Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1354
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Shah Rahul K - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To describe mediastinitis in infants. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary-care, academic, pediatric hospital. SUBJECTS: Four infants managed during eight months. RESULTS: Patients were eight months (two patients), nine months, and 18 months old. They had retropharyngeal phlegmons and were started on clindamycin/cephalosporin. Interval imaging scans revealed abscess formation ...
Mullany Luke C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Few community-based data exist on the frequency of cord infection signs in low resource settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. We developed simple sign-based definitions of omphalitis and estimated incidence and risk factors for infection over a range of severity among neonates in Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania. METHODS: Infants' umbilical stump ...
Shebl Fatma M FM Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine or Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, - - 2009
Although persistent transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected mothers to their infants is reported in 4-8%, transient HCV perinatal infection also occurs. This prospective cohort study determined perinatal HCV infection- and early and late clearance-rates in 1,863 mother-infant pairs in rural Egyptian villages. This study found 15.7% and ...
Lohman-Payne B B Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. - - 2009
Infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life have a lower viral set-point and slower disease progression than infants infected before 1 month. We investigated the kinetics of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma in infants infected before 1 month of life compared with those infected ...
Yam Andrew Ow - - 2009
Aim:  To determine the incidence of sterile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis in infants ≤6 months old with urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods:  Retrospective study of children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital in 2006 and 2007 with UTI who also had a lumbar puncture performed. All urine specimens were tested for ...
Kuhn Pierre - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that prophylactic treatment of neutropenic premature neonates with recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rG-CSF) would reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections (NIs). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 25 neonatal intensive care units participated in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Premature infants of gestational age (GA) ...
Akanbi O M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of malaria infection on pregnant women and the birth weight of the infants in the south western Nigeria. SUBJECT: 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade-Oyo maternity hospital. 128 were primigravidae while 134 were multigravidae. METHODOLOGY: 2ml of blood was withdrawn from ...
Kawaguchi Chiharu - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Although clinical experience in neonates with candidiasis exists for amphotericin B and fluconazole, these standard treatments are often hindered by drug-associated toxicity or development of resistant strains. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a new antifungal agent, micafungin (MCFG), for ...
Sun Zhengrong - - 2009
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause symptomatic or asymptomatic infection in infants. One hundred and twenty-six infants were assessed clinically for disease in infantile period. Eighty of them were classified as symptomatic infection on the basis of physical, instrumental, and laboratory findings, 5 were demonstrated by following up to have later ...
Duran Ridvan - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Leukoerythroblastosis is characterized by the presence of leukocytosis and erythroid and myeloid blast cells in the peripheral blood. The most common etiological factors of leukoerythroblastosis occurring during early childhood are viral infections, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and osteopetrosis. To our knowledge, an association with parvovirus B19 infection has only been ...
Capretti Maria Grazia - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of post-natal cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants fed with their mother's fresh milk. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of 80 VLBW infants and their 68 mothers. Infants' urine and their own mother's fresh breast milk were tested for CMV by ...
Valamparampil Joseph J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical manifestations of Chikungunya infection in infants. METHODS: The inclusion criteria was fever (defined as axillary temperature > 99.6 degrees F) with any one of the following features; seizure, loose stools, peripheral cyanosis, skin manifestations or pedal edema in children less than one year. Details of ...
Koch Laine H - - 2009
Cutaneous manifestations of congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been classically described as grouped vesicles on an erythematous base. We report two cases of HSV infection wherein both infants presented at birth with widespread erosions and an absence of vesicles or vesicopustules. The presence of skin lesions at birth, neurologic ...
Mittal Manoj K - - 2009
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the incidence of serious bacterial infection in infants presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an apparent life-threatening event. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants younger than 12 months who were treated at an urban children's hospital ED during 1 year and who ...
- - 2009
La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is a mosquitoborne bunyavirus of the California encephalitis serogroup. During 2003--2007, West Virginia had the greatest number of cases (95) and highest incidence of LACV disease (5.1 cases per 100,000 population) of any state.* The majority of persons infected with LACV either have no symptoms ...
Marshall Beth C - - 2009
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is very common throughout the world, and has become more of a pediatric clinical concern given the high incidence of congenital CMV infections as well as the increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Because of this, the need for antiviral therapies in infants and neonates is growing. Currently, ...
