Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 868
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Jüssi Mart - - 2008
Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) alternate between land and ice breeding, depending on ice conditions. We show that the fitness of grey seal females in terms of pup mortality and quality is reduced when breeding on land as compared with ice. The mean preweaning mortality rate on land was 21.1% ...
Wang Fu-Der - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in hospitals worldwide. S aureus continues to be a cause of nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical significance (mortality) of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S aureus bacteremia in a retrospective cohort study in a 2900-bed tertiary referral medical center. ...
Lee Tae Hoon - - 2008
Serum aminotransferase [such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] is commonly used as an indicator of liver disease. The aim of the study was to determine the degree to which aminotransferase results are associated with increased mortality at the population level. All adult residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, ...
Figueira Will F - - 2008
Phenotypic variability within cohorts of juvenile organisms can serve as the basis for selective mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated the important role that predators play in this process but not the impact of competitors on selective predation. We use a combination of lab and field studies to evaluate the effect ...
Hanger H Carl - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To determine whether taking aspirin or warfarin at the time of an intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) has an independent effect on early survival. METHODS: All people with ICH presenting in Christchurch, New Zealand over a three-year period were identified. Independent predictors of mortality at 7, 14 and 28 days were ...
Zani Augusto - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Management of incidentally detected Meckel diverticulum (MD) remains controversial. Our aims were to establish: (1) the prevalence of MD; (2) the morbidity and (3) mortality due to MD. METHODS: Systematic review: A total of 244 papers meeting defined criteria were included; there were no prospective or randomized studies. MD ...
van der Heijden Harold M J F - - 2008
Histomoniasis is a serious disease in poultry. All chemotherapeutics with known efficacy against its causative agent, Histomonas meleagridis, have been banned from use as prophylactic or therapeutic use in production animals. In a search for possible alternatives, the in vivo effects of the herbal products Enteroguard and Protophyt were examined. ...
Janota J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD) predicts mortality during the first 28 days of life, and provides information on organ functions influencing mortality. AIM: To test the predictive and descriptive accuracy of NEOMOD in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: The system was used in 112 infants. ...
Benn Christine Stabell - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The policy to provide oral polio vaccine (OPV) at birth was introduced in low-income countries to increase coverage. The effect of OPV at birth on overall child mortality was never studied. During a trial of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at birth in Guinea-Bissau, OPV was not available during several ...
Siegler Veronique - - 2008
This article represents the first use by the Office for National Statistics of the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-SEC) to analyse regional variations in inequalities in male mortality. It is part of a serie of articles on social inequalities in mortality by NS-SEC. Deaths in th years 2001-03 among men ...
Roudebush Bradley T - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study used the Impairment Study Capture System (ISCS) to examine the relationship between mortality and participation in aviation and/or hazardous sports in an insured population. BACKGROUND: With ever improving mortality in the industry, the significance of mortality from these "risky" activities may be more impactful than ever. This ...
Shavelle Robert M - - 2008
The United States has had 43 presidents. We examined whether they survive significantly longer or shorter than their contemporaries. We found that survival was better for presidents elected in the 1789-1841 and 1933-2001 periods (SMRs of 0.7 and 0.6, respectively), but worse for those elected in 1845-1929 (SMR = 2.9). ...
Norman Paul - - 2008
At national level in England and Wales, infant mortality rates fell rapidly from the early 1970s and into the 1980s. Subnational areas have also experienced a reduction in levels of infant mortality. While rates continued to fall to 2006, the rate of reduction has slowed. Although the Government Office Regions ...
Munson Linda - - 2008
Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic ...
Kuehl Hjalmar S - - 2008
Chimpanzees have been used extensively as a model system for laboratory research on infectious diseases. Ironically, we know next to nothing about disease dynamics in wild chimpanzee populations. Here, we analyze long-term demographic and behavioral data from two habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, where previous work ...
Gartner Andrea A Wales Centre for - - 2008
This article examines differences in mortality between rural and urban areas in England and Wales in the years 2002-04 using the Rural and Urban Area Classification 2004. The analysis includes adjustment using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 and Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation 2005 to investigate whether mortality differences ...
Rowe Alexander K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe an approach for evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on malaria-associated mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, where disease-specific mortality trends usually cannot be measured directly and most malaria deaths occur among young children. METHODS: Methods for evaluating changes in malaria-associated mortality are examined; advantages and disadvantages are ...
Fischbacher C M - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Country of birth provides a proxy for ethnic group for recent migrants. Major differences in mortality by country of birth have been demonstrated in England and Wales, but similar published data for Scotland are lacking. We aimed to examine variations in mortality by country of birth for ...
