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Griffey Jack A F JA School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, - - 2014
Human preferences for facial attractiveness appear to emerge at an early stage during infant development. A number of studies have demonstrated that infants display a robust preference for facial attractiveness, preferring to look at physically attractive faces versus less attractive faces as judged by adults. However, to-date, relatively little is ...
Pueyo Victoria V Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain; Aragon Health Sciences Institute (IACS), Zaragoza, Spain; Aragon Health Sciences Institute (IACS), Zaragoza, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Visual cognitive functions of preverbal infants are evaluated by means of a behavioral assessment. Parents or primary caregivers may be appropriate to certify the acquisition of certain abilities. To develop the PreViAs (Preverbal Visual Assessment) questionnaire to assess visual behavior of infants under 24months of age and to assess the ...
McGlone Laura - - 2013
Flash visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were abnormal in a cohort of 100 neonates exposed to maintenance methadone in utero. This prospective cohort study now describes clinical visual and electrophysiological outcomes at 6 months. Visual assessment included modified Atkinson test battery; strabismus, nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, delayed visual maturation or refractive ...
Frank Michael C - - 2013
Newborn babies look preferentially at faces and face-like displays, yet over the course of their first year much changes about both the way infants process visual stimuli and how they allocate their attention to the social world. Despite this initial preference for faces in restricted contexts, the amount that infants ...
Atkinson Janette J Department of Developmental Science, University College London, London, - - 2013
We discuss hypotheses that link the measurements we can make with infants to inferences about their developing neural mechanisms. First, we examine evidence from the sensitivity to visual stimulus properties seen in infants' responses, using both electrophysiological measures (transient and steady-state recordings of visual evoked potentials/visual event-related potentials) and behavioral ...
Robertson Steven S - - 2013
Visual foraging is one important way that very young infants explore and learn about their environment. We recently showed that a simple stochastic dynamical model acts quantitatively like free-looking 1-month-old infants, even though it does not include any components that directly represent the perceptual-cognitive processes that operate on the input ...
Pinello Luisa - - 2013
To study causal links between the visual, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of premature babies who are small for gestational age (SGA). A cohort study of 17 SGA cases and 34 controls who were appropriate for gestational age (AGA) was carried out. The cases were all premature babies without any other ...
Chau Vann - - 2013
Considerable development of the visual system occurs in the third trimester of life, a time when very preterm-born infants are in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Their very early birth during a period of rapid and marked neurodevelopment and their clinical course makes them a very high-risk population. A ...
Elsabbagh Mayada M Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Quebec H3Z 1P2, Canada. - - 2013
Early emerging characteristics of visual orienting have been associated with a wide range of typical and atypical developmental outcomes. In the current study, we examined the development of visual disengagement in infants at risk for autism. We measured the efficiency of disengaging from a central visual stimulus to orient to ...
Durand Karine - - 2013
This study investigated whether an odor can affect infants' attention to visually presented objects and whether it can selectively direct visual gaze at visual targets as a function of their meaning. Four-month-old infants (nā€Š=ā€Š48) were exposed to their mother's body odors while their visual exploration was recorded with an eye-movement ...
Qawasmi Ahmad A Child Study Center and cDepartment of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. - - 2013
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are hypothesized to affect visual acuity development in infants. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to assess whether supplementation of LCPUFAs of infant formulas affects infant visual acuity. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate whether LCPUFA supplementation of infant formulas improves infants' visual acuity. ...
Carroll Kecia N - - 2012
Among infants with prematurity and/or chronic lung disease for whom respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis is recommended, we examined adherence in infants enrolled during healthcare visits for acute respiratory illness in 3 U.S. counties from 2001 to 2007. Immunoprophylaxis among infants who met national criteria for prophylaxis increased from 33% to ...
Molloy Carly - - 2012
Preterm children are at risk for a number of visual impairments which can be important for a range of other more complex visuocognitive tasks reliant on visual information. Despite the relatively high incidence of visual impairments in this group there are no good predictors that would allow early identification of ...
Diener Lara C - - 2012
Early infant HIV-1 diagnosis and treatment substantially improve survival. Where virologic HIV-1 testing is unavailable, integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) clinical algorithms may be used for infant HIV-1 screening. We evaluated the performance of the 2008 WHO IMCI HIV algorithm in a cohort of HIV-exposed Kenyan infants. From 1999 ...
Moerchen Victoria A - - 2012
This study examined infant treadmill stepping in two groups of pre-locomotor infants in response to terrestrial optic flow. The optic flow was provided via the treadmill belt for flow translation that was directionally consistent with the forward stepping of the infants. Twelve 2-5-month-old and twelve 7-10-month-old infants participated. Visual attention ...
Sacrey Lori-Ann R LA Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4, Canada. - - 2012
The reach-to-eat movement is a natural act in which an object or food item is grasped and brought to the mouth. It is one of the earliest forelimb behaviours displayed by human infants, who bring almost all grasped objects to the mouth, and is used daily by adults. In adults, ...
