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Visscher M O - - 2012
Background  Premature skin has a thinner epidermis with a poorly formed stratum corneum (SC) barrier compared to full term skin. Poor skin integrity increases the risk of exposure to irritants and infectious agents. Interventions that facilitate skin maturation are essential. Objective  The objective was to examine the effects of prematurity ...
Nagata Rie - - 2012
Background:  Skin surface colonization starts after birth. It is thought that early microbial colonization affects the development of skin immune functions. Although Malassezia is the predominant fungus in the skin microbiota in healthy individuals, the microorganism is associated with atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis. In the present study, transmission of ...
Cesana-Arlotti Nicolò - - 2012
How do infants predict the next future event, when such a prediction requires estimating the event's probability? The literature suggests that adult humans often fail this task because their probability estimates are affected by heuristics and biases or because they can reason about the frequency of classes of events but ...
Lowe Adrian J - - 2012
Defects in skin barrier function are associated with an increase risk of eczema and atopic sensitisation. Ceramide-dominant triple lipid mixture may improve and maintain the infant skin barrier function, and if shown to be safe and feasible, may therefore offer an effective approach to reduce the incidence of eczema and ...
Moore Elizabeth R ER School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University,Nashville, Tennessee, USA. - - 2012
Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, head covered with a dry cap and a warm blanket across the back, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in ...
Saltzman W - - 2011
Stress can inhibit maternal behaviour and increase rates of child abuse in humans and other animals; however, the neuroendocrine mechanisms are not known. To determine whether corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a role in stress-induced disruption of maternal behaviour in primates, we characterised the effects of acute i.c.v. infusions of CRH ...
Zhu Rui R Biomedical Simulations Resource (BMSR), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, - - 2012
The roles of the NAT2 genotype and enzyme maturation on isoniazid pharmacokinetics were investigated in South African infants with perinatal HIV exposure enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis disease and latent infection. Plasma concentration-time measurements of isoniazid from 151 infants (starting at 3-4 ...
Renner J - - 2011
This prospective study assessed whether respiratory variations in velocity time integral, peak blood flow velocity and non-invasive pleth variability index are useful measurements in infants undergoing congenital heart surgery and determined threshold values that may help guide fluid administration. In 27 infants receiving mechanical ventilation, of mean (SD) weight 10.4 ...
Lee Jung - - 2011
Foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence in the pediatric population. We present the case of a 1-year-old infant boy who presented with abdominal distention and shock. At laparotomy, he was found to have an ileal perforation caused by a wire from an aluminum scouring pad that his parents were ...
Baba Atsushi - - 2011
OBJECTIVE:: To investigate postnatal changes in the direction of blood flow through the ductus arteriosus in neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid, we measured preductal and postductal oxygen saturation in normal neonates, neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and a neonate with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. DESIGN:: Prospective, observational case ...
Zmyj Norbert - - 2011
It is well documented that in the first year after birth, infants are able to identify self-performed actions. This ability has been regarded as the basis of conscious self-perception. However, it is not yet known whether infants are also sensitive to aspects of the self when they cannot control the ...
Arnberg K - - 2011
Aim:  To study the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and blood lipids, insulin, glucose, body mass index and waist circumference in infants. Methods:  In a cross sectional study, 255 infants aged 9 months with a blood sample for 25-hydroxyvitamin D were examined. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were analysed by chemiluminescent ...
Inde Yusuke - - 2011
Aim:  In singletons, neonatal small-for-gestational age (SGA) status is an unfavorable postpartum outcome leading to cesarean section (CS) and increasing the possibility of maternal operative complications. Perinatal characteristics of SGA newborns in dichorionic (DC) twins were investigated for the prognostic impact on their mothers. Methods:  A retrospective study was performed ...
Cabezalí Barbancho Daniel - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: Single port surgery (SPS) for the treatment of several pathologies is gradually replacing the classic laparoscopic procedures. The objective of this work is to present our experience with umbilical SPS nephrectomy in infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six infants underwent SPS nephrectomy. Under direct vision a single port with three ...
Seo Dong-Man - - 2011
Although the outcome of neonatal cardiac surgery has dramatically improved, low body weight (LBW) is still considered an important risk for open heart surgery. The factors contributing to poor outcomes in LBW infants, however, are still unclear. We investigated risk factors for poor outcomes in infants weighing <2500 g who underwent ...
