Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 868
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Sulkes J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work is to clarify by path analysis which of the predictor factors of mortality in a cohort of 423 singletons VLBW infants born at Beilinson Medical Center during the years 1980-1990 (pre-surfactant era) exert direct or indirect effect on mortality. A direct risk factor was ...
Ranganathan D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To examine racial differences in the secular trends in respiratory-related neonatal mortality among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in the United States, temporally associated with surfactant availability. DESIGN: Comparison of time trends in African American and non-Hispanic white (NHW) VLBW infants of cause-specific neonatal mortality and neonatal and ...
Vögele J - - 2000
This analysis assesses urban mortality change in Imperial Germany, when the country was going through a process of accelerated industrialization and urbanization. Urban mortality reached its peak after the middle of the century, thereafter urban mortality improved substantially. The largest cities, particularly in the highly industrialized western parts of the ...
Hill A G - - 2000
Using data from a longitudinal study conducted in 40 villages by the UK MRC in the North Bank Division of The Gambia beginning in late 1981, we examined infant and child mortality over a 15-year period for a population of about 17 000 people. Comparisons are drawn between villages with ...
Drapeau M D - - 2000
Variation among individuals in robustness has been posed as a general explanation for the lack of increase in late-life mortality rates. Here, we test corollaries of this heterogeneity theory. One is that populations that have undergone strong laboratory selection for differentiated stress resistance should show significant differences in their late-life ...
Hales S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the daily number of deaths, weather and ambient air pollution. METHOD: An ecological study. We assembled daily data for the city of Christchurch, New Zealand (population 300,000) from June 1988 to December 1993. We used Poisson regression models, controlling for season using a parametric ...
Blakely T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (NZCMS) aims to investigate socio-economic mortality gradients in New Zealand, by anonymously linking Census and mortality records. OBJECTIVES: To describe the record linkage method, and to estimate the magnitude of bias in that linkage by demographic and socio-economic factors. METHODS: Anonymous 1991 Census records, ...
Yan Y Y - - 2000
This study is the first attempt to investigate mortality seasonality and weather-mortality relationships in Hong Kong from 1980 to 1994. Monthly mortality data from all causes of death, neoplasm, circulatory and respiratory diseases were obtained from the Census and Statistics Department and the weather data were obtained from the Hong ...
Claeson M - - 2000
Globally, child mortality rates have been halved over the last few decades, a developmental success story. Nevertheless, progress has been uneven and in recent years mortality rates have increased in some countries. The present study documents the slowing decline in infant mortality rates in india; a departure from the longer-term ...
Joyce R - - 2000
This study investigates which, if any, population-based indicator of deprivation best predicts foetal and infant mortality rates in England. For the year 1995, the deprivation levels of 364 English Local Authorities were compared; using the three commonly used indicators, Jarman score, Townsend score and percentage unemployed. The predictive value of ...
Hall W - - 2000
This paper compares data on rates of opiate overdose mortality in the UK and Australia between 1985 and 1995. Data on rates of ICD 9-coded overdose mortality were obtained from the Office of National Statistics in the UK and from the Australian Bureau of Statistics mortality register. The proportion of ...
Brochez L - - 2000
In previous decades melanoma incidence rates have risen spectacularly in white populations worldwide and a parallel - although more moderate - increase has been observed for melanoma mortality. More recently several reports have been made of a stabilization or decrease of mortality rates in the younger birth cohorts, resulting in ...
Heck K E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: International infant mortality rates vary widely. This variation has been attributed to many factors, including differential reporting. In the US, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN), who generally have low socioeconomic status, have a low neonatal mortality rate. One possible explanation is underregistration of very low birthweight (VLBW, < ...
Davies R P - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: A reinvestigation of the relationship between the decline of tuberculosis and improvement in social conditions in England and Wales during Victorian times. DESIGN: A retrospective study using data published in the annual reports of the Registrar General from 1853 to 1910. MEASURES ASSESSED: The diseases studied, in addition to ...
Ham C M - - 1999
Adult mortality of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and the Aedes spp. complex (Aedes sollicitans and Aedes taeniorhynchus) was observed after aerial ultra-low volume (ULV) exposure to Dibrom, Trumpet, and Scourge. Dibrom was applied at 112 g active ingredient (AI)/ha, Trumpet at 112 g AI/ha, and Scourge at 1.96 g AI/ha. ...
Bowers R R - - 1999
Mutant feather melanocytes from Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR) and White Leghorn (WL) chickens are currently being used as avian models of vitiligo. Feather melanocytes in BPR and WL chickens die prematurely in vivo due to low (50-66%) antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels when compared to the wild type Jungle ...
