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Martikainen P T - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the effects of changes in unemployment rates of occupation groups on changes in mortality in a period of increasing unemployment. METHODS: Census records for all 20- to 64-year-old economically active Finnish men in 1985 were linked to information on unemployment and deaths in 1987 through 1993. ...
Wiley A S - - 1998
Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form ...
Koupilova I - - 1998
"This paper examines how neonatal mortality has changed in the Czech Republic during the [1990s], examining trends in the distribution of birth weights and in birth weight specific neonatal mortality. It examines how these have varied in different parts of the country and, to ascertain the scope for further improvement, ...
Higgs G - - 1998
"In this paper we examine the relationship between premature mortality and material deprivation both over time (the intercensal period, 1981-91) and over space (for the population in wards and ward groups in Wales). Our focus is on the methods of analysis for small area...multiple cross-section mortality data and their application ...
Johansen C - - 1998
Above-average exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with certain nonmalignant medical conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, other neurologic diseases, depressive symptoms, and suicide. The authors conducted a nationwide mortality study in Denmark of 21,236 men employed in utility companies between 1900 and 1993. The causes of death were ...
Rooney C - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality of the heatwave in England and Wales during July and August 1995 and to describe any difference in mortality impact between the Greater London urban population and the national population. DESIGN: Analysis of variation in daily mortality in England and Wales and ...
Moring B - - 1998
This article presents an analysis of the levels, trends and determinants of infant mortality in various regions of Finland between the late seventeenth and early twentieth centuries. Nursing habits were of critical importance as were diet and hygiene. It is suggested that there were differences in the frequency of breastfeeding ...
Merli M G - - 1998
Little is known about past and present mortality in Vietnam, as the first official data on mortality have only recently become available from censuses taken in 1979 and 1989. Using these data, I estimate Vietnamese mortality during the intercensal period using two techniques that rely on age-specific growth rates from ...
Azbel' M Y - - 1998
Old noninbred fly mortality decreases according to the inverse linear law and reduces to a single suborder-specific age. Relative child mortality (the mortality at a given age related to the mortality at 10 years) from 1 mo to 11 years is the same with 8% mean accuracy for all humans, ...
Marchandeau S - - 1998
An outbreak of rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease (RVHD) and of myxomatosis occurred in a free-living population of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) near Paris (France) in 1995. Annual mortality rates were 88% in adults and 99% in juveniles. There was no difference in mortality rates between males and females. Since most adults ...
Binka F N - - 1998
Effects of the distribution in space of permethrin (insecticide)-impregnated bed nets (IIBNS) on child mortality were studied in a randomized controlled trial of IIBNs in a an area highly endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in rural northern Ghana. Eight hundred sixty-two deaths occurred among children 6-59 months of age during ...
Lynch J W - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality ...
Nevalainen J - - 1998
Two recent US cohort studies suggest that current levels of particulate pollution in urban air are associated not only with short-term, but also with long-term increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present analyses was to evaluate the change in life expectancy assuming the long-term increase in ...
Gould W T - - 1998
This paper reviews trends in rural/urban under-5 mortality differentials in Sub-Saharan Africa in historical perspective, with particular attention to the case of Kenya. The rural/urban mortality gap has narrowed within the last half-century, but while this was largely due to rapidly falling rural infant and childhood mortality over most of ...
Haines R - - 1998
During the past two decades, scholars have attempted to quanify the mortality at sea of a large number of seaborne populations. We now have estimates of death rates associated with over 13,000 voyages between 1497 and the First World War. These include voyages of Portuguese and Dutch travellers to Asian ...
Fantahun M - - 1998
This community based study was undertaken to determine the infant and child mortality rates, causes of childhood mortality and examine the utilization patterns of health services in north Gondar Administrative Zone. The study was conducted from November 1994 to May 1995. A pretested questionnaire based on criteria suggested for diagnosis ...
Taylor R - - 1998
This review describes the Australian decline in all-cause mortality, 1788-1990, and compares this with declines in Europe and North America. The period until the 1870s shows characteristic 'crisis mortality', attributable to epidemics of infectious disease. A decline in overall mortality is evident from 1880. A precipitous fall occurs in infant ...
Arns da Cunha C - - 1998
Antimicrobial prophylaxis against gram-positive bacteremia (GPB) following BMT may prevent infections but promote antimicrobial resistance. In a sequential cohort study involving 289 consecutive BMT recipients we compared three protocols for prevention of GPB (vancomycin prophylaxis, penicillin/cefazolin prophylaxis, and no specific GPB prophylaxis) with respect to incidence of GPB, mortality, and ...