Aburahma Samah - - 2011
In encephalopathic infants, cerebrospinal fluid hyperglycinemia and elevated cerebrospinal fluid to plasma glycine ratio are considered pathognomonic of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. To evaluate the significance of cerebrospinal fluid hyperglycinemia and elevated cerebrospinal fluid to plasma glycine ratio in acutely encephalopathic infants, a retrospective chart review of all cases of isolated elevation ...
Ahn Dongbin - - 2011
Although a foreign body ingestion is common in infants and young children, serious complication such as penetration of the esophagus is a relatively rare event. Delayed diagnosis may result from lack of classical symptoms and history, leading to serious result, even to death. A 2-year-old boy was admitted to the ...
Tsuda Hiroyuki - - 2011
Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study is to predict the occurrence of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) using amniotic lamellar body count (LBC) and compare the LBCs in neonates with TTN with the LBCs in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and controls. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-one ...
Johnson Carole E - - 2011
It's time to make sure infants with positive screens for hearing loss get the follow-up treatment they need--and deserve. This tool can help.
Baquero Hernando - - 2011
To assess the time to obtain reliable oxygen saturation readings by different pulse oximeters during neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room or NICU. Prospective study comparing three different pulse oximeters: Masimo Radical-7 compared simultaneously with Ohmeda Biox 3700 or with Nellcor N395, in newborn infants who required resuscitation. Members of ...
Omari Taher I - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND AIM:: pH-impedance monitoring is used to diagnose symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) based on symptom association probability (SAP). Current criteria for calculation of SAP are optimised for heartburn in adults. Infants, however, demonstrate a different symptom profile. The aim of the present study was to optimise criteria for calculation ...
Eriksson Britt - - 2011
Aim:  Equipment (Pea Pod) offering new possibilities to assess infant body composition has recently become available and has already been used in several studies. In the Pea Pod, body density is converted to body composition using one of two models ("Fomon" or "Butte") with different water content in fat-free mass ...
Lima Marilia C - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of low birth weight in full-term infants on body composition at school age. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 375 infants recruited at birth between 1993 and 1994 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. At 8 years of age, the ...
Alaoui Kaltoum - - 2011
Subcutaneous fat necrosis (SCFN) is a well-described cause of subcutaneous calcification occurring in a young infant. Calcification of areas of fat necrosis in the neonate is a rare condition. In this case, the radiographic demonstration of soft-tissue calcification revealed the skin calcification in the absence of clinical signs of SCFN ...
Setegn Tesfaye - - 2011
Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 ...
Claure Nelson - - 2011
To determine the efficacy and safety of automated adjustment of the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) adjustment in maintaining arterial oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) within an intended range for mechanically ventilated preterm infants with frequent episodes of decreased Spo(2). Thirty-two infants (gestational age [median and interquartile range]: 25 weeks [24-27 weeks]; ...
Xu Yingying - - 2011
To assess the effect of examination time on newborn neurobehavioral examinations administered within 48 hours of delivery and to identify the earliest appropriate time for performing the assessment. We analyzed data from neurobehavioral examinations on 324 newborns using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Trends over examination time and cumulative ...
Mehler K - - 2010
Objective:Close contact of mother and child in the first hours after birth is essential for the establishment of a secure attachment behavior in term infants. To date, studies investigating whether a 'sensitive period' also exists for very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are lacking.Study Design:Attachment patterns of 62 VLBW ...
Mitchell Alva D - - 2010
A study was conducted to validate the use of a quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) device for measuring the body composition of infants and neonates weighing less than 12 kg using the pig as a model. A total of 25 piglets weighing between 2 and 12 kg were studied. Body composition ...
Mullany Luke C - - 2010
Hypothermia among newborns is considered an important contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings. However, in these settings only limited progress has been made towards understanding the risk of mortality after hypothermia, describing how this relationship is dependent on both the degree or severity of exposure and the ...
Thomas Niranjan - - 2011
To determine the feasibility and safety of whole body cooling in newborn infants with perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy in a low resource setting. Feasibility trial. Tertiary care perinatal centre. Infants born at > 35 weeks gestation with perinatal asphyxia were included in the study. Infants were cooled to a rectal temperature ...
Delaney Liam - - 2011
We use data from the Irish census and exploit regional and temporal variation in infant mortality rates over the 20th century to examine effects of early life conditions on later life health. The urban mortality penalty collapsed in Ireland in the years right after World War II. Our main identification ...
Pearson J A - - 2010
We measured stable nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen of 60 individuals from the early Neolithic (9th-8th millennium Cal. BC) sites of Çayönü Tepesi and Aşıklı Höyük. Our aim was to identify the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), compare this with juvenile mortality at each site, and assess whether there ...
