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Results 251 - 300 of 1391
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Mittal Manoj K - - 2009
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the incidence of serious bacterial infection in infants presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an apparent life-threatening event. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants younger than 12 months who were treated at an urban children's hospital ED during 1 year and who ...
- - 2009
La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is a mosquitoborne bunyavirus of the California encephalitis serogroup. During 2003--2007, West Virginia had the greatest number of cases (95) and highest incidence of LACV disease (5.1 cases per 100,000 population) of any state.* The majority of persons infected with LACV either have no symptoms ...
Marshall Beth C - - 2009
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is very common throughout the world, and has become more of a pediatric clinical concern given the high incidence of congenital CMV infections as well as the increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Because of this, the need for antiviral therapies in infants and neonates is growing. Currently, ...
Figueiredo Sofia - - 2009
Endophthalmitis is an infection of the vitreous or aqueous humor of the eye. Although it rarely occurs in the neonatal period it has been previously diagnosed in preterm infants.Endogenous endophthalmitis is when eye infection is secondary to septicemia and represent 20% of the cases of endophthalmitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible ...
Takahashi Daijiro - - 2009
We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of ...
Diallo Fatoumata Binta - - 2009
This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45(th) and 270(th) days of the ...
Maruyama Yumiko - - 2009
CONCLUSION: Juzen-taiho-to (JTT, TJ-48), a Japanese herbal medicine that improves immune function, was found to be effective in otitis-prone in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of JTT against intractable and recurrent infections in immature immune systems, we administered JTT to otitis-prone infants and investigated clinical changes before and during ...
Armbrust Sven - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care ...
Haybaeck Johannes - - 2009
We report a case of rapidly progressive pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in a 2-month-old breastfed infant. Culture of cerebrospinal fluid was positive for Pasteurella multocida. No bite or scratch injury as site of entrance could be detected clinically or at autopsy, therefore aerogenic transmission in droplets from a household pet must ...
Diallo Fatoumata Binta - - 2009
This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45(th) and 270(th) days of the ...
Robinson Joan L - - 2009
There is limited information in the literature on the presentation and prognosis of candidal urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was a prospective cohort study performed in 13 Canadian NICUs. Infants with candidal UTI without extra-renal candidal infection at presentation were enrolled. ...
Jones Cheryl A - - 2009
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare but serious neonatal pathogen. Prior to the availability of antiviral drugs the mortality associated with all but localised neonatal infection was high, with 85% of infants with disseminated HSV infection and 50% of infants with encephalitis dying by one year of age. The ...
Bassler Dirk D Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2009
A count of 3 neonatal morbidities (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy of prematurity) strongly predict the risk of death or neurosensory impairment in extremely low birth weight infants who survive to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Neonatal infection has also been linked with later impairment. We examined whether the ...
Smith Candice K - - 2009
Varicella (chickenpox) in pregnancy is unusual because most women of childbearing age are immune. It can, however, cause significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and in rare cases cause congenital varicella syndrome. The incidence of congenital varicella syndrome after maternal varicella during the first two trimesters is <1% across multiple ...
Aminu M - - 2009
Intussusception (IS) is a form of intestinal obstruction in which a segment of the bowel prolapses into a more distal segment. Viral infections, mostly adenovirus, enteroviruses, human herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus are reported in 20-50% of childhood cases of IS. Between January and July 2004, six stool specimens collected from ...
Vendettuoli Valentina - - 2008
Candida surveillance cultures were obtained from 51 neonatal intensive care unit patients. Sixteen infants showing positive cultures developed subsequent Candida infection, whereas it did not occur for the 35 infants with negative cultures. Fifteen of 16 infants (<1000 g) had <27 weeks of gestational age. Antifungal treatment was started at ...
Ganesan K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm babies. Colonisation with Candida is a risk factor for systemic infection. A policy of oral nystatin prophylaxis was introduced in November 2000 with the aim of reducing the incidence of invasive fungaemia. AIM: To determine ...
Buxmann Horst - - 2009
AIM: To evaluate incidence, timing and clinical relevance of acquired human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in preterm infants. METHODS: The prospective longitudinal study included preterm infants </=31 weeks. Congenital HCMV infection was excluded by negative HCMV culture from urine or by HCMV-PCR-negative umbilical cord blood. Infants from HCMV-IgG-positive mothers received thawed ...
