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Results 301 - 350 of 870
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Reznick David N - - 2004
Classical theories for the evolution of senescence predict that organisms that experience low mortality rates attributable to external factors, such as disease or predation, will evolve a later onset of senescence. Here we use patterns of senescence in guppies derived from natural populations that differ in mortality risk to evaluate ...
Goldson S L - - 2004
Field enclosure and laboratory cage experiments designed to measure the impact of the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae Loan on the Argentine stem weevil, Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) have shown that under high parasitoid pressure, there is significant weevil mortality without obvious parasitism. Parasitoid-exposed, but unparasitized portions of caged populations died at rates ...
Tanprasertkul Chamnan - - 2004
To compare birth weight and cesarean section rates with high gestational weight gain and normal weight gain in nulliparous pregnant women with a normal prepregnant body mass index. A retrospective study. Thammasat University Hospital. A study was conducted comparing 330 nulliparous pregnant women with normal prepregnant body mass index who ...
Prasad S - - 2004
Mortality patterns of two Zebu cattle breeds, Sahiwal and Tharparkar, and two crossbred strains, Karan Swiss and Karan Fries, maintained at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal were studied. Nine-year (1989--90 to 1997--98) data on mortality were analysed for year, season, age and cause effects on mortality rate. The overall ...
Glinianaia Svetlana V - - 2004
There is now substantial evidence that both short- and long-term increases in ambient air pollution are associated with increased mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Children's health is particularly vulnerable to environmental pollution, and infant mortality is still a major contributor to childhood mortality. In this systematic review we ...
Trichopoulos Dimitrios D Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece. - - 2004
To assess whether the Mediterranean diet contributes to overall mortality differences and trends between Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean European Union (EU) countries. Routinely recorded adjusted overall mortality and food availability data in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean EU countries. A Mediterranean diet score designed a priori was used as instrument. Fifteen EU countries ...
Martínez-Ibarra José A - - 2004
Influence of the blood meal source on life cycle, mortality, and fecundity of 2 cohorts of recently colonized Mexican Meccus longipennis, fed on hens (H-cohort) or rats (R-cohort) were evaluated in laboratory conditions. One hundred twelve nymphs (56%) (H-cohort) and 102 nymphs (51%) (R-cohort), completed the cycle. The average time ...
Landau Mark J - - 2004
According to terror management theory, heightened concerns about mortality should intensify the appeal of charismatic leaders. To assess this idea, we investigated how thoughts about death and the 9/11 terrorist attacks influence Americans' attitudes toward current U.S. President George W. Bush. Study 1 found that reminding people of their own ...
Blakely Tony - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Maori and Pacific deaths were severely undercounted in the mid-1980s and first half of 1990s, resulting in numerator-denominator bias when calculating mortality rates by ethnicity. We used the New Zealand Census-Mortality Study to adjust for this bias and calculate corrected ethnic-specific mortality rates from 1980 to 1999. METHODS: Age-specific ...
Pizo M A - - 2004
The palm tree Euterpe edulis is endemic to the Atlantic Forest, where it constitutes an economically important forest product. The often unplanned and illegal harvesting of palm hearts has led to drastic reductions in the populations of E. edulis in many areas where this palm used to be the dominant ...
Sastry Narayan - - 2004
I examined trends in socioeconomic inequalities in under-five mortality for the state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a 21-year period from 1970 to 1991, during which much of the mortality transition unfolded. During this time, there was a decline in inequality in under-five mortality by household wealth but a substantial ...
Frank R - - 2004
The main aim of the present analysis is to test the possibility that the period of economic hardship characterizing Mexico over the decade 1986-1996 has negatively influenced infant health outcomes. Data on births from two installments of the Encuesta Nacional de la Dinámica Demográfica, a nationally representative demographic survey, are ...
Ekestern E - - 2004
A divergence in earlier multiple sclerosis (MS) mortality rates observed within Europe, prompted us to determine the MS mortality rate in Austria and several European countries. Our aim was to examine the temporal and geographical variations within Austria and to determine future MS mortality rates based on a projection model. ...
Cheung Yin-Bun - - 2004
The "fetuses at risk" concept of gestational-age-specific mortality proposed by Yudkin et al. (Lancet 1987;1:1192-4) and extended by various researchers is becoming popular in perinatal and pediatric epidemiology. However, the definitions using this concept have led to a puzzling phenomenon in which mortality rates appear to increase monotonically with advancing ...
Palloni Alberto A Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconcin-Madison, - - 2004
We tested three competing hypotheses regarding the adult "Hispanic mortality paradox": data artifact, migration, and cultural or social buffering effects. On the basis of a series of parametric hazard models estimated on nine years of mortality follow-up data, our results suggest that the "Hispanic" mortality advantage is a feature found ...
Kyselý Jan - - 2004
The aims of this study were to assess impacts of hot summer periods on mortality in the Czech Republic and to quantify the size of the short-term displacement effect which resulted in lower than expected mortality after heat waves. The analysis covered the period 1982-2000 when several extraordinarily hot summers ...
