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Results 451 - 500 of 643
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Coldren J T - - 1994
Nine-month-old infants' performance on discrimination-learning problems was investigated in four experiments using the synchronous reinforcement paradigm. These experiments were organized around basic theoretical postulates concerning the relation between attention and learning. In each of the experiments, infants were trained to respond differentially to a particular stimulus feature, with the goal ...
Trad P V - - 1993
This paper proposes a new technique for diagnosing and treating conflict in adult patients. Referred to as previewing, the technique is grounded in the developmental progression from somatic modes of representation to symbolic modes of representation. During early life, infants experience the world primarily through sensory phenomena. Later in childhood, ...
Benedict G S - - 1993
The purpose of these experiments is to compare the regional specificity (Experiment 1) and the hormonal modulation (Experiment 2) of the cutaneous initiation of lordosis in 4- to 6-day-old male and female rats (infants) and in 60- to 90-day-old female rats (adults). In Experiment 1, subjects were primed with 100 ...
Reeve L - - 1993
This study is an exploration of the parameters of delayed reinforcement with 6 infants (2 to 6 months old) in two experiments using single-subject repeated-reversal designs. In Experiment 1, unsignaled 3-s delayed reinforcement was used to increase infant vocalization rate when compared to a differential-reinforcement-of-other-than-vocalization condition and a yoked, no-contingency ...
Matee M I - - 1993
The occurrence of mutans streptococci species was investigated in Tanzanian infants aged between 1.0 and 3.5 years with rampant caries and without caries using biochemical and immunological techniques. These infants came from Turiani and Singida, where the caries prevalence for this age group was 12.8% and 1.6% respectively. Streptococcus mutans ...
Dasanayake A P - - 1993
In a randomized clinical trial, six applications of an I2-NaF or a placebo solution were administered to the mothers' dentition at the time of tooth emergence of her infant, to evaluate its effect on transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) to the infant. MS and other bacterial levels were periodically monitored ...
Jusczyk P W - - 1993
The present studies were undertaken to learn more about the nature of the cues that underlie infants' perception of musical phrase structure. Experiment 1 demonstrated that infants in Krumhansl and Jusczyk's (1990) study were responding to the phrase structure instead of to the beginnings and endings of Mozart minuet stimuli. ...
Poran N S - - 1993
Nuzzling in the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is exhibited in response to conspecific odor deposits and is involved in chemosensory recognition. Nuzzling consists of bouts of repeated forward rubbing motions (with intermittent tapping) with the ventral aspect of the snout over the odor source, while moistening it with naso-oral ...
Cushman L F - - 1993
This article describes the experiences of 215 young birthmothers who placed their infants for adoption through 30 maternity residences and agencies in 13 states. The prebirth services they received, their immediate postbirth experiences, and several characteristics of their adoption arrangements are described. A bivariate analysis revealed that several service-procedural variables ...
Urioste M - - 1993
Choosing the best post-mortem biological tissue source for chromosomal studies is a challenge for cytogeneticists. Acceptable cytogenetic results are difficult to obtain from macerated and necrosed tissues. This report describes a method that is carried out after enzymatic digestion of cartilage from human fetuses and infants. It is currently employed ...
Van Cleve L - - 1993
A descriptive study explored the experience, attitudes, and concerns of 75 nurses who gave direct care to anencephalic infants in a program of potential organ donors. One ethical issue for a majority of nurses was concern about whether the program allowed dignity for the life of the infant. Other concerns ...
Grotstein J S - - 1993
W.R.D. Fairbairn was a noted Scottish psychoanalyst who helped launch the "object-relations revolution." While working within the traditional Freudian and Kleinian framework, he developed ideas of importance that have hitherto been eclipsed but that are now resurfacing, thanks to current awareness of primitive mental disorders, child abuse, and infant development ...
Calamandrei G - - 1992
Noradrenaline depletion of the olfactory bulbs induces cannibalism at parturition in primiparous mice, without producing anosmia or impairment of maternal behaviour. Similar lesions made in multiparous experienced females do not result in cannibalism. The present studies investigated 1) whether a 30-min exposure to pups or to distal cues from pups ...
Kraak M H - - 1992
In order to evaluate ecological consequences of the long-term presence of metals in aquatic ecosystems, we investigated the filtration rate and survival of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during chronic exposure to Cu and Cd. The filtration rate was measured once a week in laboratory experiments lasting 9-11 weeks. The lowest ...
Fujii S - - 1992
It has been reported that mouse pups bearing a newly identified mutation, eyelids open at birth (eob), as a homozygous condition often die within 7 days after birth although they have no external malformations other than open eyelids. We sought to determine what factors influence the viability of eob pups ...
Urban E - - 1992
In this paper, I have tried to re-examine my understanding of early psychic processes and contents. This has involved comparing and contrasting the ideas of Jung, Klein, Isaacs, and Fordham, with an emphasis on the contributions of Fordham. Fordham's postulate of a primary self that deintegrates and reintegrates is a ...