Reimerink J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The increase in incidence of atopic diseases (ADs) in the developed world over the past decades has been associated with reduced exposure of childhood infections. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between early intestinal viral infections in relation to the development of atopic symptoms (eczema, wheeze and atopic sensitization) in ...
Trip H F - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic procedures in infants presenting with febrile illness in the summer and fall of 2006. Infants younger than 90 days presenting with febrile illness were included. A sepsis evaluation was performed. Stool and/or cerebrospinal fluid were tested for enterovirus (polymerase chain ...
Schwartz S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability of "low-risk" criteria (LRC) to exclude serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile neonates (< or =28 days), according to age in weeks. DESIGN: Epidemiological and clinical data and final diagnosis of all febrile neonates presenting to the emergency room from June 1997 to May 2006 ...
Pinter David M - - 2009
Because of the increasing importance of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), including methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) in serious neonatal infections, we studied the contribution of perinatal maternal-infant transmission of SA to the colonization and infection of newborn infants. Cultures for SA, including MRSA, were obtained from nares and vagina of women in labor ...
Maroun Samara L C - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To report a case of vertical dengue infection in a newborn from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to review the literature concerning this problem. DESCRIPTION: We report a case of vertical dengue infection. Female neonate, birth weight 3,940 g, term, was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit on ...
Shim Yoon Hee - - 2009
Urinary tract infection (UTI) frequently recurs and increases the risk of renal scarring even in infants with normal urinary tracts. Our study was aimed to find preventive measures for recurrent UTI in these infants. One-hundred ninety infants, who were diagnosed with their first febrile UTI and were proven to have ...
Tapia German - - 2008
Parechoviruses are assumed to be common infectious agents, but their epidemiologic and pathogenic properties are not well known. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Parechovirus in Norwegian infants, as well as to investigate whether the presence of virus correlated with symptoms ...
Syridou Garyfallia - - 2008
There are previous indications that transplacental transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (PB19) and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) cause fetal infections, which may lead to fetal death. In a prospective case-control study we examined the incidence of these viruses in intrauterine fetal death and their association ...
Lafeber Harrie N - - 2008
In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal ...
Basu S - - 2008
A term newborn with severe congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is described. Fetal ascites was detected at 28 weeks gestation, and at birth there was tense ascites. There was intra-uterine growth retardation, microcephaly, chorioretinitis, jaundice, purpura and pneumonitis. Computed tomographic scan of the brain showed ventriculomegaly with periventricular calcifications. Serology was ...
Dar Lalit - - 2008
To determine the incidence and natural history of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a population of women with near universal serologic reactivity for CMV, a prospective study of 423 women attending the antenatal clinic of the Comprehensive Rural Health Center in northern India was conducted. All 9 (2.1%) CMV positive ...
Riffelmann Marion - - 2008
Pertussis is not just a childhood disease, but a respiratory infection that causes persistent cough in all age groups, from newborns to the elderly. The authors performed a selective literature search and reviewed national and international recommendations for treatment and vaccination. Pertussis is found principally in young unvaccinated infants, but ...
Liu Ji-Xian - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) are known to have impaired bladder function as demonstrated by urodynamic (UD) studies. UD is rarely performed in infants. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bladder function in infants with UTI using a dynamic US protocol. Maximal bladder volume (MaxBV), residual volume (RV) and bladder wall ...
DiCarlo Angela - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Eczema herpeticum is caused by herpes simplex infection of atopic dermatitis. The infection typically causes a vesiculopustular rash, but can disseminate and be life threatening. CASE: A primigravida with a history of eczema and hypogammaglobulinemia presented at 28 weeks of gestation with preterm labor, fever, and extensive rash. After ...
Olgun Nicole - - 2008
Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation, occurs in only 12% of all births, yet accounts for nearly half of long-term neurological morbidity, and 60%-80% of perinatal mortality. The single most common cause of PTB is intrauterine infection. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor ...
Dalben M - - 2008
Enterobacter cloacae has emerged as an important pathogen in neonatal units, with several outbreaks of infection being reported. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of sepsis due to E. cloacae in a neonatal unit and to review the literature. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in ...
Goedhals D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in infants has been associated with liver disease, the role of HCMV in infants presenting with prolonged neonatal jaundice is unclear as this clinical picture can be caused by a broad spectrum of underlying conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine a possible role ...
Skerratt Lee F - - 2008
Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the decline and extinction of frogs, but the distribution of Bd is not completely known. This information is crucial to implementing appropriate quarantine strategies, preparing for outbreaks of chytridiomycosis due to introduction of Bd, and for directing conservation actions ...