Bell Michelle L ML School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. - - 2007
A critical question regarding the association between short-term exposure to ozone and mortality is the extent to which this relationship is confounded by ambient exposure to particles. We investigated whether particulate matter < 10 and < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) is a confounder of the ozone ...
Moro Manuel - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mortality and its prognostic factors in a Spanish cohort of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants during the period 2002 to 2005. Using the Spanish Society of Neonatology database (SEN 1500), 8942 infants with a birthweight < 1500 g were recruited. The ...
Zanobetti Antonella - - 2008
Although the association between mortality and particles is well established, fewer studies have been reported with ozone. The harvesting hypothesis posits that the deaths associated with an exposure are occurring in people who are dying already, and the effect of exposure is merely to move the death from one day ...
Andreasyan Karen - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To quantify Indigenous mortality, compare it with non-Indigenous mortality, and identify causes of excess Indigenous mortality by remoteness in Queensland, 1997-2000. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of all deaths of Queensland residents registered in Australia during the study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mortality rates were standardised to the concurrent non-Indigenous population ...
Wise John C - - 2007
Field-based bioassays and residue profile analysis were used to determine the relative importance of lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, in blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. Field-based bioassays assessed adult mortality and knockdown, and fruit and leaf injury from Japanese beetles exposed to 4-h ...
Gavalas Vasilis S - - 2008
This paper explores the course of infant and childhood mortality in the Greek island of Paros from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. For this purpose the method of family reconstitution has been applied to two towns on the island. Official population statistics have been used to ...
Laughlin Ann - - 2007
Relocation is traumatic for older adults. There is a paucity of literature about the characteristics of individuals who are most susceptible to negative effects of relocation. Residents of a nursing home that closed were compared with residents of a control institution to determine whether relocation had a significant effect on ...
Erceg Marijan - - 2007
The aim of the study was to establish whether the physicians' strike, which took place in Croatia in 2003, had an impact on the mortality of the population. Mortality data from the National Bureau of Statistics relating to the strike period (15 January - 14 February 2003) were selected and ...
Lewis Mary E - - 2007
This study compares the infant mortality profiles of 128 infants from two urban and two rural cemetery sites in medieval England. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of urbanization and industrialization in terms of endogenous or exogenous causes of death. In order to undertake this analysis, ...
White J Wilson - - 2007
Patterns of predator dispersal can be critical to the dynamics of prey metapopulations. In marine systems, oceanic currents may shape the dispersal of planktonic larvae of both predators and prey, producing spatial correlations in the recruitment of both species and distinctive geographic patterns of prey mortality. I examined the potential ...
Martikainen Pekka - - 2008
We studied whether migration influences the relationship between area socioeconomic structure and mortality. We used data on Finns aged 25-64 that are linked to information on proportions of manual workers in 85 functional regions in 1987 and 1997, and on deaths in 1998-2004. Participants aged 25-44 moving to areas with ...
Khosravi Ardeshir - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Reliable information on the pattern, level and trend of mortality is essential for evidence-based policy to improve health. Various sources of mortality data in the Islamic Republic of Iran have not been critically assessed. This paper aims to document and evaluate the completeness of the different data sources on ...
Faustini A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In Lazio region (Italy), mortality data are currently available from the death cause registry (DCR), which reports only underlying causes. Mortality due to other causes, defined concurrent mortality, are need to appropriately estimate the health impact from chronic diseases. The aims of the study were to estimate concurrent mortality ...
Johnson Darren W - - 2007
For species that have an open population structure, local population size may be strongly influenced by a combination of propagule supply and post-settlement survival. While it is widely recognized that supply of larvae (or recruits) is variable and that variable recruitment may affect the relative contribution of pre- and post-settlement ...
Abd El-Aziz Shadia E - - 2007
The biological and phytochemical studies of four Egyptian wild plants/weed were studied against Spodoptera littoralis. M. senegalensis had highly significant antifeedant activity on the 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis followed by Cl. amblyocarpa and S. argel, with 95.52, 45.23 and 32.12%, respectively. Larval mortality was relatively higher in case ...
Kato Luciana T - - 2007
Mortality from acute selective portal vein occlusion (SPVO) is a matter of concern for surgeons during the management of traumatic portal vein injury. However, mortality rates related to different periods of SPVO remains undetermined. PURPOSE: To determine the mortality rates resulting from different periods of acute SPVO in rats. METHODS: ...