Figueiredo Sofia - - 2009
Endophthalmitis is an infection of the vitreous or aqueous humor of the eye. Although it rarely occurs in the neonatal period it has been previously diagnosed in preterm infants.Endogenous endophthalmitis is when eye infection is secondary to septicemia and represent 20% of the cases of endophthalmitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible ...
Takahashi Daijiro - - 2009
We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of ...
Diallo Fatoumata Binta - - 2009
This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45(th) and 270(th) days of the ...
Maruyama Yumiko - - 2009
CONCLUSION: Juzen-taiho-to (JTT, TJ-48), a Japanese herbal medicine that improves immune function, was found to be effective in otitis-prone in children. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of JTT against intractable and recurrent infections in immature immune systems, we administered JTT to otitis-prone infants and investigated clinical changes before and during ...
Armbrust Sven - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Norovirus is an important cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in all ages. Atypical courses are described. Clinical symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps, fever and malaise. Apart from three recent short reports we describe for the first time an outbreak of norovirus in a tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care ...
Haybaeck Johannes - - 2009
We report a case of rapidly progressive pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in a 2-month-old breastfed infant. Culture of cerebrospinal fluid was positive for Pasteurella multocida. No bite or scratch injury as site of entrance could be detected clinically or at autopsy, therefore aerogenic transmission in droplets from a household pet must ...
Diallo Fatoumata Binta - - 2009
This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45(th) and 270(th) days of the ...
Robinson Joan L - - 2009
There is limited information in the literature on the presentation and prognosis of candidal urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was a prospective cohort study performed in 13 Canadian NICUs. Infants with candidal UTI without extra-renal candidal infection at presentation were enrolled. ...
Jones Cheryl A - - 2009
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare but serious neonatal pathogen. Prior to the availability of antiviral drugs the mortality associated with all but localised neonatal infection was high, with 85% of infants with disseminated HSV infection and 50% of infants with encephalitis dying by one year of age. The ...
Bassler Dirk D Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 2009
A count of 3 neonatal morbidities (bronchopulmonary dysplasia, brain injury, and severe retinopathy of prematurity) strongly predict the risk of death or neurosensory impairment in extremely low birth weight infants who survive to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. Neonatal infection has also been linked with later impairment. We examined whether the ...
Smith Candice K - - 2009
Varicella (chickenpox) in pregnancy is unusual because most women of childbearing age are immune. It can, however, cause significant morbidity for the pregnant woman and in rare cases cause congenital varicella syndrome. The incidence of congenital varicella syndrome after maternal varicella during the first two trimesters is <1% across multiple ...
Aminu M - - 2009
Intussusception (IS) is a form of intestinal obstruction in which a segment of the bowel prolapses into a more distal segment. Viral infections, mostly adenovirus, enteroviruses, human herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus are reported in 20-50% of childhood cases of IS. Between January and July 2004, six stool specimens collected from ...
Vendettuoli Valentina - - 2008
Candida surveillance cultures were obtained from 51 neonatal intensive care unit patients. Sixteen infants showing positive cultures developed subsequent Candida infection, whereas it did not occur for the 35 infants with negative cultures. Fifteen of 16 infants (<1000 g) had <27 weeks of gestational age. Antifungal treatment was started at ...
Ganesan K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm babies. Colonisation with Candida is a risk factor for systemic infection. A policy of oral nystatin prophylaxis was introduced in November 2000 with the aim of reducing the incidence of invasive fungaemia. AIM: To determine ...
Buxmann Horst - - 2009
AIM: To evaluate incidence, timing and clinical relevance of acquired human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in preterm infants. METHODS: The prospective longitudinal study included preterm infants </=31 weeks. Congenital HCMV infection was excluded by negative HCMV culture from urine or by HCMV-PCR-negative umbilical cord blood. Infants from HCMV-IgG-positive mothers received thawed ...
Reimerink J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The increase in incidence of atopic diseases (ADs) in the developed world over the past decades has been associated with reduced exposure of childhood infections. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between early intestinal viral infections in relation to the development of atopic symptoms (eczema, wheeze and atopic sensitization) in ...
Trip H F - - 2009
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic procedures in infants presenting with febrile illness in the summer and fall of 2006. Infants younger than 90 days presenting with febrile illness were included. A sepsis evaluation was performed. Stool and/or cerebrospinal fluid were tested for enterovirus (polymerase chain ...
Schwartz S - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability of "low-risk" criteria (LRC) to exclude serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile neonates (< or =28 days), according to age in weeks. DESIGN: Epidemiological and clinical data and final diagnosis of all febrile neonates presenting to the emergency room from June 1997 to May 2006 ...
