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Ombok Maurice - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To describe local geospatial variation and geospatial risk factors for child mortality in rural western Kenya. METHODS: We calculated under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) in 217 villages in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western Kenya from 1 May 2002 through 31 December 2005. U5MRs by village ...
Popham Frank - - 2010
Scotland has a higher mortality rate than England and Wales, which is only partially explained by differences in socio-economic deprivation. Within Scotland those born in England and Wales have a lower mortality rate than the Scottish born. Within England and Wales, Scottish born immigrants have a higher mortality rate than ...
Kanter Robert K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Age-specific pediatric health consequences of community disruption after Hurricane Katrina have not been analyzed. Post-Katrina vital statistics are unavailable. The objectives of this study were to validate an alternative method to estimate child mortality rates in the greater New Orleans area and compare pre-Katrina and post-Katrina mortality rates. METHODS: ...
Kurita Hiroyuki - - 2010
Sex differences in infant mortality in provisioned Japanese macaque populations were examined using 10 data sets from five populations. The results indicate that there was no available data set in which a sex difference in infant mortality was statistically significant. To examine whether the observed sex ratios in infant mortality ...
MacDorman Marian F - - 2010
In 2005, the United States ranked 30th in the world in infant mortality. Infant mortality rates for preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) infants are lower in the United States than in most European countries; however, infant mortality rates for infants born at 37 or more weeks of gestation are higher ...
Schrewe Brett - - 2010
After an uncomplicated term delivery, a newborn infant experienced a life-threatening even a few minutes after being born. Few such events have been described before, they may be due to suffocation; minor changes in surveillance can probably prevent these potentially devastating events.
Andreasyan K - - 2010
Despite the well-recognised Indigenous-non-Indigenous health disparity, some reports suggest improvements in Indigenous mortality. Our aim was to quantify Indigenous mortality in Outer Regional (OR), Remote (R), and Very Remote (VR) areas in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory and changes in mortality from 1998 ...
Lin Tiffany - - 2010
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significantly improved the field of surgery, with benefits including shorter operating time, improved recovery time, minimizing stress and pain due to smaller incisions, and even improving mortality. MIS procedures, including their indications, impact, limitations, and possible future evolution in neonates and infants, are discussed in ...
Chung Roger Y - - 2010
During the 20th century, the Hong Kong Chinese population experienced 2 abrupt but temporally distinct macroenvironmental changes: The transition from essentially preindustrial living conditions to a rapidly developing economy through mass migration in the late 1940s was followed by the emergence of an infant and childhood adiposity epidemic in the ...
Wang Chunxiao - - 2010
Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM), Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) and PIM2 could be applicable to the subset of term neonates has not been well investigated. The purpose of this study is to access and compare the performance of these scoring systems in predicting mortality probability in term Chinese neonates ...
Mallick A A - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is an important but under-recognised cause of childhood mortality. The authors aimed to describe the trends in mortality from childhood stroke in England and Wales between 1921 and 2000. DESIGN: The study searched the Office for National Statistics mortality database for the years 1921-2000 using appropriate, previously validated ...
Yablokov Alexey V - - 2009
A detailed study reveals that 3.8-4.0% of all deaths in the contaminated territories of Ukraine and Russia from 1990 to 2004 were caused by the Chernobyl catastrophe. The lack of evidence of increased mortality in other affected countries is not proof of the absence of effects from the radioactive fallout. ...
Sharma Rinku - - 2010
The objective of this study was to detect the presence of porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) in a farm showing reproductive failure and increased mortality in neonatal piglets by histopathological examination, polymerase chain reaction, and demonstration of viral antigen and nucleic acid. Out of 594 piglets farrowed ...
Falagas M E ME Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences, 9 Neapoleos Street, 151 23 Marousi, Athens, Greece. - - 2009
Studies evaluating the association of economic variables with mortality have produced mixed findings. We sought to evaluate whether economic crises confer increase in mortality. We reviewed studies analysing mortality in the general population in periods of economic crisis compared with periods prior to or after the crisis, by searching PubMed, ...
Hakobyan Mihran - - 2010
In this paper we analyse infant mortality in Armenia in terms of not only its socio-economic and geographic distribution but also changes in its age structure. Primary data on live births and infant deaths recorded in the official statistics and data of "Armenia Demographic and Health Survey 2005" are studied. ...
Hoehn T - - 2009
The health system performance in Myanmar was reported by WHO as having the highest childhood mortality numbers in Asia only exceeded by Cambodia and Laos. Previous data reported an infant mortality rate of as high as 105 per 1,000 live births. This review looks at the trend of the mortality ...