Losinger W C - - 1998
Over a 6-month period, the mean mortality risk (based on 393 operations participating in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, and representing operations with > or = 300 market hogs in 16 states), was 2.3 +/- 0.2% in the grower/finisher production phase (where figures ...
Bird S T - - 1998
Reducing infant mortality in the United States is a national priority. States' infant mortality rates vary substantially. Public health researchers, practitioners, and leaders have long argued that social and other structural factors must be addressed if health outcomes are to be improved. A knowledge of which structural variables are most ...
Maxwell R - - 1998
It is well known that men and women who are married have lower mortality rates than those who are not. It is also known that some migrants from abroad have higher mortality rates than people in England and Wales and that they have different patterns of family formation and dissolution. ...
Bornebroek M - - 1997
Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis--Dutch type (HCHWA-D) is an autosomal dominant disorder, caused by a single base mutation in the amyloid beta precursor protein (beta PP) gene located on chromosome 21, resulting in recurrent haemorrhagic strokes and dementia. Though HCHWA-D is caused by a dominant mutation, the phenotypic expression varies ...
Brown S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: This paper presents a structured review of the published information on the mortality of schizophrenia. METHOD: A meta-analysis of the literature. RESULTS: Schizophrenia has a significantly increased mortality from natural and unnatural causes. Twenty-eight percent of the excess mortality is attributable to suicide and 12% to accidents. The rest ...
Gurgel R Q - - 1997
We report diarrhoea mortality rates in the city of Aracaju, Brazil from 1992 to 1994 when there were 318 deaths due to diarrhoea. Eighty-nine per cent of deaths occurred in infants: 53.1% were boys and 78.9% died in hospital. Diarrhoea mortality rates for children under 5 years of age were ...
Donaldson G C GC Department of Physiology, Queen Mary and Westfield College, - - 1997
To identify the time courses and magnitude of ischaemic heart (IHD), respiratory (RES), and all cause mortality associated with common 20-30 day patterns of cold weather in order to assess links between cold exposure and mortality. Daily temperatures and daily mortality on successive days before and after a reference day ...
Carnes B A - - 1997
For over a century, actuaries and biologists working independently of each other have presented arguments for why total mortality needs to be partitioned into biologically meaningful subcomponents. These mortality partitions tended to overlook genetic diseases that are inherited because the partitions were motivated by a paradigm focused on aging. In ...
Simpson R W - - 1997
The results of several studies have indicated significant associations between daily mortality and air pollution, with little evidence of a threshold. In the current study, the authors examined daily mortality during the period 1987-1993 for the Brisbane region, which is the fastest-growing urban region in Australia (annual average concentration of ...
Giusti Robert - - 1997
A 6-MONTH-OLD male infant had bluish purple discoloration of his cheeks for 7 days. There was no history of fever, popsicle ingestion, or trauma. The infant was not irritable and did not show signs of discomfort. The family lived in New York City and the onset of the lesions was ...
Karlsson Jonas P - - 1997
At Birth, 3 infants had cutaneous lesions of varying severity. They were otherwise well. The infant in Figure 1 through Figure 3 had extensive lesions, while the other 2 infants (Figure 4 and Figure 5) had less extensive involvement of their skin. DENOUEMENT AND DISCUSSION CUTIS MARMORATA TELANGIECTATICA CONGENITA Cutis ...
Lee J A - - 1997
The gradient of mortality from melanoma of the skin with latitude among US whites was estimated from the slopes of semilogarithmic models fitted to the state-specific mortality rates and the latitudes of the states' capital cities. The upward gradient of mortality from north to south for malignant melanoma of the ...
Evans Daniel A - - 1997
A 12-YEAR-OLD girl was seen with dyspnea and hypoxemia at rest after being kicked by a horse on the right side of the chest. The trauma had resulted in a 15-minute loss of consciousness. Her hypoxemia resolved with the administration of supplemental oxygen, and results of an initial chest radiograph ...
Moll A C - - 1997
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the (time trends in) incidence and survival of hereditary (familial and sporadic) and non-hereditary retinoblastoma for male and female patients born in the Netherlands between 1862 and 1995. METHOD: The national retinoblastoma register was updated and now consists of 955 patients. ...
Yang C Y - - 1997
Mortality from motor vehicle crashes within five urbanization categories in Taiwan between 1981 and 1990 was investigated. Sex-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated within each urbanization category for motor vehicle crash deaths. Most urban areas demonstrated lower SMRs for both males and females. In contrast, most rural areas exhibited ...