Pinter David M - - 2009
Because of the increasing importance of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), including methicillin-resistant SA (MRSA) in serious neonatal infections, we studied the contribution of perinatal maternal-infant transmission of SA to the colonization and infection of newborn infants. Cultures for SA, including MRSA, were obtained from nares and vagina of women in labor ...
Maroun Samara L C - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To report a case of vertical dengue infection in a newborn from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to review the literature concerning this problem. DESCRIPTION: We report a case of vertical dengue infection. Female neonate, birth weight 3,940 g, term, was admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit on ...
Shim Yoon Hee - - 2009
Urinary tract infection (UTI) frequently recurs and increases the risk of renal scarring even in infants with normal urinary tracts. Our study was aimed to find preventive measures for recurrent UTI in these infants. One-hundred ninety infants, who were diagnosed with their first febrile UTI and were proven to have ...
Tapia German - - 2008
Parechoviruses are assumed to be common infectious agents, but their epidemiologic and pathogenic properties are not well known. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Parechovirus in Norwegian infants, as well as to investigate whether the presence of virus correlated with symptoms ...
Syridou Garyfallia - - 2008
There are previous indications that transplacental transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (PB19) and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) cause fetal infections, which may lead to fetal death. In a prospective case-control study we examined the incidence of these viruses in intrauterine fetal death and their association ...
Lafeber Harrie N - - 2008
In contrast with clinical studies in term infants or older children, it is very difficult to investigate possible immunoregulatory effects of a novel infant formula composition in preterm infants. This is mainly because of the multicausal origin of infections in this high-risk population that is usually admitted to the neonatal ...
Basu S - - 2008
A term newborn with severe congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is described. Fetal ascites was detected at 28 weeks gestation, and at birth there was tense ascites. There was intra-uterine growth retardation, microcephaly, chorioretinitis, jaundice, purpura and pneumonitis. Computed tomographic scan of the brain showed ventriculomegaly with periventricular calcifications. Serology was ...
Dar Lalit - - 2008
To determine the incidence and natural history of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a population of women with near universal serologic reactivity for CMV, a prospective study of 423 women attending the antenatal clinic of the Comprehensive Rural Health Center in northern India was conducted. All 9 (2.1%) CMV positive ...
Riffelmann Marion - - 2008
Pertussis is not just a childhood disease, but a respiratory infection that causes persistent cough in all age groups, from newborns to the elderly. The authors performed a selective literature search and reviewed national and international recommendations for treatment and vaccination. Pertussis is found principally in young unvaccinated infants, but ...
Liu Ji-Xian - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) are known to have impaired bladder function as demonstrated by urodynamic (UD) studies. UD is rarely performed in infants. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bladder function in infants with UTI using a dynamic US protocol. Maximal bladder volume (MaxBV), residual volume (RV) and bladder wall ...
DiCarlo Angela - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Eczema herpeticum is caused by herpes simplex infection of atopic dermatitis. The infection typically causes a vesiculopustular rash, but can disseminate and be life threatening. CASE: A primigravida with a history of eczema and hypogammaglobulinemia presented at 28 weeks of gestation with preterm labor, fever, and extensive rash. After ...
Olgun Nicole - - 2008
Preterm birth (PTB), defined as any birth occurring before 37 weeks of gestation, occurs in only 12% of all births, yet accounts for nearly half of long-term neurological morbidity, and 60%-80% of perinatal mortality. The single most common cause of PTB is intrauterine infection. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor ...
Dalben M - - 2008
Enterobacter cloacae has emerged as an important pathogen in neonatal units, with several outbreaks of infection being reported. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of sepsis due to E. cloacae in a neonatal unit and to review the literature. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in ...
Goedhals D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in infants has been associated with liver disease, the role of HCMV in infants presenting with prolonged neonatal jaundice is unclear as this clinical picture can be caused by a broad spectrum of underlying conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine a possible role ...
Skerratt Lee F - - 2008
Spread of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused the decline and extinction of frogs, but the distribution of Bd is not completely known. This information is crucial to implementing appropriate quarantine strategies, preparing for outbreaks of chytridiomycosis due to introduction of Bd, and for directing conservation actions ...
Mwangoka, Grace W
Abstract Background Although recent reports on congenital malaria suggest that the incidence is increasing, it is difficult to determine whether the clinical disease is due to parasites acquired before delivery or as a result of contamination by maternal blood at birth. Understanding of the method of parasite acquisition is important ...
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