Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1339
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Faden Howard - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of adenovirus, type 30, in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational study. RESULTS: An outbreak of adenovirus infection occurred in an NICU. It lasted 6 months and involved 21 of 333 (6.3%) infants. The introduction of infection control ...
Thrusfield M - - 2005
The foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Dumfries and Galloway in south-west Scotland comprised 177 infected premises (IPS) in 24 geographical clusters, and ran from March 1 until May 23, 2001. Initial seeding of infection was by livestock (predominantly sheep) that had passed through Longtown Market in adjacent Cumbria. Thereafter, spread within ...
Worlein J M - - 2005
Lentivirus-infected nonhuman primates exhibit behavioral and neurological pathology similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected humans and offer a means to examine the effects of lentivirus infection while controlling for confounding factors inherent in human populations. The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive and motor development in infant macaques ...
Vela-Amieva Marcela - - 2005
Congenital toxoplasmosis is an obstetric problem in Mexico, but its actual frequency is unknown. Using a network for screening of non-infectious disorders, we performed a pilot study to determine the frequency of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 1,003 infants (53.1% male, mean +/- SD age = 18.3 +/- 13.0 ...
Hsiao Allen L - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Evaluation of a febrile infant or child for serious bacterial infections (SBI) can be a challenging task; there is no single reliable predictor of SBI in infants. This review examines some of the recent work evaluating the usefulness of indicators for SBI, such as white blood cell ...
Zar Heather J - - 2005
Neonatal chlamydial infection, which manifests principally as ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) or pneumonia, is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity. Widespread use of silver nitrate drops resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of gonococcal ophthalmia but had much less impact on the incidence of neonatal chlamydial infection. Chlamydia trachomatis ...
Kobayashi Kosuke - - 2005
We report on a 28-week infant with growth restriction starting after 23 weeks' gestation because of measles virus (MV) infection of the mother. Histological findings for the placenta revealed extensive fibrin deposition and necrosis of the villi, and MV antigen was demonstrated in the syncytiotrophoblast by immunostaining. The MV-specific IgM ...
Ayoola Omolola O - - 2005
In the tropics, febrile illnesses are often presumed to be due to malaria, because of its endemicity, and treatment can lead to delay in diagnosis or failure to detect severe infections such as bacteraemia. This study sought to determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and malaria parasitaemia in febrile post-neonatal infants ...
Doctor S - - 2005
AIM: To determine the incidence, timing and clinical significance of acquired postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) in extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. METHODS: Prospective, longitudinal surveillance study. ELBW infants were recruited in the first week of life. Maternal blood was tested for CMV-specific IgG antibodies. Weekly urine samples were obtained from infants for ...
Alonso Fernández J - - 2005
The role of the immune response in the severity of RSV infection was examined by determining plasma concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-2 receptor (sCD25) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFR-II) in 196, previously healthy infants, during acute and convalescence phases of primary RSV infection. The results ...
Pitrez P M C - - 2005
Wheezing associated with respiratory viral infections in infancy is very common and results in high morbidity worldwide. The Th1/Th2 pattern of immune response in these patients remains unclear and previous studies have shown controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the type of Th1/Th2 cytokine response ...
Bradford Russell D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The study sought to determine the relationship between cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia during early infancy and clinical and laboratory outcome events, particularly hearing loss in infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the central nervous system (CNS). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 147 infant patients were enrolled prospectively in 2 ...
Vargas Sergio L - - 2005
Fresh-frozen lung and tracheal-aspirate specimens obtained from 112 infants who died in Santiago, Chile, during 1998-2000 were analyzed for the presence of Pneumocystis DNA, by use of nested DNA amplification of the large subunit mitochondrial rRNA, and for the presence of viruses, by use of culture and immunofluorescence. Pneumocystis DNA ...
Ebihara Takashi - - 2004
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the major pathogens of respiratory illness. Reinfection with hMPV occurs frequently throughout life. We describe an infant who was infected with two different hMPV strains during a period of only 1 month.
Stoll Barbara J - - 2004
CONTEXT: Neonatal infections are frequent complications of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants receiving intensive care. OBJECTIVE: To determine if neonatal infections in ELBW infants are associated with increased risks of adverse neurodevelopmental and growth sequelae in early childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Infants weighing 401 to 1000 g at birth (born ...
Buffolano W - - 2004
The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of the measurement of Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity in the postnatal diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. IgG avidity values in serum samples from infants with congenital infection were compared with those in samples from uninfected infants, all born to ...