Mwangoka, Grace W
Abstract Background Although recent reports on congenital malaria suggest that the incidence is increasing, it is difficult to determine whether the clinical disease is due to parasites acquired before delivery or as a result of contamination by maternal blood at birth. Understanding of the method of parasite acquisition is important ...
Nakwan Narongsak - - 2008
Neonatal infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans is extremely rare. We report a case of a 21-day-old neonate diagnosed with cryptococcal septicemia who was successfully treated with amphotericin B. He was born to a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seronegative mother. This report alerts general pediatricians and neonatologists to consider Cryptococcus neoformans ...
Abdel-Hady H - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing (ESBL) Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Our objectives were to determine (1) the incidence of ESBL K. pneumoniae in our NICU, (2) the frequency of SHV-1 and SHV-2 gene acquisition among ESBL K. pneumoniae isolates, (3) ...
Kaufman David A - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Owing to the high mortality, risk of neurodevelopmental impairment and end-organ involvement with fungal infections in the neonate, prevention of invasive Candida infections in extremely preterm infants should be a priority for each neonatal ICU. RECENT FINDINGS: Even with prompt or empiric treatment, mortality and neurodevelopmental impairment ...
Phongsamart Wanatpreeya - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Vertical dengue virus transmissions have been infrequently described. To date there are no published data on long-term outcome and antibody kinetics of infants who were infected in utero. This is the first report of vertical dengue transmission with 12 months follow-up evolution of antibody and the clinical outcome. METHODS: ...
Das A - - 2008
Two cases of congenital tuberculosis are described. Case 1 presented at 12 days of age. The mother had been symptomatic for tuberculosis in the 1st trimester but was not diagnosed until her infant developed symptoms. The infant's gastric aspirate was acid-fast-bacilli (AFB)-positive and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive. PCR on the gastric ...
Ramani Sasirekha - - 2008
A distinct feature of neonatal rotavirus infection is the association of unusual strains that appear to be prevalent only in neonatal units and persist for long periods of time. The main aims of this study were to determine if rotavirus can be detected on environmental surfaces in the neonatal nursery ...
Boulouffe Caroline - - 2008
Cough is a frequent reason for ED consultation. When one considers the epidemiological data, whooping cough must be considered in the differential of subacute cough. Clinical symptomatology is slightly different in the adult and unvaccinated child. An infection by Bordetella pertussis should be suspected when the history shows a persistent ...
Xu Fujie - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and to assess the utility of surveillance methods for neonatal herpes in 2 managed care populations. METHODS: We identified potential cases using 15 discharge International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9) codes for neonatal HSV and ...
Al-Kindi Hussein - - 2008
Cyclic neutropenia is a congenital episodic defect in the development of neutrophils in the bone marrow. It is usually diagnosed late in infancy as it generally takes several cycles of neutropenia before the condition is suspected. These patients often have recurrent mild infectious episodes, but may develop life-threatening bacterial infections; ...
Nigro Giovanni G Pediatric Department, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy. - - 2008
To assess the effects of maternal and intra-amniotic hyperimmunoglobulin (HIG) infusions among cytomegalovirus (CMV) infected fetuses with ultrasound abnormalities following a primary CMV infection. The subjects were fetuses with CMV-associated cerebral and other ultrasound abnormalities. Three mothers were treated with HIG infusions during pregnancy and two were untreated. Fetal ventricle ...
Lépine A - - 2009
Nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units are a preoccupying issue. Bacillus sp. can be pathogenic in immuno-compromised hosts, including premature infants. Central catheters and mechanical ventilation are potential sources of infection. We report for the first time a case of Bacillus licheniformis bacteremia in a premature infant. Recovery necessitated ...
Fausto Maria Arlene - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate growth parameters assessed by weight and length in infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and followed from birth to 18 months. METHODS: A cohort consisting of ninety-seven uninfected and forty-two infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers enrolled from 1995 to 2004, and admitted during ...
Jartti T T Dept of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, P.O. Box 52, 20520 Turku, Finland. - - 2008
To better understand the viral aetiology of recurrent and prolonged illnesses, nasal secretions were prospectively collected from 285 infants at increased risk of developing asthma. Of these, 27 infants had recurrent (at least five) moderate-to-severe respiratory illnesses (MSIs). The viral aetiology of the 150 MSIs and 86 scheduled visits was ...
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