Malmström M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Although all-cause mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality is declining in Sweden, as in most other countries in the industrialised world, we have limited information about the distribution and trends of mortality in deprived and affluent neighbourhoods. DESIGN: This study analyses the extent to which the decline in ...
Shinkura R - - 1999
We examined the association between neonatal mortality and ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima, Yamashita public health district of Kagoshima City, during the period between 1978 and 1988. The analysis using Poisson regression models showed that the monthly average level of SO2 was positively associated ...
Kertzer D I - - 1999
A great deal of scholarly attention has been devoted in recent years to the large-scale abandonment of new born babies in the European past, with special emphasis given to the staggering rates of infant mortality among the foundlings. For the most part, scholars have agreed with the foundling home officials ...
Nestor K E - - 1999
Previous research has shown that a line (F) of turkeys selected long-term for increased 16-wk body weight was more susceptible to challenge with washed Pasteurella multocida than a randombred control line (RBC2), the base population of F. A previous study also indicated that the mortality of the F line following ...
Wainwright S H - - 1999
Define the mortality associated with extremely hot weather during the 04 July through 14 July, 1993 heat wave that struck the northeastern United States. DESIGN--A rapid field assessment was used to compare mortality occurring during the heat wave to mortality occurring during a period in which there was no heat ...
Brimblecombe N - - 1999
This study investigates the extent to which current geographical variations in mortality are influenced by patterns of migration since birth. It is based on a longitudinal study of migrants which consists of a representative sample of 10264 British residents born after 1890 and enumerated as part of the British Household ...
Roizen R - - 1999
To describe, evaluate, and suggest interpretations for an observed aggregate level relation between trends in mortality from cirrhosis and per capita consumption of distilled spirits in the United States. Trend analysis using data on US cirrhosis mortality and per capita alcohol consumption. There is a consistent long term trend relation ...
Patel J C - - 1999
Records of 8,697 cases of tetanus seen over a period of 14 years are analysed. Overall mortality was 48.0%. Mortality in neonatal group was 86.38% whereas that in non-neonatal group it was 40.18%. Disease was seen more frequently in male than in female. Mortality in male was lower than in ...
van der Beek S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine relative impact of genetic, common-litter, and within-litter factors on puppy mortality. ANIMALS: 2,622 Boxer puppies of 413 litters born during a 14-month period. PROCEDURE: For each puppy, pedigree was determined, and litter in which it was born was registered. Overall mortality and mortality per specific cause of ...
Baltay M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The implementation of the Fetal and Infant Mortality Review (FIMR) process was examined as part of the evaluation of the national Healthy Start program, a federal program designed to reduce infant mortality in several communities. The implementation of the FIMR process over the 5-year funding period is described in ...
- - 1999
BACKGROUND: Bolus fibrinolytic therapy facilitates early efficient institution of reperfusion therapy. Tenecteplase is a genetically engineered variant of alteplase with slower plasma clearance, better fibrin specificity, and high resistance to plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1. We did a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of tenecteplase compared with alteplase. ...
Mooney G - - 1999
This paper confronts a major problem in relation to the metropolitan and urban mortality declines in Britain during the later nineteenth century: the extent to which cause-specific death rates at district level were distorted by an official failure to redistribute deaths occurring in institutions back to "normal" place of residence. ...
Roizen R - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe, evaluate, and suggest interpretations for an observed aggregate-level relation between trends in mortality from cirrhosis and per capita consumption of distilled spirits in the United States. DESIGN: Trend analysis using data on US cirrhosis mortality and per capita alcohol consumption. RESULTS: There is a consistent long-term trend ...
Shah S - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of material deprivation on the winter rise in mortality and temperature dependent variations in mortality. DESIGN: Ecological comparison of seasonal mortality at electoral ward level. Main outcome measures were ratios of winter to rest of the year mortality rates (seasonality ratios) and monthly deaths as ...
Kanaiaupuni S M - - 1999
We apply multilevel methods to data from Mexico to examine how village migration patterns affect infant survival outcomes in origins. We argue that migration is a cumulative process with varying health effects at different stages of its progression, and test several related hypotheses. Findings suggest higher rates of infant mortality ...
Gregson S - - 1999
Religion has acted as a brake on demographic transition in a number of historical and contemporary populations. In a study in two rural areas of Zimbabwe, we found substantial differences in recent demographic trends between Mission and Independent or "Spirit-type" churches. Birth rates are higher in some Spirit-type churches and, ...
Heier B T - - 1999
High mortality during the first part of the laying period was observed in Norwegian White Leghorns during the period 1988-1992. A longitudinal field study with repeated measurement of cumulative mortality was undertaken in the period from January 1994 to January 1996 to investigate (1) the mortality and susceptibility to Marek's ...