Freij Bishara J - - 2004
As many as 2,500 infants develop neonatal herpes each year, most of whom are born to women with no history or physical findings suggestive of genital herpes. Infection usually takes one of three forms: 1) disease localized to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, 2) localized central nervous system infection, or ...
Milisavljevic Vladana - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Serratia marcescens can cause serious infections in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), including sepsis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and conjunctivitis. We report the utility of genetic fingerprinting to identify, investigate, and control two distinct outbreaks of S. marcescens. DESIGN: An epidemiologic investigation was performed to control two ...
Abadesso C - - 2004
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a humanized respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) to control an outbreak of RSV in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we retrospectively analysed two RSV outbreaks. Between 11 November 1998 and 18 March 1999, two separate RSV outbreaks occurred in a ...
Jim Wai-Tim - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by breast milk from CMV-seropositive mothers to their breast-fed preterm infants and to evaluate their outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population comprised breast-fed preterm infants with a birth weight of <1,500 g and gestational age of <35 weeks. Venous ...
Sarvikivi Emmi - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To study clusters of infections caused by Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to determine risk factors for S. marcescens infection or colonization. DESIGN: Genotyping of S. marcescens isolates was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A retrospective case-control study was conducted. SETTING: A tertiary-care ...
Pessoa-Silva Carmem Lúcia - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among neonates. DESIGN: Prospective surveillance of HAIs was conducted during 2 years. Infections beginning within 48 hours of birth were defined as HAIs of maternal origin. Death occurring during an active episode of HAI was considered related to HAI. SETTING: Seven ...
Bass Dorsey - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine the morphology and motility of the distal small bowel of infants with rotavirus gastroenteritis using non-invasive/non-ionizing imaging technology. METHODS: Prospective, non-randomized observational study of five infants with symptomatic rotavirus infection. Infants were imaged by real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound within 5 days of onset of ...
Adjei Ohene - - 2004
Urinary tract infection (UTI) causes significant illness in the first 2 years of life. The diagnosis in most developing countries is often overlooked due to the tedious nature of obtaining urine from these young ones who would not void voluntarily. Misdiagnosis very often lead to avoidable ill health and long-term ...
Mifsud Albert J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence of early-onset group B streptococcal infection and to describe the antecedent maternal risk factors, in order to provide data to inform the design of interventional strategies that could be introduced in the UK to reduce the burden of this infection. DESIGN: A retrospective study with ...
Vancíková Z - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The use on ganciclovir for perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is controversial. We aim to evaluate the use of ganciclovir treatment for neonatal CMV hepatitis. METHODS: We present five infants with perinatally-acquired CMV hepatitis as a single organ manifestation of CMV infection. The three more severely affected children, i.e. those ...
Brown Zane - - 2004
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection can have severe consequences. Skin, eye and mouth infection is rarely fatal, but disseminated or central nervous system (CNS) disease has a mortality rate of 80% in the absence of therapy, and most surviving infants have neurological sequelae. Aciclovir therapy can improve the outcome ...
Yasui Hisako - - 2004
We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered ...
Cheong J L Y - - 2004
Sixteen cases of postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were identified in a neonatal intensive care unit population over a five year period. Eleven of these infants had gastrointestinal signs at the time of presentation. These ranged from minor and transient (abdominal distension and enteral feed intolerance) to severe and life threatening ...
Zabel Lutz Thomas - - 2004
Outbreaks of gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) can be life-threatening to pre-term infants, which are highly susceptible to serious infections with bacteria. Forty-two ventilated neonates in the NICU of the University Children's Hospital of Tuebingen were found to be colonized (n = 40) ...
Franz Axel R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal bacterial infections carry a high mortality when diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is difficult because initial clinical signs are nonspecific. Consequently, physicians frequently prescribe antibiotic treatment to newborn infants for fear of missing a life-threatening infection. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that a diagnostic algorithm that ...
Chawla R - - 2004
Chlamydia trachomatis is currently recognized as one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen and a major cause of perinatally acquired infection. Vertical transmission of infection from mother to the infant may result in the development of conjunctivitis and pneumonia. The study was conducted with the aim of determining the ...
Sánchez Andrés R - - 2004
In the past decade, there has been mounting scientific evidence suggesting that periodontal disease may play an important role as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. This article focuses on the definition, incidence, risk factors associated with preterm low birthweight infants (PLBW), the evidence linking chronic infections and PLBW, ...
Ng P C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of late onset (> 72 hours) infection and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants in two 36 month periods using two hand hygiene protocols: conventional handwashing (HW; first 36 month period); an alcohol hand rub and gloves technique (HR; second 36 month ...