Shandra John M - - 2004
This study presents quantitative, sociological models designed to account for cross-national variation in infant mortality rates. We consider variables linked to four different theoretical perspectives: the economic modernization, social modernization, political modernization, and dependency perspectives. The study is based on a panel regression analysis of a sample of 59 developing ...
Kim Hanjoong - - 2004
PURPOSE: To examine the changes in all cause mortality and cause-specific mortality after the economic crisis in South Korea. METHODS: Monthly mortality data for an entire country was used and intervention analysis applied to compare mortality after the crisis with mortality which would have occurred if the trends before the ...
Pinheiro Germania A - - 2004
With the implementation in 1999 of ICD-10 death certificate coding in the United States, mortality data specific to malignant mesothelioma became readily available on a national basis. To evaluate the accuracy and completeness of diagnosis and coding for mesothelioma on the death certificate, mortality information was compared with incidence data. ...
McNamara John M - - 2004
We consider optimal annual routines of reproductive behaviour in a seasonal environment. In our model the condition of the organism is adversely affected by hard work, but can recover during easy periods. Our analysis concentrates on the effects of background mortality (i.e., mortality that cannot be avoided) on the optimal ...
Alfonso-Sánchez Miguel A - - 2004
Analysis of the interaction between mortality patterns and opportunity for natural selection could help to elucidate potential evolutionary implications of epidemic mortality. In this paper secular trends are studied in relation to Crow's index (It) and its components of mortality (Im) and fertility (If), using parish records for family reconstitution ...
Leyland A H - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe inequalities in all cause premature mortality between and within regions of Great Britain and how these inequalities have changed between 1979 and 1998. DESIGN: Retrospective study using routine population and death data aggregated into five year age and sex groups for each of 20 years. SETTING: ...
Adibe Obinna O - - 2004
In 1999, Caruso reported data from the level 1 trauma center in Newark, New Jersey, documenting "...an ominous trend toward the use of larger caliber firearms in accidents, homicides and suicides." Those data were derived from measurements of bullets removed from our trauma patients and submitted to the Surgical Pathology ...
Treurniet H F HF Department for Public Health Forecasting, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands. - - 2004
To analyse international variations of trends in "avoidable" mortality (1980-1997). A multilevel model was used to study trends in avoidable and "non-avoidable" mortality and trends by cause of death. Fifteen countries of the European Union, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. 19 avoidable causes of death among men and women aged ...
Phillips O L - - 2004
Previous work has shown that tree turnover, tree biomass and large liana densities have increased in mature tropical forest plots in the late twentieth century. These results point to a concerted shift in forest ecological processes that may already be having significant impacts on terrestrial carbon stocks, fluxes and biodiversity. ...
Braga Ima Aparecida - - 2004
For more than 30 years temephos, an organophosphate insecticide, has been the sole larvicide used in Brazil in the control of Aedes aegypti. Organophosphates were also used for adult control, being replaced by pyrethroids since 1999. In this same year the Brazilian Health Foundation started the coordination of the Ae. ...
Manfredini Matteo - - 2004
This paper examines to which extent seasonal and climatic conditions might affect the reliability of the Bourgeois-Pichat's method. Other scholars have already argued on this issue, but although climate has often been claimed to explain part of the differentials in mortality figures among Italian regions, to date its impact has ...
Benjamin Daniel K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe survival following nosocomial bloodstream infections and quantify excess mortality associated with positive blood culture. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study of premature infants. RESULTS: First blood culture was negative for 4648/5497 (78%) of the neonates--390/4648 (8%) died prior to discharge. Mortality prior to discharge was 19% in the ...
Friborg Jeppe - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine precise estimates of infant mortality rates and to describe overall trends in infant mortality in Greenland and Denmark from 1973 to 1997. METHODS: We analyzed data from population-based registries of all live-born infants in Greenland and Denmark to calculate infant mortality rates from 1973 to ...
Gaitatzis Athanasios - - 2004
Epilepsy carries a significant mortality that, on average, is 2-3 times higher than in the general population. Causes of death in epilepsy are presented. Mortality in epilepsy is assessed by means of particular parameters; the mortality rate, the standardised mortality ratio, and the proportional mortality rate. An overview of their ...
Feldman D Ehrmann - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe seasonal congestive heart failure (CHF) mortality and hospitalisations in Quebec, Canada between 1990-1998 and compare trends in CHF mortality and morbidity with those in France. DESIGN: Population cohort study. SETTING: Province of Quebec, Canada. PATIENTS: Mortality data were obtained from the Quebec Death Certificate Registry and ...
Khawaja Marwan - - 2004
This article documents the levels and patterns of infant and child mortality among Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and the Palestinian areas based on comparable data from household sample surveys conducted since 1995. The findings show that Palestinian refugees have clear advantage in mortality levels as compared to their non-refugee ...