Bender L C - - 1999
A dead elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) calf was diagnosed with bacillary hemoglobinuria, a toxemia caused by the bacterium Clostridium haemolyticum. The mortality occurred in southwest Washington, USA (46 degrees 13'N, 123 degrees 22'W), in an area in which several previous mortalities, suspected but not conclusively diagnosed to be either bacillary ...
Crockford T - - 1999
A computerised database containing information on over 17.8 million salmon contained within 49 separate marine populations was used to study the epidemiology of pancreas disease (PD) in Ireland. Of the 43 recorded PD outbreaks, 57% occurred in the 3 mo period August to October inclusive (17 to 32 wk post-transfer). ...
Whitehead M - - 1999
Objectives: To examine trends in mortality among babies registered solely by their mother (lone mothers) and to compare these with trends in infant mortality for couple registrations overall and couple registrations subdivided by social class of father. Design: Analysis of trends in infant death rates from 1975 to 1996 for ...
Treurniet H F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Variations in 'avoidable' mortality may reflect variations in the quality of care, but they may also be due to variations in incidence or severity of diseases. We studied the association between regional variations in 'avoidable' mortality and variations in disease incidence. For a selection of conditions we also analysed ...
Loomis D - - 1999
Historic air pollution episodes of the 1950s led to acute increases in infant mortality, and some recent epidemiologic studies suggest that infant or child mortality may still result from air pollution at current levels. To investigate the evidence for such an association, we conducted a time-series study of infant mortality ...
Delcò F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: It has been speculated that environmental factors play a role in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. A previous analysis revealed that the time trends of ulcerative colitis in England were shaped by an underlying birth-cohort pattern. We undertook this study to test whether the birth-cohort pattern was a unique ...
Pollán M - - 1999
Log-linear Poisson mixed models were used to study provincial malignant brain tumour (MBT) mortality among children and adolescents in Spain (1975-1992) in order to investigate the influence of specific socio-economic factors and to produce smoothed estimators of standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). Interdependence between geographical units was taken into account by ...
Divine B J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns of mortality for specific causes of death with increases in the Texaco mortality study to determine if the patterns are related to employment in the petroleum industry. METHODS: Mortality patterns by duration of employment in various job groups were examined for mesothelioma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ...
Clark S J - - 1999
AIM: To compare mortality and respiratory morbidity in preterm infants born at 4 United Kingdom centers during 1994 and 1995. METHOD: Collection of CRIB scores, respiratory parameters and mortality rates from unit databases. RESULTS: Mortality in center A was 27% (actual number of deaths 36/135), in center B was 30% ...
Taylor S K - - 1999
Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) that died from January 1989 to June 1996 were submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (Laramie, Wyoming, USA) for postmortem evaluation. These consisted of 108 free-ranging toads and 170 animals from six captive populations. Ninety-seven (90%) of 108 free-ranging toad carcasses were submitted during September ...
Phillips D P - - 1999
This study investigated whether two widely publicized cases of deaths facilitated by physicians were followed by significant peaks in mortality. In March, 1991, Timothy Quill, MD, published a controversial editorial describing the physician-assisted suicide (PAS) of his 45-year-old, female leukemia patient. In a landmark decision in December 1990, the Missouri ...
Freeman S - - 1999
This article explores the connections between infant mortality, eugenic thinking, and the professional development of pediatricians and pediatric nurses in the early twentieth century. It argues that the goal of the physicians affiliated with Germany's National Hospital to Combat Infant Mortality was to create and disseminate a centrally-controlled message about ...
Lothian J A - - 1999
In answer to a reader's question, this column affirms that Lamaze preparation for birth is important and valuable.
Borja-Aburto V H - - 1998
++Epidemiologic studies have focused attention on the health effects of fine particulate air pollutants <2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5). To further characterize the potential effects of fine particles, we investigated the relationship of air pollution to mortality in Mexico City during 1993-1995. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured on a ...
Martikainen P T - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the effects of changes in unemployment rates of occupation groups on changes in mortality in a period of increasing unemployment. METHODS: Census records for all 20- to 64-year-old economically active Finnish men in 1985 were linked to information on unemployment and deaths in 1987 through 1993. ...
Wiley A S - - 1998
Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form ...
Koupilova I - - 1998
"This paper examines how neonatal mortality has changed in the Czech Republic during the [1990s], examining trends in the distribution of birth weights and in birth weight specific neonatal mortality. It examines how these have varied in different parts of the country and, to ascertain the scope for further improvement, ...
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