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Results 401 - 450 of 870
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Luo Z C ZC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of - - 2001
To assess the impact of time of birth on infant mortality and early neonatal mortality in full term and preterm births. Analysis of data from the Swedish birth register, 1973-95. 2 102 324 spontaneous live births of infants without congenital malformation. Absolute and relative risk of infant mortality, early neonatal ...
Deeming D C - - 2001
1. Embryonic mortality of domestic pheasant (Phasianus colchinus) eggs was recorded for a 10-week laying season for two groups of laying hens maintained under mating ratios of 8:1 and 12:1 (females:males). 2. Mating ratio had no significant effect on embryonic mortality between 1 and 4 or 5 and 20 d ...
Williams P D - - 2001
A well-known result from the theory of the evolution of virulence is the prediction that the virulence of a pathogen (i.e. the rate of parasite-induced host mortality) always evolves to higher levels when host background mortality rates increase. This prediction, however, is derived from models that assume that host mortality ...
Singh P N - - 2001
The authors conducted a simulation study to evaluate whether exclusion of the early mortality (deaths occurring during a prespecified period immediately after baseline) reduces confounding of the exposure-mortality relation by preexisting disease. The simulation specified an exposure that decreased mortality risk in the absence of confounding and then introduced confounding ...
Wise Paul H - - 2003
This article suggests that while disparities in infant mortality have been longstanding, the mechanisms of disparity creation are undergoing intense change. This dynamic character is explored by first developing an analytic model that examines the interaction between social factors and the public health and clinical capacity to intervene. Disparities in ...
Conley D - - 2001
This article seeks to understand the effects of welfare-state spending on infant mortality rates. Infant mortality was chosen for its importance as a social indicator and its putative sensitivity to state action over a short time span. Country fixed-effects models are used to determine that public health spending does have ...
Kirby J B - - 2001
It has been suggested by several scholars that debates surrounding the study of mortality could benefit from a framework that integrates social and economic factors with the biological mechanisms of illness and death (Johannson and Mosk, Popul. Stud. 41 (1987) 207-236; Mosley, International Population Conference, Vol. 2, Florence, IUSSP, Liege, ...
Shannon N L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Early research into Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) described a high mortality and no relationship between deletion size and phenotype. This may need to be revised in the light of improved cytogenetic resolution and medical care. We have collected epidemiological data to allow the calculation of birth incidence and mortality figures. ...
Luk J - - 2001
The original purpose of our study was to examine the unusual W-shaped mortality curve associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic and possibly explain the peak in mortality among individuals aged 20-40 years. We plotted age-specific excess mortality instead of total mortality for the 1918 pandemic using a 5-year baseline. For ...
Chung Y K - - 2001
To improve the operational efficiency of dengue vector control in Singapore, larvicide and adulticide were applied together by thermal fog generator (Agrofog AF40). The mixture consisted of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Vectobac 12 AS) as biological larvicide at 1.5 L/ha and pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 50 EC) as adulticide at 100 g ...
Kao J H - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To assess the annual mortality rate associated with fulminant hepatitis in infants before and after the mass immunization program that was launched in Taiwan in July 1984. STUDY DESIGN: From the National Mortality Registry System, the data on the mortality from fulminant hepatitis in infants from 1975 to 1998 ...
Maiya P P - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of SNAP in predicting the outcome in terms of mortality and duration of hospital stay. The study was also undertaken to evolve the best cut-off SNAP scores for predicting mortality in different individual neonatal conditions. METHODS: 295 consecutive newborn admitted to NICU during an eleven ...
Goldenberg J L - - 2001
The present research investigated the need to distinguish humans from animals and tested the hypothesis derived from terror management theory that this need stems in part from existential mortality concerns. Specifically, the authors suggest that being an animal is threatening because it reminds people of their vulnerability to death; therefore, ...
Murray A G - - 2001
In March 1995, a mass mortality of pilchard started to occur in South Australia. This spread very rapidly throughout the Australian pilchard's range, later reaching New Zealand. In November 1998, a similar mass mortality broke out in South Australia and also spread, at a slower rate, throughout the Australian range. ...
Taylor-Robinson S D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The age standardised mortality rate per 100 000 population for all causes of liver tumours (International Classification of Disease 9 (ICD-9) 155) has almost doubled in England and Wales during the period 1979-1996. We further analysed the mortality statistics to determine which anatomical subcategories were involved. METHODS: Mortality statistics ...
Reed J T - - 2001
Effects of droplet size and volumetric application rate of tractor-applied lambda cyhalothrin (Karate Z 2.08 SC) on larval tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), mortality and insecticide deposition on and within the canopy of mature cotton were explored by use of a laboratory bioassay incorporating field-sprayed cotton and a field trial ...