Stephens F J - - 2010
In November 2008 a commercial sea-cage operator farming yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi, in Western Australia reported more than 70% mortality of the sea-caged fish. Several parasites and potentially pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the fish, but despite a detailed laboratory investigation the cause of the mortality event was never ascertained. ...
Khairy Paul - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize temporal trends in all-cause mortality in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). BACKGROUND: Historically, most deaths in patients with CHD occurred in early childhood. Notable advances have since been achieved that may impact on mortality trends. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of ...
Carbajal-Arroyo L L Departamento de Estadística, Demografía, Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, - - 2011
Consistent evidence has shown a positive association between air pollution and daily mortality among adults. Less is known about its effect on infant mortality and the modification of this association by socioeconomic status (SES). To assess the association of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10μm (PM(10)) and ozone ...
Shamir Lior - - 2010
In this article, the author proposes to consider a link between infant mortality rate (IMR) and galactic cosmic radiation (CR) density. The periodical increase in solar activity increases the effect of the magnetic field of the sun, and therefore weakens galactic cosmic rays hitting the Earth's surface. As a result, ...
Akachi Yoko - - 2010
We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1961. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality ...
Song Shige - - 2010
Using retrospective mortality records for three cohorts of newborns (1956-1958, 1959-1961, and 1962-1964) drawn from a large Chinese national fertility survey conducted in 1988, this article examines cohort mortality differences up to age 22, with the aim of identifying debilitating and selection effects of the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward Famine. ...
Czernik Christoph - - 2011
To investigate the impact of medical progress on the diagnostic spectrum and outcome of infants with hydrops fetalis (HF). We reviewed the charts of all live-born HF infants (n = 70) over a 16-year period (1993-2009). Data were compared to two published case series (Wafelman LS, Pollock BH, Kreutzer J, ...
Manor Orly - - 2010
Individuals who are small at birth are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. To enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association we examined the link between infants' birth weight and mortality in their parents and grandparents. We used the Uppsala birth cohort to examine all-cause and ...
Viswanathan Kavitha - - 2010
To examine historical estimates of infant and under-five mortality in Afghanistan, provide estimates for rural areas from current population-based data, and discuss the methodological challenges that undermine data quality and hinder retrospective estimations of mortality. Indirect methods of estimation were used to calculate infant and under-five mortality from a household ...
Ombok Maurice - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To describe local geospatial variation and geospatial risk factors for child mortality in rural western Kenya. METHODS: We calculated under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) in 217 villages in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in western Kenya from 1 May 2002 through 31 December 2005. U5MRs by village ...
Popham Frank - - 2010
Scotland has a higher mortality rate than England and Wales, which is only partially explained by differences in socio-economic deprivation. Within Scotland those born in England and Wales have a lower mortality rate than the Scottish born. Within England and Wales, Scottish born immigrants have a higher mortality rate than ...
Kanter Robert K - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Age-specific pediatric health consequences of community disruption after Hurricane Katrina have not been analyzed. Post-Katrina vital statistics are unavailable. The objectives of this study were to validate an alternative method to estimate child mortality rates in the greater New Orleans area and compare pre-Katrina and post-Katrina mortality rates. METHODS: ...
Kurita Hiroyuki - - 2010
Sex differences in infant mortality in provisioned Japanese macaque populations were examined using 10 data sets from five populations. The results indicate that there was no available data set in which a sex difference in infant mortality was statistically significant. To examine whether the observed sex ratios in infant mortality ...
MacDorman Marian F - - 2010
In 2005, the United States ranked 30th in the world in infant mortality. Infant mortality rates for preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) infants are lower in the United States than in most European countries; however, infant mortality rates for infants born at 37 or more weeks of gestation are higher ...
Schrewe Brett - - 2010
After an uncomplicated term delivery, a newborn infant experienced a life-threatening even a few minutes after being born. Few such events have been described before, they may be due to suffocation; minor changes in surveillance can probably prevent these potentially devastating events.
Andreasyan K - - 2010
Despite the well-recognised Indigenous-non-Indigenous health disparity, some reports suggest improvements in Indigenous mortality. Our aim was to quantify Indigenous mortality in Outer Regional (OR), Remote (R), and Very Remote (VR) areas in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory and changes in mortality from 1998 ...
Lin Tiffany - - 2010
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has significantly improved the field of surgery, with benefits including shorter operating time, improved recovery time, minimizing stress and pain due to smaller incisions, and even improving mortality. MIS procedures, including their indications, impact, limitations, and possible future evolution in neonates and infants, are discussed in ...
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