Johnson J C - - 1997
Operation CROSSROADS, conducted at Bikini Atoll in 1946, was the first post World War II test of nuclear weapons. Mortality experience of 40,000 military veteran participants in CROSSROADS was compared to that of a similar cohort of nonparticipating veterans. All-cause mortality of the participants was slightly increased over nonparticipants by ...
Woodruff T J - - 1997
Recent studies have found associations between particulate air pollution and total and adult mortality. The relationship between particulate air pollution and mortality among infants has not been examined in the United States. This study evaluates the relationship between postneonatal infant mortality and particulate matter in the United States. Our study ...
Birnbaum Y - - 1997
During the 3-day period of the Los Angeles riots in 1992, there was a significant increase in the total number of deaths investigated by the Coroner's office and deaths attributed to violence and trauma, but not to atherosclerotic cardiovascular mortality. However, there was a significant decrease in cardiovascular mortality in ...
Paul V K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia is a major cause of neonatal mortality. An understanding of the determinants of mortality among asphyxiated neonates will help formulate effective management protocols. METHODS: One hundred and fifty consecutive neonates with birth asphyxia (apnoea or gasping respiration at 1-minute of age) were prospectively studied. The association of ...
Pillai V K - - 1997
The relationship between teenage fertility and infant mortality has been a controversial issue for some time. From a policy point of view, it is crucial to understand the nature of this relationship given that pregnancy among teenagers is on the rise globally. This study conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship ...
Coggon D - - 1997
We assessed whether the causes of aortic aneurysm underlying its distinctive geographical distribution in England and Wales act early or later in life from the OPCS data on deaths in England and Wales during April 1969-December 1972. From these data, we calculated proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) for aortic aneurysm by ...
Lee R - - 1997
We analyze in three steps the influence of the projected mortality decline on the long run finances of the Social Security System. First, on a theoretical level, mortality decline adds person years of life which are distributed across the life cycle. The interaction of this distribution with the age distribution ...
Schoendorf K C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine birth-weight-specific and age-specific mortality among US infants to determine if the large infant mortality decrease in 1990 was due to surfactant use. DESIGN: Population-based analysis of data from the 1983-1991 National Linked Birth and Infant Death files. Mortality trends from 1983 to 1989 were used to calculate ...
Swaen G M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted to assess long-term health risk in a group of tar distillery workers and roofers in order to investigate the existence of carcinogenic effects related to the occupational exposures. METHODS: The study population consisted of 907 tar distillery workers and 866 roofers, employed ...
Milosavljevic M - - 1997
A new robust modified generalized likelihood ratio algorithm, which enables the changes of mortality rates to be detected automatically, is applied. The procedure is based on the calculation of discrimination function using robust least squares estimates of AR mortality rates residuals. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated with experimental ...
Spagnoli P G - - 1997
This article seeks to draw historians' attention to a neglected reconstruction of the French population and its mortality rates developed by the Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques in the 1970s. The reconstruction shows a sharp decline in French mortality rates, beginning in the 1790s and continuing through the 1820s. This conflicts ...
Victora C G - - 1997
"Four different approaches were applied to test the hypothesis that patterns of land tenure and agricultural production in Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil] are important infant mortality determinants. These studies have employed various data sources on distinct analytical levels.... The results...provide reliable evidence of there being a strong relationship between ...
Kalkstein L S - - 1997
A new air mass-based synoptic procedure is used to evaluate climate/mortality relationships as they presently exist and to estimate how a predicted global warming might alter these values. Forty-four large U.S. cities with metropolitan areas exceeding 1 million in population are analyzed. Sharp increases in mortality are noted in summer ...
Bo P - - 1996
In the laboratory, bednets impregnated with 250mg ai/m2 and 500mg ai/m2 permethrin caused respectively the mean mortalities of 86.6% within 13 months and 87.2% within 17 months on laboratory-bred An. sinensis, while they caused average mortalities of 58.3% within 4 months and 73.8% within 10 months on An. dirus respectively. ...
Kang H K - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Since the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, there has been persistent concern that U.S. war veterans may have had adverse health consequences, including higher-than-normal mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of postwar mortality according to cause among 695,516 Gulf War veterans and 746,291 other veterans. The follow-up continued ...
Jessop E G - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the relationship between deprivation and mortality is weaker among residents of non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales than among residents of metropolitan areas. DESIGN: This study compared mortality, expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), in residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts at three levels ...
Hendrickson L A - - 1996
On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki struck Kauai leaving all residents without electricity and telephone services and damaging 70% of the homes. This study examined the hypothesis that Hurricane Iniki increased the mortality of Kauai residents by comparing mortality data for the 5 years preceding Hurricane Iniki with mortality data ...
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