Gonzalez Rogelio - - 2009
We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4,000,000). We calculated ...
Zanini Roselaine Ruviaro - - 2009
The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in infant mortality rates in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1994 to 2004, in a longitudinal ecological study, by means of panel data analysis and multilevel linear regression (two levels: microregion and time) to estimate factors ...
Fleming P - - 2009
In the past 17 years neonatal mortality survey has provided important data on the trends in deaths of all live born infants born in Southern Ireland who are greater than 500 g birth weight and who die within the first 28 days of life. The aims of this study were ...
Bruckner Tim A - - 2009
Individual-level research reports that adverse environmental conditions during infancy increase the risk of mortality later in life. Extending this model to populations implies what we call the "diminished entelechy" hypothesis in which birth cohorts subjected to virulent environmental insults early in life experience increased mortality at older ages and do ...
Chong Siow-Ann - - 2009
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe and potentially irreversible movement, and previous studies have suggested increased mortality among patients with TD, but most of these studies are limited by small sample sizes and short periods of follow-up. This study examined the mortality rate of a cohort of 608 Asian patients ...
van Mantgem Phillip J - - 2009
Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 ...
Tomé Teresa - - 2009
The aim of this study was to access evolution in care of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants after the implementation of a regionalization policy in Portugal. The data of the National Portuguese Network of VLBW infants are analyzed concerning mortality, morbidity, and quality of regionalization. A total of 12,826 ...
Joly Damien O - - 2009
Stranding networks, in which carcasses are recovered and sent to diagnostic laboratories for necropsy and determination of cause of death, have been developed to monitor the health of marine mammal and bird populations. These programs typically accumulate comprehensive, long-term datasets on causes of death that can be used to identify ...
Sparks P Johnelle - - 2009
PURPOSE: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. METHODS: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship between neonatal and ...
Baqui Abdullah H - - 2009
To assess the effect of the timing of first postnatal home visit by community health workers on neonatal mortality. Analysis of prospectively collected data using time varying discrete hazard models to estimate hazard ratios for neonatal mortality according to day of first postnatal home visit. Data from a community based ...
Gregory Ian N - - 2009
To examine the geographical relation between mortality and deprivation in England and Wales at the start of the 20th and 21st centuries. To explore the evidence for a strengthening or weakening of this relation over the century and test for relations between the mortality and deprivation patterns of a century ...
Joseph K S - - 2009
Although national health insurance plans and social programs introduced in the 1960s led to reductions in regional disparities in infant mortality in Canada, it is unclear if such patterns prevailed in the 1990s when the health care and related systems were under fiscal duress. This study examined regional patterns of ...
Oka Yoshinari - - 2008
Sevelamer hydrochloride is a phosphate binder and its effectiveness to reduce the cardiovascular mortality of dialysis patients has been tested. Sevelamer hydrochloride also contains chlorine, so a decrease in bicarbonate due to chlorine load was anticipated and metabolic acidosis thought to associate with sevelamer hydrochloride has been reported in some ...
Aquino Rosana - - 2009
We evaluated the effects of the Family Health Program (FHP), a strategy for reorganization of primary health care at a nationwide level in Brazil, on infant mortality at a municipality level. We collected data on FHP coverage and infant mortality rates for 771 of 5561 Brazilian municipalities from 1996 to ...
Sandstrom Thomas - - 2008
Particulate matter (PM10) air pollution is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. A recent systematic review pointed toward the fine particle fraction (PM2.5) rather than the coarse fraction (PM2.5-10) 2.5 and PM2.5-10as being responsible for increased death rates. With this background, the report by Perez et al that ...
Elwert Felix F Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2008
Increased mortality following the death of a spouse (the "widowhood effect") may be due to (1) causation, (2) bias from spousal similarity (homogamy), or (3) bias from shared environmental exposures. This article proposes new tests for bias in the widowhood effect by examining husbands, wives, and ex-wives in a longitudinal ...
Sonnenberg Amnon - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim was to follow the time trends of mortality from ulcerative colitis and compare them with those of gastric and duodenal ulcer. METHODS: Mortality data from 21 different countries between 1941 and 2004 were analyzed. The age-specific death rates of each individual country, as well as the average ...
Macdorman Marian F - - 2008
Data from the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set and Preliminary Mortality Data File, National Vital Statistics System. The U.S. infant mortality rate did not decline from 2000 to 2005. Data from the preliminary mortality file suggest a 2% decline in the infant mortality rate from 2005 to 2006. The U.S. ...
Wetmore James B JB Department of Medicine, San Francisco VAMC/University of California, California, USA. - - 2008
Individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) manifest a chronic inflammatory state. Serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A (SAA) have been associated with mortality in ESRD, although reports vary as to whether they are true independent markers of mortality. We undertook a prospective study to determine ...