Palombi Leonardo - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on antiretroviral concentrations in women/infant pairs receiving prophylaxis for breastfeeding transmission of HIV and on the relationship between drug levels and the virological and haematochemistry parameters. METHODS: Patient population included HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis from gestational week 25 until 6 months after delivery ...
Dow Anna A Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7435, USA. - - 2012
The World Health Organization guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) for all HIV-exposed infants from age 6 weeks to the cessation of breastfeeding and the exclusion of HIV infection. There are limited data on the effects of CPT among this population of infants. We examined the effects of CPT on ...
McCollum Eric D ED Department of Pediatrics, Kamuzu Central Hospital, University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe, Malawi. - - 2012
Although the Malawian government recommends HIV-exposed infants receive early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV at "under-five" pediatric clinics (U5Cs), most never enroll. Therefore, we evaluated the integration of EID testing into an immunization clinic (IC) compared with the current standard of EID testing at an U5C. Prospective observational study. Using ...
Gutierrez Mavel - - 2012
Background. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in pregnancy in the United States, the time of seroreversion in infants born to HIV-infected mothers has not been documented. The objective of this study was to determine the timing of clearance ...
Minniear Timothy D - - 2012
We compared adverse events among breastfeeding neonates born to Kenyan mothers receiving triple-antiretroviral therapy including either nevirapine or nelfinavir. Nevirapine-exposed infants had an absolute increase in risk for rash but no significant risk differences for hepatotoxicity or high-risk hyperbilirubinemia compared with nelfinavir-exposed infants. From an infant-safety perspective, nevirapine-based regimens given ...
Kitchin Omolemo P - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: Acute severe pneumonia with respiratory failure in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -exposed infants carries a high mortality. Pneumocystis jiroveci is one cause, but other organisms have been suggested to play a role. Our objective is to describe the coinfections and treatment strategies in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected ...
Madlon-Kay Diane J - - 2012
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine clinician adherence to the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics guideline for phototherapy use in newborns; (2) to compare adherence to the guideline in 2 different hospitals; and (3) to determine whether adherence to the guideline improved after the phototherapy nomogram was ...
Lehman Dara A - - 2012
Resistance commonly arises in infants exposed to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother to child transmission. Although K103N and Y181C are common following sdNVP, multiple other mutations also confer NVP resistance. It remains unclear whether specific NVP resistance mutations or combinations of mutations predict virologic failure in infants when ...
Wamalwa Dalton - - 2012
Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted ...
Mutasa Kuda - - 2012
Among 453 untreated HIV-infected Zimbabwean infants, six-week viral load (VL) was the only infant factor that independently predicted mortality. Infants with VL≥1.59 million copies/mL (cohort median) had 3-fold increased mortality through 6 months [HR 3.07(95%CI 2.16, 4.38); P<0.001] and 2-fold increased mortality through 12 months [HR 2.03 (95% CI 1.41, ...
Nielsen-Saines Karin - - 2012
The safety and efficacy of adding antiretroviral drugs to standard zidovudine prophylaxis in infants of mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who did not receive antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of late identification are unclear. We evaluated three ART regimens in such infants. Within 48 hours after their birth, ...
Frederick Toni - - 2012
Background. Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), congenital CMV rates were higher among HIV-exposed infants compared to unexposed infants. This study examines congenital and perinatal/early postnatal (P/EP) CMV rates among HIVexposed infants before and after HAART.Methods. Infants born to HIV-infected women were evaluated for congenital CMV infection (CMV+ culture in the first ...
Ciampa Philip J - - 2012
Early infant diagnosis (EID) is the first step in HIV care, yet 75% of HIV-exposed infants born at 2 hospitals in Mozambique failed to access EID. Before/after study. Two district hospitals in rural Mozambique. HIV-infected mother/HIV-exposed infant pairs (n = 791). We planned 2 phases of improvement using quality improvement ...
Flax Valerie L - - 2012
The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study evaluated the effect of daily consumption of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) by 2121 lactating, HIV-infected mothers on the growth of their exclusively breast-fed, HIV-uninfected infants from 0 to 24 wk. The study had a 2 × 3 factorial design. Malawian mothers with CD4(+) ≥250 ...
Frank Monika - - 2012
Single-dose nevirapine for mothers and newborns at delivery is the simplest prevention strategy for vertical HIV-1 transmission and hence widely used in resource-constrained settings. HIV-1-positive mothers and newborns received single-dose nevirapine in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) program in Uganda. In a pharmacokinetic investigation, breast milk and plasma ...
Tuhina Imam - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:: HIV disease can lead to accelerated telomere attrition while certain drugs used as part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can inhibit telomerase reverse transcriptase activity. This could in turn lead to shorter telomeres. We hypothesized that HIV and ART exposure would be associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (TL) in ...