Byington Carrie L - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The risk of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile infants who are classified as low risk (LR) or high risk (HR) by the Rochester criteria has been established. LR infants average a 1.4% occurrence of SBI, whereas HR infants have an occurrence of 21%. The occurrence of SBI in ...
Levine Deborah A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of young febrile infants is controversial, in part because it is unclear whether clinical evidence of a viral infection significantly reduces the risk of serious bacterial infections (SBIs). Specifically, it remains unclear whether the risk of SBI is altered in a meaningful way in the presence of ...
Kaufman David - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fungal infections are prevalent in very low birthweight (<1500 g) infants and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of the adherence factors, molecular diagnostics and risk factors for invasive fungal infection are important in treatment and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies have demonstrated ...
Petdachai Witaya - - 2004
A male infant was admitted because of fever. He was born at 37-weeks' gestation. His mother had experienced acute febrile illness with headache and myalgia. Her illness persisted with onset of active labor pain on day 5, which prompted cesarean section; postoperatively, the hematocrit decreased, requiring transfusion. The infant was ...
Rayyan M M Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2004
Apnoea is a common sign in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in young infants and can be the first presentation of an acquired RSV infection. We describe polysomnographic recordings of three infants revealing prolonged RSV-related apnoea before RSV infection was diagnosed. The apnoeas were of central origin. The caregivers had ...
Collinet P - - 2004
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) screening during pregnancy has been widely discussed for several years, but still no consensus has been agreed. With a number of live births of 750,000 per year in France, we would expect 7500 infected infants at birth per year (rate of congenital infection of 1%). Among infected infants ...
Prasitwattanaseree Sukon - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of zidovudine (ZDV) prophylaxis duration in mothers and infants on the age at which infection becomes detectable by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in non-breastfed infants. METHODS: Blood samples were collected sequentially from birth to 6 months in a Thailand perinatal HIV prevention trial in ...
Vollmer Brigitte - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants there is a high risk of transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) via breast milk from seropositive mothers with reactivation of the virus during lactation. There is little information about the long term sequel of early postnatally acquired CMV infection in pre-term infants. This study aimed to investigate ...
Wren S M E - - 2004
PURPOSE: To describe the presentation of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in a series of infants. METHODS: Immunocompromised infants with either HIV or systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) were examined for CMVR. Ocular involvement was recorded and monitored by digital imaging. RESULTS: Five infants were detected to have CMVR. All the infants demonstrated changes ...
Han Yiping W - - 2004
Fusobacterium nucleatum is a gram-negative anaerobe ubiquitous to the oral cavity. It is associated with periodontal disease. It is also associated with preterm birth and has been isolated from the amniotic fluid, placenta, and chorioamnionic membranes of women delivering prematurely. Periodontal disease is a newly recognized risk factor for preterm ...
Totet Anne - - 2004
To date, investigations of Pneumocystis jirovecii circulation in the human reservoir through the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus analysis have only been conducted by examining P. jirovecii isolates from immunosuppressed patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Our study identifies P. jirovecii genotypes at this locus in 33 immunocompetent infants colonized with P. ...
Gupta Archana - - 2004
BACKGROUND: From April to June 2001, an outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infections was investigated in our neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: Cultures of the gastrointestinal tracts of patients, the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs), and the environment were performed to detect potential reservoirs for ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. ...
Kohelet David - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vacuum extraction technique is associated with an increased risk of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in infants born to asymptomatic mothers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of all infants born at the Edith Wolfson Medical Center and admitted to the hospital's neonatal intensive care ...
Jenkins Alison L - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Inuit infants experience higher mortality and poorer health than other Canadian infants, and suffer disproportionately from bacterial and viral infections. A wide range of inter-related factors affect their health and susceptibility to infection. The objective of the study was to describe hospitalization and morbidity patterns in a cohort of ...
Genen Linda - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To determine if infections involving the placenta are associated with unexplained systemic illness in the newborn infant and subsequent poor neonatal outcome (death or significant neurodevelopmental abnormalities). STUDY DESIGN: Placental tissue from 33 newborn infants with systemic illness and poor neonatal outcome were tested by in situ hybridization or ...
Bryant Penelope A - - 2004
Ten neonates with coxsackie B viral infection presented over a 3-month period. Clinical features included meningoencephalitis, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, cardiomyopathy, and hepatitis. Eight infants had multiorgan disease, four with severe myocardial dysfunction, of whom two died. All of the infants with severe disease developed symptoms within 7 days of ...
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