Vescio M F MF Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2009
Most previous studies have examined the association between mortality and deprivation at only one point in time. However, risk accumulates over the life course. The design of the study was ecological. Its aims were to explain inequalities in total and cause-specific mortality between geographical areas in relation to the lifestyle ...
Pearce Jamie - - 2008
AIMS: To monitor geographical inequalities in cause-specific mortality in New Zealand during the period 1980 to 2001, a time of rapid social and economic change. METHODS: Age-standardised rates of all-cause mortality, as well as for nine of the leading causes of death among males and females, were calculated for District ...
Blakely Tony - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (NZCMS) previously demonstrated substantial undercounting of Maori and Pacific deaths on mortality data relative to census data for the 1980s and 1990s. The recent linkage of 2001-04 mortality data to 2001 census data allows us to determine whether any such 'numerator-denominator' bias persists. METHODS: ...
Faramnuayphol Pinij - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine geographical variation of mortality in Thailand. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Descriptive ecological study using the national vital registration data in 2000, age-specific mortality rate and cause-specific standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were presented at district geographic level. RESULTS: Overall mortality was highly concentrated in the middle part of the ...
Bang Ki Moon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This article describes trends in mortality with silicosis and identifies industries and occupations with elevated silicosis mortality. METHODS: A total of 6,326 deaths with silicosis for 1981-2004 were analyzed for trends and association with occupation and industry. Annual mortality rates were age-adjusted to the U.S. Year 2000 population. A ...
Cho Yong-Sung - - 2008
This study was performed to examine the relationship between particulate matter exposure and mortality in Seoul, Korea, during the year 2001. Particulate matter data were collected using an optical particle counter (OPC) and national monitoring stations in Seoul. The size-resolved aerosol number concentrations of particles 0.3-25 microm in diameter and ...
Aunsmo A - - 2008
Methods for investigating patterns of mortality and quantifying cause-specific mortality in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farming were developed. The methods were further used to investigate mortality and patterns of mortality for the first 3 mo after sea transfer in the 2006 year-class autumn smolts (SO) of Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon. ...
Deladisma Adeline M - - 2008
The elderly are a growing proportion of all-terrain (ATV) drivers. The purpose of this study was to determine if the outcomes of geriatric ATV trauma victims are different from those of their younger counterparts and if age is an independent predictor of mortality. ATV trauma cases in the United States ...
Regidor Enrique - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether mortality in immigrants in the region of Madrid (Spain) differs from mortality in Spanish in-country migrants. METHODS: Analyses of mortality in men aged 20 to 64 years residing in Madrid were conducted, using data from the municipal population register and the cause of death register for ...
Hall Aron J - - 2008
Infection with Salmonella spp. has long been recognized in avian wildlife, although its significance in causing avian mortality, and its zoonotic risk, is not well understood. This study evaluates the role of Salmonella spp. in wild bird mortality events in the United States from 1985 through 2004. Analyses were performed ...
Töro Klára - - 2008
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a major threat to TB control efforts. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with pulmonary TB. The scene investigation had initially suspected for homicide; however, the result of medico-legal autopsy demonstrated natural cause of death. Statistical data suggest that the rates ...
Koppenhöfer Albrecht M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: An investigation was carried out to determine whether new neonicotinoid-nematode combinations and earlier applications against younger larval stages could increase the efficacy of synergistic neonicotinoid-entomopathogenic nematode combinations against white grubs. RESULTS: In the laboratory, combinations of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and clothianidin and the nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and H. ...
Cosby Arthur G - - 2008
We discovered an emerging non-metropolitan mortality penalty by contrasting 37 years of age-adjusted mortality rates for metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan US counties. During the 1980s, annual metropolitan-nonmetropolitan differences averaged 6.2 excess deaths per 100,000 nonmetropolitan population, or approximately 3600 excess deaths; however, by 2000 to 2004, the difference had increased more ...
Goldacre Michael J - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke mortality appears to be declining more rapidly in the UK than in many other Western countries. To understand this apparent decline better, we studied trends in mortality in the UK using more detailed data than are routinely available. METHODS: Analysis of datasets that include both the ...
Huchzermeyer F W - - 2008
An outbreak of chlamydiosis was diagnosed in hatchling and juvenile Indopacific crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) on a crocodile farm in Papua New Guinea. The outbreak was characterised by high mortality with hepatitis and exudative conjunctivitis. The agent appears to have been introduced with live wild-caught crocodiles, which are purchased routinely by ...
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