Hertsgaard L - - 1992
The effect of a positive first-time experience on adrenocortical activity was examined in 48 6- to 13-month-old infants who took part in two sessions of a YMCA-like mother-infant swim class. Experience was manipulated by comparing Novice swimmers with infants who previously had taken a swim class, and by examining responses ...
Greyson B - - 1992
Most reported near-death experiences include profound feelings of peace, joy, and cosmic unity. Less familiar are the reports following close brushes with death of experiences that are partially or entirely unpleasant, frightening, or frankly hellish. While little is known about the antecedents or aftereffects of these distressing experiences, there appear ...
Kuhl P K - - 1992
Linguistic experience affects phonetic perception. However, the critical period during which experience affects perception and the mechanism responsible for these effects are unknown. This study of 6-month-old infants from two countries, the United States and Sweden, shows that exposure to a specific language in the first half year of life ...
Mammano S - - 1992
The authors report their experience in conservative management of idiopathic scoliosis treated in the last 10 years with the Risser localizer cast method. The conclusion is that this method, alone or in combination with braces, is still a particularly effective therapeutic means in the correction of both angular deviation and ...
Zuriff G E - - 1992
Psychoanalytic developmental theory has been profoundly influenced by recent observational research on infants. Although it is commonly held that these new data refute earlier theories of infancy, an examination of the evidence indicates otherwise. Much of the disagreement between the two is based on differences over the definition of such ...
Maule A G - - 1992
The localisation and distribution of neuropeptide F (NPF)-immunoreactivity (IR) in the monogenean fish-gill parasite, Diclidophora merlangi, have been investigated by whole-mount immunocytochemistry interfaced with confocal scanning laser microscopy and, at the ultrastructural level, by indirect immunogold labeling. Using antisera directed to intact synthetic NPF (Moniezia expansa, residues 1-39) or to ...
Ogden T H - - 1992
The present paper focuses on the contributions of Klein and Winnicott to a psychoanalytic conception of the dialectically constituted and decentred subject. Klein's idea of 'positions' represents a conception of the subject constituted in the creative and negating dialectical interplay of fundamentally different modes of attributing meaning to experience. The ...
Rosenfeld P - - 1991
In the following studies, we investigated the effects of 24-h maternal deprivation on the infant's hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. Experiment 1 examined the effect of deprivation on the infant's corticosterone (CORT) response to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) injection. At all ages studied, deprivation resulted in a potentiation of the response. At some ages, ...
Bochniak S - - 1991
In a 2 x 2 completely randomized factorial experiment, 24 women and 16 men rated the perceived effectiveness of an earthquake preparedness advertisement which contained either a picture or no picture of prior earthquake damage and contained either statistics or no statistics on likelihood of an earthquake. A main effect ...
Belsky J - - 1991
In order to test the hypothesis that elevated ratings of avoidance and classifications of insecure-avoidant attachments of infants with extensive infant day-care histories may be the result of the fact that children with routine experiences of separation are less stressed by, and more independent in, the Strange Situation than more ...
Benfield D G - - 1991
This prospective study was designed to (1) test the hypothesis that the majority of families of newly dead infants in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit would consent to their infants' being intubated for teaching purposes, (2) determine factors related to family consent, and (3) determine the effects of participation ...
Abrams D M - - 1991
This paper presents the analysis of a profoundly deaf 12-year-old girl. The main referring symptom was a pattern of intense libidinal looking at and aggressive looking away from others, which functioned as a preoedipal splitting to keep apart opposite "all good," life-enhancing and "all bad," deathlike self and object representations. ...
Gooch S A - - 1991
This article explores the relationship between primitive somatopsychic states of excitation and ecstasy in the early infant-mother nursing dyad and similar states of excitation and ecstasy occurring in sexual intercourse of the adult couple. Clinical material demonstrates the close link between early infantile breast experience and adult genital arousal, illustrating ...
Putaansuu J - - 1991
To what degree are young infants able to perceive differential shadowing and to what degree are they able to utilize this stimulus parameter as information about depth? Two habituation experiments were performed. In Experiment 1, a group of 5-month-old infants were habituated to a low frequency, vertical, and approximately sinusoidal ...
Nguyen V D - - 1991
During the French-Soviet space mission "Aragatz," the experiment CIRCE (Compteur Integrateur de Rayonnement Complexe dans l'Espace) recorded the dose rate and quality factor values inside the MIR station. This paper presents results obtained with a new active dose equivalent meter based on microdosimetric techniques and using a low pressure tissue ...
Lehtonen J - - 1991
Freud introduced the concept of body ego as a basis for all later ego development. He did not describe it in detail, however, and the nature of the body ego has remained unclear. I suggest that the original body ego in the infant is the outcome of psychophysical fusion, i.e. ...
Osterhout B M - - 1990
The protective splint described above provides appropriate immobilization and protection for our postoperative pediatric population. The major advantages of this splint over plaster of paris include direct access to the wound, easy reapplication, and unnecessary use of the plaster-cast saw. In addition, thermoplastic splints are lightweight, less bulky, more durable, ...