Dow Anna - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: The World Health Organization guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) for all HIV-exposed infants from age 6 weeks to the cessation of breastfeeding and the exclusion of HIV infection. There are limited data about the effects of CPT among this population of infants. We examined the effects of CPT ...
Slogrove Amy A Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa. - - 2012
HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher infectious morbidity than HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. We present the clinical outcomes from a pilot cohort study of 27 HEU and 28 HUU infants. In the absence of infant malnutrition or advanced maternal HIV, HEU infants experienced a 2.74 (0.85-8.78) times greater risk of ...
Chantry Caroline J - - 2012
Heat-treating expressed breastmilk is recommended as an interim feeding strategy for HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries, but data on its feasibility are minimal. Flash-heating (FH) is a simple in-home technique for heating breastmilk that inactivates HIV although preserving its nutritional and anti-infective properties. Our primary objective was to determine, among ...
Jamieson Denise J DJ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. - - 2012
In resource-limited settings where no safe alternative to breastfeeding exists, WHO recommends that antiretroviral prophylaxis be given to either HIV-infected mothers or infants throughout breastfeeding. We assessed the effect of 28 weeks of maternal or infant antiretroviral prophylaxis on postnatal HIV infection at 48 weeks. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition ...
Chokoe Mmaphuti Jackie - - 2012
Abstract Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. An association between HIV-positive maternal status and increased risk of NEC in preterm infants has been described and antiretroviral therapy has been proposed as an independent risk factor. Aim: ...
Drews-Botsch Carolyn D - - 2012
Little information is available on factors that predict adherence to patching in infants. We evaluated data from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for infants with unilateral congenital cataracts, to investigate factors associated with successful adherence to patching protocols. In the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, ...
Ndirangu James J Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. - - 2012
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is prevalent in many countries where small-for-gestational age (SGA) and premature delivery are also common. However, the associations between maternal HIV, preterm delivery and SGA infants remain unclear. We estimate the prevalence of SGA and preterm (<37 weeks) births, their associations with antenatal maternal HIV infection ...
Holgate Sandi L - - 2012
Because of serious adverse effects, the Food and Drug Administration warns against using lopinavir (LPV) in infants younger than 42 weeks post conception. However, there is an imperative for early treatment. We report on our use of LPV in 8 premature HIV-infected infants. The median age at initiation was 27days. ...
Grant Lindsay - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the viral etiology, through the use of molecular methods, of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), which is a considerable public health burden in Native American infants. STUDY DESIGN: From March 2002 through February 2004, AGE and non-diarrheal stools were collected from Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants who received ...
Pan Calvin Q - - 2012
Telbivudine reduces hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normalizes levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated its use in preventing vertical transmission. We performed an open-label, prospective study of 88 hepatitis B (HB) e antigen (HBeAg)-positive pregnant women with CHB, levels of HBV ...
Alcântara Keila Correia - - 2012
BACKGROUND: A high-coverage public health prenatal program (70,000 women/year) from central western Brazil/Goias State has represented a unique opportunity for the early diagnosis of HIV-1 and implementation of strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). OBJECTIVES: To investigate MTCT among a prospective cohort of HIV-1 infected mothers/exposed infants. STUDY DESIGN: 142 ...
Goga Ameena E - - 2012
We sought to investigate infant feeding practices amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers (0-9 months postpartum) and describe the association between infant feeding practices and HIV-free survival. Infant feeding data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted at three (of 18) purposively-selected routine South African PMTCT sites, 2002-2003, were analysed. Infant ...
Buxmann Horst - - 2012
Abstract Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the current prenatal "off-label use" of cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin (CMV-HIG) in the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection, including the long-term outcome of the children. Methods: This retrospective observational study comprised mothers and their children, born between January 1, ...
Alvarez-Uria Gerardo - - 2012
We describe a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV that provided universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all pregnant women regardless of the CD4 lymphocyte count and formula feeding for children with high risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding in a district of India. The overall rate ...
Muluye Dagnachew - - 2012
It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during ...
Kim Maria H - - 2012
Loss to follow-up is a major challenge in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme in Malawi with reported loss to follow-up of greater than 70%. Tingathe-PMTCT is a pilot intervention that utilizes dedicated community health workers (CHWs) to create a complete continuum of care within ...
Boily-Larouche Geneviève - - 2012
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main cause of HIV-1 infection in children worldwide. Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing-nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, also known as CD209) is an HIV-1 receptor that enhances its transmission to T cells and is expressed on placental macrophages. We have investigated the association between DC-SIGN genetic variants and risk ...
Gibb Diana M DM MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK. - - 2012
Few data have described long-term outcomes for infants born to HIV-infected African women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy. This is particularly true for World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended tenofovir-containing first-line regimens, which are increasingly used and known to cause renal and bone toxicities; concerns have been raised about potential toxicity ...
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