Andersen Anne-Marie Nybo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Birthweight has, in several studies, been associated with mortality in adult age, even after adjustment for available socioeconomic factors. This association has been explained as a biological result of fetal undernutrition (fetal programming), by genetic predisposition, as a result of confounding by factors related to social position and lifestyle, ...
Bhaumik Urmi - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the improved survival of preterm infants has influenced the known male excess in infant mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed sex-specific infant mortality using linked birth and death certificates for all 619,811 live born infants in Massachusetts between 1989 and 1995. RESULTS: Between 1989 and 1995 the ...
Wolf, Annett
1. Wind-damaged trees, following the severe storm of 1999, are compared with data from a 50-year monitoring of Draved Forest, Denmark, to assess differing causes of mortality through time in an unmanaged semi-natural forest. Species-specific mortality characteristics and the changing effects of tree size and growth rate (diameter increment) on ...
Bell Michelle L - - 2004
The London smog of 1952 is one of history's most important air pollution episodes in terms of its impact on science, public perception of air pollution, and government regulation. The association between health and air pollution during the episode was evident as a strong rise in air pollution levels was ...
Singer Richard B - - 2004
This is a commentary requested by the J Insur Med Editor to accompany a reprinting in this 2004 issue of my 1988 article on "Conversion of Mortality Ratios to a Numerical Rating Classification for Life Underwriting" (J Insur Med 1988;20:54-61). Topics discussed in this commentary include the distinction between short-term ...
Maher Joanne - - 2004
This article examines trends in inequalities in infant mortality in England and Wales between 1976 and 2000. It describes variations in neonatal, postneonatal and infant mortality by mother's age, registration status, father's social class, multiplicity and birthweight. Throughout the period, social class differences in mortality were wider in the postneonatal ...
Goza Franklin W FW Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA. - - 2004
Empirical evidence has consistently documented the direct relationship between infant mortality and socioeconomic inequality in the United States and numerous other countries. While the majority of these studies reveal an inverse relationship between socioeconomic level and infant mortality, not even this finding is free from disagreement. Furthermore, the specific nature ...
Turkson P K - - 2003
A cohort study was designed to observe and follow up mortality in lambs and kids in 88 flocks of sheep and goats under the traditional production system in five villages within the coastal savanna zone of Ghana over a 2-year period. The overall mortality rates for kids and lambs were ...
Finch Brian Karl - - 2003
Although relationships between social conditions and health have been documented for centuries, the past few decades have witnessed the emergence of socioeconomic gradients in health and mortality in most developed countries. These gradients indicate that health improves, although decreasingly so, at higher levels of socioeconomic status. To minimize problems with ...
Cohen Deborah A - - 2003
Socioeconomic status is associated with mortality, yet does not fully explain health disparities. This study analyzed data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), in the USA, to identify neighborhood-level factors associated with premature mortality. 1990 US Census data and mortality data from Chicago were merged with ...
Sherrard R M - - 2003
Chlorothalonil is a commonly used fungicide in rural and urban environments and can be incidentally introduced into aquatic systems through rainfall runoff or direct overspray and drift from aerial applications. Few studies have been published regarding risks to aquatic organisms exposed to chlorothalonil, so this study was performed to provide ...
Adu E K - - 2003
The patterns of parturition and mortality were studied in a colony of weaned captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck, from January to December 2000 at the Grasscutter Domestication Centre, Pokoase Research Station, Animal Research Institute, Ghana. The most important finding from the study was that it is practical to ...
Chi Jason S - - 2003
Major catastrophes, such as earthquakes and wars, have been associated with short-term increases in cardiac mortality. We investigated whether the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were associated with increased cardiac mortality in New York City. We analyzed death certificate data in New York City for the time period around ...
Rojas de Arias Antonieta - - 2003
We investigated the residual efficacy of four insecticide formulations used in Chagas disease vector control campaigns: cyfluthrin 12.5% suspension concentrace (SC), lambda-cyhalothrin 10% wettable powder (WP), deltamethrin 2.5% SC, and 2.5% WP on four types of circular blocks of wood, straw with mud, straw with mud painted with lime, and ...
Brunton Benjamin J - - 2003
Density-dependent mortality may regulate many populations, but due to an offshore larval phase in benthic marine organisms, it is often difficult to quantify the effects of mortality of arriving individuals. We added approximately 600 recruit-sized individuals onto coral reef that parallels patterns in naturally settling fish. Strong, positive density-dependent mortality ...
Osler M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry. The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: ...
Sazawal Sunil S Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2003
Pneumonia still causes around two million deaths among children annually (20% of all child deaths). Any intervention that would affect pneumonia mortality is of great public health importance. This meta-analysis provides estimates of mortality impact of the case-management approach proposed by WHO. We were able to get data from nine ...
Moolgavkar Suresh H - - 2003
I used generalized additive models to analyze the time series of daily total nonaccidental deaths and deaths due to vascular disease over the period 1987-1995 in two major metropolitan areas, Cook County, Illinois, and Los Angeles County, California, in the United States. In both counties I had monitoring information on ...
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