Noakes T D - - 2008
It is generally accepted that Professor Ignaz Semmelweis was the first to identify the mode of transmission of puerperal sepsis. However no appropriate statistical analysis of Semmelweis's data supporting his theory has been reported. Mean annual percent maternal mortality rates for the Allgemeines Krankenhaus and Dublin Maternity Hospitals (1784-1858) were ...
Lothrop Hugh - - 2007
Six experimental ground ultra-low volume (ULV) applications of Pyrenone 25-5 (0.0025 lb/acre) and Aqua-Reslin (0.007 lb/acre) were made by truck-mounted Pro-Mist or London Fog equipment over 1-mi2 study areas in rural and residential environments of the Coachella Valley, Riverside County, California. Efficacy of replicate applications was evaluated by measuring mortality ...
Cossman Jeralynn Sittig - - 2007
We explored how place shapes mortality by examining 35 consecutive years of US mortality data. Mapping age-adjusted county mortality rates showed both persistent temporal and spatial clustering of high and low mortality rates. Counties with high mortality rates and counties with low mortality rates both experienced younger population out-migration, had ...
Zegers Richard H C - - 2007
In 1767 at 11 years of age, composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart contracted smallpox, allegedly causing him temporary blindness. Although now eradicated, smallpox in those days had a high mortality rate, and the history of classical music would have been very different if Mozart had become permanently blind, or died, as ...
Wild S H - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Differences in mortality by country of birth in England and Wales in people under 70 years of age have been demonstrated previously. Changes in age distribution of migrants and in migration patterns have occurred subsequently. METHODS: All-cause and circulatory disease mortality for people aged 20 years and over in ...
Fuentes-Contreras Eduardo - - 2007
Regular applications of insecticides have been the main management practice against codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Chile. Organophosphates are the most widely used insecticides, and azinphos-methyl is an important element in spray programs. In particular, we evaluated diagnostic doses of azinphos-methyl on neonate and postdiapausing larvae from ...
Kaiser Reinhard - - 2007
We sought to reexamine the effects of the 1995 Chicago heat wave on all-cause and cause-specific mortality, including mortality displacement, using advanced time-series analysis methods. We used Poisson regression with penalized regression splines to model excess mortality and mortality displacement over a 50-day period centered on the day in which ...
Elbers A R W - - 2007
Daily within-flock mortality data, from a few days before until a few days after onset of increased mortality, from H7N7-infected flocks were analyzed with nonlinear regression for layer (organic and free-range or caged), broiler, and turkey flocks. The following notification thresholds were recommended for The Netherlands: 1) organic layer flocks, ...
Witeska MaƂgorzata - - 2007
The in vitro effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc, and various cadmium compounds (chloride, sulphate and nitrate) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) lymphocyte viability and phagocyte activity, were evaluated. The percentage of dead lymphocytes was determined after Trypan blue staining, and phagocyte activity was measured by using the nitroblue ...
Tukiendorf Andrzej - - 2007
In the study the results of the relation between infant (neonatal + post-neonatal) mortality and the gynaecological and unemployment factors are presented. The findings are based on Bayesian modelling and indicate the possible influence of the unemployment situation on mortality, whereas no correlation was found as regards access to the ...
Cuthbert Richard - - 2007
Veterinary treatment of livestock with diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has caused catastrophic declines of Gyps vultures in Asia. This has highlighted a lack of knowledge on the potential impacts of NSAIDs on scavenging birds. Surveys of veterinarians and zoos document the outcomes of the treatment of over 870 ...
Mathur N B - - 2007
AIM: To evaluate role of TOPS (a simplified assessment of neonatal acute physiology) in predicting mortality in transported neonates and to compare it with SNAP II. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Referral Neonatal Unit of a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 175 neonates > 1000 g admitted to referral nursery. METHODS: Temperature, oxygenation, ...
Pope C Arden CA - - 2007
Numerous studies have reported associations between fine particulate and sulfur oxide air pollution and human mortality. Yet there continues to be concern that public policy efforts to improve air quality may not produce actual improvement in human health. This study retrospectively explored a natural experiment associated with a copper smelter ...
Dobbertin Matthias - - 2007
In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing ...
Sundstrøm Terje - - 2007
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries. Effective management planning for these patients requires knowledge of TBI epidemiology. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the development of TBI mortality in the Nordic countries during the period 1987-2001. Data ...
Chen X K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) on infant mortality in different birthweight centiles (small for gestational age [SGA], appropriate for gestational age [AGA], and large for gestational age [LGA]) and gestational ages (early preterm, late preterm, and full term). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Linked birth and ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >