 3-year-old children and ...
Vereijken Beatrix - - 2009
This study investigated infants' ability to adapt to experimentally induced changes in their body dimensions at walk onset, and how this ability is affected by increased walking experience. Fifteen infants were studied over their first 6 months of independent walking with a load perturbation design. They traversed a walkway with ...
Casasola Marianella - - 2009
Two experiments explored the ability of 18-month-old infants to form an abstract categorical representation of tight-fit spatial relations in a visual habituation task. In Experiment 1, infants formed an abstract spatial category when hearing a familiar word (tight) during habituation but not when viewing the events in silence or when ...
Hespos Susan J - - 2009
Many studies have established that 2-month-old infants have knowledge of solid objects' basic physical properties. Evidence about infants' understanding of nonsolid substances, however, is relatively sparse and equivocal. We present two experiments demonstrating that 5-month-old infants have distinct expectations for how solids and liquids behave. Experiment 1 showed that infants ...
Cleveland Lisa M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Most parents would agree that the admission of an infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is stressful. Existing research is focused on white mothers, with little known about the experiences of Spanish-speaking, Mexican American mothers who have an infant in the NICU. PURPOSE: The purpose of this ...
Cordes Sara - - 2009
Whether human infants spontaneously represent number remains contentious. Clearfield & Mix (1999) and Feigenson, Carey & Spelke (2002) put forth evidence that when presented with small sets of 1-3 items infants may preferentially attend to continuous properties of stimuli rather than to number, and these results have been interpreted as ...
Liebal Kristin - - 2009
We investigated whether 1-year-old infants use their shared experience with an adult to determine the meaning of a pointing gesture. In the first study, after two adults had each shared a different activity with the infant, one of the adults pointed to a target object. Eighteen- but not 14-month-olds responded ...
Luo Yuyan - - 2009
The present research examined whether 5- to 6.5-month-old infants would hold different expectations about various physical events involving a box after receiving evidence that it was either inert or self-propelled. Infants were surprised if the inert but not the self-propelled box: reversed direction spontaneously (Experiment 1); remained stationary when hit ...
Smitsman Ad W - - 2009
Four experiments familiarized 6-, 9-, 12-, and 16-month-old infants to a solid block that was repeatedly lowered into a semitransparent container. In test trials the end state, containment, was either compatible or incompatible with the objects' size and position. In Experiment 1, infants saw the block and box successively before ...
Corbetta Daniela - - 2009
Researchers agree that infants must learn from prior sensory-motor experiences to plan, perform, and fine-tune their actions to the environment. Yet, little is known about the actual influences of these experiences on the development of infants' perception and action. This study investigated how repeated experiences of seeing, reaching for, touching, ...
Harju Anni M - - 2009
In this greenhouse experiment, 3-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were wounded by drilling holes through the stem. In the xylem next to the wound, the concentration of resin acids (RAC) increased, and the production of extractives typical for heartwood (stilbenes) and knotwood (stilbenes and lignans) of mature trees ...
Lany Jill J University of Wisconsin-Madison, Waisman Center, Madison, WI 53705, USA. - - 2008
A decade of research suggests that infants readily detect patterns in their environment, but it is unclear how such learning changes with experience. We tested how prior experience influences sensitivity to statistical regularities in an artificial language. Although 12-month-old infants learn adjacent relationships between word categories, they do not track ...
Tripathi Mukesh - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation in infants has been reported with varied success using surface landmark. The aim is to share authors experience of modified anchoring technique used in infants. METHODS: Anchoring maneuver using pilot needle (PN) has been recently described in adults. We have found that if the ...
Noland Julia S - - 2008
At 8 to 11 months of age, infants are more successful in negotiating opaque relative to transparent barriers. However, 7-month-old infants have more difficulty with opaque barriers relative to semitransparent barriers. Here, 8-month-old infants spent more time in ineffective direct reaches with more the transparent barriers (Experiments 1 & 2) ...
Adolph Karen E - - 2008
The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants' perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation--descending steep and shallow slopes--while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable sloping walkway as their mothers encouraged and ...
van Tellingen C - - 2008
Near-death experience (NDE) is an intriguing phenomenon that invites more questions than answers. Hitherto emphasis has been laid on apparent similarities in accounts of NDE to prove a supernatural origin while in fact unique differences besides gross similarities support a neurophysiological explanation. A teleological approach is suggested to explain the ...
Chow Virginia - - 2008
In two experiments, we examined whether 14-month-olds understand the subjective nature of gaze. In the first experiment, infants first observed an experimenter express happiness as she looked inside a container that either contained a toy (reliable looker condition) or was empty (unreliable looker condition). Then, infants had to follow the ...
Meltzoff Andrew N - - 2008
Using a gaze-following task, the authors assessed whether self-experience with the view-obstructing properties of blindfolds influenced infants' understanding of this effect in others. In Experiment 1, 12-month-olds provided with blindfold self-experience behaved as though they understood that a person wearing a blindfold cannot see. When a blindfolded adult turned to ...
Sommerville Jessica A - - 2008
Prior work suggests that active experience affects infants' understanding of simple actions. The present studies compared the impact of active and observational experience on infants' ability to identify the goal of a novel tool-use event. Infants either received active training and practice in using a cane to retrieve an out-of-reach ...
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