Woolbright L A - - 2001
PURPOSE: To examine the factors associated with postneonatal mortality. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to examine the effects of various variables on postneonatal mortality in Alabama. RESULTS: The most important predictor of postneonatal mortality was birth weight. Social and economic variables were also important in explaining postneonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions ...
Schauer A J - - 2001
Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. ...
Huff N C - - 2001
We undertook an ecological study to investigate differences in coronary heart disease mortality within Nottingham health authority, England, to establish whether coronary mortality varied according to socio-economic status, and how mortality rates changed over a decade. An index of socio-economic status was developed from Census variables. This was used to ...
Maciejewski M L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To compare adjusted mortality rates of TEFRA-risk HMO enrollees and disenrollees with rates of beneficiaries enrolled in the Medicare fee-for-service sector (FFS), and to compare the time until death for decedents in these three groups. DATA SOURCE: Data are from the 124 counties with the largest TEFRA-risk HMO enrollment ...
Chanda S - - 2001
Juvenoids, applied topically on larvae of Corcyra cephalonica harbouring the larvae of the parasitoid, produce various types of developmental derangements in parasitoid C. blackburni. The deformed morphs, e.g., apparently normal adults, adultoids and prolonged larvae were developed at different rates by different doses of juvenoids. Larval and pupal mortality rates ...
Donaldson G C - - 2001
It has been suggested, that the inhabitants of northern European regions, who experience little cold-related mortality, protect themselves outdoors by wearing more clothing, at the same temperature, than people living in southern regions where such mortality is high. Outdoor clothing data were collected in eight regions from 6583 people divided ...
Nolte E - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: After unification in 1990 the two parts of Germany underwent a complex process that has led to convergence of infant mortality. The pattern of change did, however, differ in east and west. This study investigates whether these differences conceal a complex pattern of heterogeneity at the regional level. METHODS: ...
Pierce-Bulger M - - 2001
The Alaska Native Medical Center, one of nine teams that participated in the Institute for Health Care Improvement's Community-Wide Learning Collaborative, used quality improvement principles to address a disparately high post-neonatal infant mortality in the Anchorage Native infant population. A unique concept, "Days Between Deaths," was used to measure mortality ...
Iacovino J - - 2001
Comparative mortality in this abstract shows that surgical repair of an atrial septal defect (ASD) confers a survival advantage beyond that expected for the study population. Determinates of expected mortality and mean q' include the table selected, zero-time age and annual age, and sex distribution of the cohort. Each has ...
Takahashi H - - 2001
A necessary and sufficient condition of comparability for using SMR was studied mathematically by considering the equivalence between SMR and CMF, as CMF was a perfectly comparable index. This condition was expressed by either proportionality of mortality vectors or proportionality of projected person-years to the plane spanned by mortality vectors ...
Willemsen R E - - 2001
A population of the tortoise Testudo hermanni near Olympia in southern Greece was studied by mark-recapture from 1975 to 1984. Part of the site was sprayed with the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) each year from 1980, producing symptoms of poisoning (swollen eyes, fluid discharge from the ...
Mäkitie O - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia with severe growth failure and impaired immunity. Impaired immunity may result in increased mortality. AIMS: To follow a cohort of 120 CHH patients for mortality from 1971 to 1995. METHODS: The overall and cause specific disease mortality rates in patients with ...
Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch J H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To study the relative importance of various determinants of total and cause-specific infant and early childhood mortality rates and their decline in The Netherlands in the period 1875-1879 to 1895-1899. DATA AND METHODS: Mortality and population data were derived from Statistics Netherlands for 16 towns and 11 rural areas. ...
Pearson G - - 2000
Following the introduction of a policy of early therapeutic filtration for presumed meningococcal septicaemic shock, the overall mortality has decreased.
Kareiva P - - 2000
Construction of four dams on the lower Snake River (in northwestern United States) between 1961 and 1975 altered salmon spawning habitat, elevated smolt and adult migration mortality, and contributed to severe declines of Snake River salmon populations. By applying a matrix model to long-term population data, we found that (i) ...
Malloy M H - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To review respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) mortality since the introduction of surfactant. DESIGN: Population-based historical cohort study. METHODS: United States vital statistic data were used for the years 1987 to 1995. Linked birth and infant death file data were available for the years 1987 to 1991 and for 1995. ...
Keatinge W R - - 2000
We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that in this vulnerable ...