Matthews T J - - 1990
Two experiments explored the functional character of 2 schedule-induced interim behaviors (pacing and retreat) and 1 terminal behavior (keypecking) that developed on fixed-time (FT) schedules of food delivery with a keylight that increased in brightness throughout the interstimulus interval. In Experiment 1, this ramp procedure was compared with a less ...
Arai T - - 1990
Anal duplication is a very rare abnormality, especially in infants. Two cases of tubular anal duplication of the infant and neonate are reported in this paper. In all cases, removal of the duplicated anus through the perineal approach was accomplished without difficulty. The histology revealed a squamous epithelium with smooth ...
Norgren R B RB - - 1990
A new chromogen, Indophane Blue (IB) was tested for use in HRP-tract tracing and double-label immunocytochemistry. Although TMB was slightly more sensitive and delineated individual labeled fibers better than IB in tract-tracing experiments, there were two advantages to using IB over TMB. First, the IB reaction could be performed at ...
Starkey P - - 1990
Across several experiments, 6- to 8-month-old human infants were found to detect numerical correspondences between sets of entities presented in different sensory modalities and bearing no natural relation to one another. At the basis of this ability, we argue, is a sensitivity to numerosity, an abstract property of collections of ...
Greco C - - 1990
The roles of function, reminding, and exemplar variability in categorization of a physically dissimilar object were studied with 3-month-old infants trained to move a crib mobile by kicking. Performance on a transfer test with a motionless novel object provided evidence of categorization. In Experiments 1 and 2, infants, like adults, ...
Usmani R H - - 1990
Effects of supplemental prepartum feeding and limited suckling on postpartum reproductive performance of milked Nili-Ravi water buffaloes were examined in two 2 x 2 factorial experiments. Prepartum feeding was either moderate (metabolizable energy = 32 Mcal/d) or high (46 Mcal/d) in Experiment 1 and high (46 Mcal/d) or very high ...
McCracken S G - - 1990
This study investigated whether anxious adults desiring treatment for their anxiety would choose to take 10 mg of diazepam (Valium) or placebo after sampling both substances under double-blind conditions. Subjective effects of the drugs were also assessed, and the relationship between self-reported subjective effects and the number of times subjects ...
Slater A - - 1990
Two experiments are described whose aim was to investigate whether perception of size at birth is determined solely by proximal (retinal) stimulation, or whether newborn babies have the ability to perceive an object's real size across changes in distance. In Experiment 1, preferential looking between pairs of stimuli which varied ...
Colombo J - - 1990
In five experiments, 10-month-olds were habituated to exemplars of a form category and tested for categorization in paired-comparison trials involving in-category versus out-of-category stimuli. Across these experiments, color was systematically manipulated during habituation and/or test trials. Infants categorized form when color was either held constant or varied during habituation, but ...
Melzack R - - 1990
The phenomenon of a phantom limb is a common experience after a limb has been amputated or its sensory roots have been destroyed. A complete break of the spinal cord also often leads to a phantom body below the level of the break. Furthermore, a phantom of the breast, the ...
Proffitt D R - - 1990
The study of visual perception in human infants is confronted by a number of special problems arising from the inaccessibility of verbal reports. In this paper, we discuss the experimental strategy of converging operations in the context of investigating the phenomenal experience of infants. The goal of this strategy is ...
Jones T - - 1990
This study describes a human electrodermal conditioning experiment in which subjects were asked to mentally rehearse the UCS in a period following initial fear conditioning and prior to a test period involving nonreinforced presentations of the CS. Subjects who were asked to rehearse the UCS retained a differential fear CR ...
Chandrashekhar Y S - - 1990
Experience in use of Balloon Atrial Septostomy (BAS) in the palliation of infants with TGA is scanty from developing countries. We report 53 infants of d-TGA palliated with BAS in the period 1972 - 88 (mean age 2.03 +/- 1.32 months, mean weight 3.44 +/- 0.58 kg). 44 infants had ...
Lobaugh N J - - 1989
The role of the developing hippocampus and the amygdala on patterned (single) alternation (PA) in the infant rat was investigated in 4 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, pups were given 2 bilateral electrolytic hippocampal lesions or sham surgeries at 10 or 11 days of age and were trained 6 ...
MacLean D J - - 1989
In each of 2 experiments, 2 measures were used to assess infants' understanding of the concept of "containment." After being habituated to videotaped episodes of sand being poured into and out of a cylinder, infants saw a "possible" event and then an "impossible" event. Infants who understand containment were expected ...
Streri A - - 1989
4-month-old infants held 2 rings, 1 in each hand, out of view. The rings moved rigidly together and were either the same (Experiment 1) or different (Experiment 2) in substance, weight, texture, and shape. After haptic habituation to a ring display, patterns of preferential looking to visibly connected vs. separated ...
Rosenblatt A A University of - - 1989
On the basis of terror management theory, it was hypothesized that when mortality is made salient, Ss would respond especially positively toward those who uphold cultural values and especially negatively toward those who violate cultural values. In Experiment 1, judges recommended especially harsh bonds for a prostitute when mortality was ...
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