Shimizu S - - 2000
The effectiveness of the pour-on formulation of flumethrin was tested on grazing cattle. Flumethrin was applied once a month from April to October from 1990 to 1995 to cattle grazing in the Aso area of Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan. Both the number of ticks in the field and the number ...
Janss L L - - 2000
Using experimental infections, three traits for salmonella resistance were studied: mortality, survival time (in animals that died by infection), and quantitative cecal salmonella carriage at the end of the rearing period (in animals that did not die). In total, 548 animals were used; mortality was 29.2%, mean survival time was ...
Marchant J N - - 2000
The causes and timing of piglet mortality were studied in different farrowing systems. In the first experiment 198 litters were recorded in three systems, two of which allowed the sows to move freely, and the third restricted them in conventional crates. More piglets were weaned from the conventional crates than ...
Gibson E - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This report measured the effect of births at 22 weeks' gestation or earlier on infant mortality in Philadelphia, Pa. METHODS: The proportion of live-born deliveries at 22 weeks or earlier was calculated. Overall and race-specific infant mortality was calculated after excluding live-born deliveries at 22 weeks' gestation or earlier. ...
Yu X Q - - 2000
Many studies have examined the correlation between socioeconomic status (SES) and mortality in Australia, but little is known about the correlation in rural areas and most studies have not explored the trends in SES differentials in mortality. This ecological study examines this correlation and explores the impact of the national ...
Madi H H - - 2000
We estimated infant and early child mortality rates among Palestinian refugees using maternal and child services in Jordan, Gaza, Lebanon, and Syria. Early childhood mortality per 1000 live births was 35 in Jordan, 36 in Gaza, 37 in Lebanon, and 32 in Syria. Infant mortality rates were 32 in Jordan, ...
Hirsch H R - - 2000
One population is advantaged relative to another by our definition if its survival function is greater at all ages. A population has a lifespan maximum if there is an age at which its survival function becomes exactly zero. Earlier work concerned conditions under which the mortality-rate functions of advantaged and ...
White P C - - 2000
Data collected between 1993 and 1996 from two Scottish hill farms were used to assess the potential importance of predation by foxes as a cause of lamb mortality. Farm 1 was in Midlothian and farm 2 in West Perthshire. Overall lamb mortality rates from birth onwards were 10.2 per cent ...
Hopenhayn-Rich C - - 2000
Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with a range of neurologic, vascular, dermatologic, and carcinogenic effects. However, limited research has been directed at the association of arsenic exposure and human reproductive health outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the trends in infant mortality between two geographic ...
Dzakpasu S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the magnitude of improvement in the health status of a population over time is dependent on the previous health status of that population. DESIGN AND SETTING: A study of infant mortality rates in Canada's 12 provinces and territories between the periods 1961-1965 and 1991-1995, and of ...
Macfarlane G J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Armed forces personnel who served in the Gulf War report more current ill-health than those who were not deployed. There has been concern expressed that they may also experience higher mortality rates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was done including all 53462 UK Gulf War veterans (Gulf cohort) and ...
Kasser T - - 2000
Theoretical work suggests that feelings of insecurity produce materialistic behavior, but most empirical evidence is correlational in nature. We therefore experimentally activated feelings of insecurity by having some subjects write short essays about death (mortality-salience condition). In Study 1, subjects in the mortality-salience condition, compared with subjects who wrote about ...
Treurniet H F - - 2000
In the Netherlands, regional variations in trends in infant mortality due to perinatal conditions (1984-1994) exist, which could not be explained by health care characteristics (i.e., place or supervision of delivery and the presence of specialised neonatal care). The only sociodemographic factor that showed a consistent correlation with mortality was ...
Tuljapurkar S - - 2000
Human lifespan has increased enormously this century. But we remain uncertain about the forces that reduce mortality, and about the cost implications of ageing populations and their associated social burden. The poor understanding of the factors driving mortality decline, and the difficulty of forecasting mortality are due in part to ...
Lawlor D A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Excess winter mortality is higher in England and Wales than in other European countries with similar or lower average winter temperatures. It might be expected that excess winter mortality would be higher in areas with greater socio-economic deprivation, and if this were so preventive interventions could be directed at ...
Albrechtsen S - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To assess secular trends in mortality rates in breech presentation in Norway and the effects of gestational age, birth defects and delivery method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway 1967-1994, with 45,579 breech presentation births from 24 weeks of gestation onwards, with mortality rate comprising all ...
Zanobetti A - - 2000
Interest has recently been focused on which populations are most at risk of premature mortality induced by air pollution. This coincides with greater concern about environmental justice. We analyzed total mortality in the four largest US cities with daily measurements of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) and combined ...
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