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Bendelja Kreso - - 2010
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are part of the innate immune system, able to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate immune system upon pathogen challenge. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a RNA virus particularly detrimental in infancy. It could cause severe lower respiratory tract disease and recurrent infections related to inadequate development ...
Gage Timothy B - - 2010
It has been hypothesized that birth weight is not on the causal pathway to infant mortality, at least among "normal" births (i.e. those located in the central part of the birth weight distribution), and that US racial disparities (African American versus European American) may be underestimated. Here these hypotheses are ...
Westerbeek Elisabeth Am - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Serious infectious morbidity is high in preterm infants. Enteral supplementation of prebiotics may reduce the incidence of serious infections, especially infections related to the gastrointestinal tract. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effect of enteral supplementation of a prebiotic mixture consisting of neutral oligosaccharides ((SC)GOS/(LC)FOS) and acidic oligosaccharides ...
Chau Tran Nguyen Bich - - 2009
Dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur in primary dengue virus (DENV) infection of infants. The decay of maternally derived DENV immunoglobulin (Ig) G and the incidence of DENV infection were determined in a prospectively studied cohort of 1244 Vietnamese infants. Higher concentrations of total IgG and DENV-reactive IgG were found in ...
Adler Amos - - 2010
There are few data about the epidemiology of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) among children in Israel. This study was intended to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA colonization in healthy infants, to characterize the molecular features of colonizing organisms, and to determine whether they are responsible for health care-associated (HA) ...
Kumagai Hideki - - 2009
We report the first documented case of pancreatitis associated with rotavirus infection in an infant. Estimation of amylase level is important in infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, hyperamylasemia should alert one to the presence of overt pancreatitis which should be investigated by lipase estimation and/or imaging.
Bern Caryn - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We conducted a study of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Our objective was to apply new tools to identify weak points in current screening algorithms, and find ways to improve them. METHODS: Women presenting for delivery were screened by rapid and conventional serological tests. For infants ...
Choi K Yeon - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Up to 15% of infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection will experience some degree of sensorineural hearing loss. Many infants who fail newborn hearing screening (NHS) are likely to have congenital CMV infection, but may escape definitive virologic identification because diagnostic evaluation may not commence until several weeks ...
Chen Hsiu-Lin - - 2009
Early diagnosis of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in febrile young infants based on clinical symptoms and signs is difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic values of circulating chemokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in febrile young infants < 3 months of age with suspected SBI. We enrolled 43 ...
de Jong E P - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Congenital infections are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, including lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV). OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between LSV and congenital infections, as diagnosed by TORCH serology and viral culture for cytomegalovirus (CMV). METHODS: All neonates with LSV admitted to our neonatal intensive-care unit from 2004 ...
Tardivo S - - 2009
Pneumococcus is considered one of the main causes of the infections acquired in the community setting and also seems to be the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age. To establish suitable preventive measures as vaccination policy, it would be important to document the ...
Bahl Rajiv - - 2009
BACKGROUND: A rotavirus vaccine previously licensed in the United States was withdrawn because it caused intussusception. Data on background intussusception rates in developing countries are required to plan pre- and postlicensure safety studies for new rotavirus vaccines. Also, it is unclear whether natural rotavirus infection is associated with intussusception. METHODS: ...
Shan Ruobing - - 2009
To observe changes in audiology, intellectual development, behavior development, and physical growth during systematic follow-up of infants with asymptomatic congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Fifty-two infants diagnosed with asymptomatic congenital HCMV infection from July 2003 to July 2007 served as the infection group, and 21 healthy infants served as the ...
Kormanik K - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Controlled removal of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by serial tapping of ventricular reservoir, such as the McComb reservoir, is an effective way to decompress the ventricular system in preterm infants with rapidly progressing post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) while awaiting optimal conditions for permanent CSF drainage through a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. However, ...
Nowell L - - 2010
Our aim was to determine the incidence of anatomical abnormalities after a urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants <2 months of age hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study of infants <2 months of age in the NICU with a UTI and ...
Chen Chun-Jen - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to construct a model for predicting the risk of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile infants. METHODS: A total of 135 febrile infants younger than 3 months of age who met the inclusion criteria were assessed on the following: physical appearance, complete blood ...
Weidlich Kathrin - - 2009
In adults with severe sepsis, the disturbances of the sublingual microcirculation can be quantified with orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. We investigated the cutaneous microcirculation of preterm infants with proven infection (PosInf) and with suspected but unproven infection (NegInf). In 25 infants, orthogonal polarization spectral images were obtained daily, videos of ...
Libraty Daniel H - - 2009
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is the severe and life-threatening syndrome that can develop after infection with any one of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. DHF occurs almost exclusively in individuals with secondary heterologous DENV infections and infants with primary DENV infections born to dengue immune mothers. The widely accepted ...
Druggan Patrick - - 2009
Enterobacter sakazakii is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae and has been implicated in causing necrotising enterocolitis, as well as bacteraemia and meningitis in infants. In some cases, the infection has been linked to ingestion of infant formula milk (IFM) that has not been terminally sterilised. The nomenclature of E. sakazakii ...
Mitrano Jennifer A - - 2009
Community-acquired strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a common cause of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. These infections sometimes require treatment with antibiotics, and with the increasing resistance of pathogens to these agents, choosing the appropriate drug can be difficult. In lactating women who ...
Haase Roland - - 2009
Candida infections are a major cause of fungal septicemia in neonates and are associated with marked morbidity and mortality. Despite the spectrum of antifungal drugs being dramatically extended during the last decade, invasive fungal infections remain a serious challenge for neonatologists. Amphotericin B and its lipid formulations are the drugs ...
Camlar Secil Arslansoyu - - 2009
Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of subacute, afebrile pneumonia with onset from 1 to 3 months of age. On physical examination, crepitant inspiratory rales are commonly heard. Infiltration is usually bilateral and interstitial; reticulonodular pattern and atelectasis have also been described, which distinct the disease from miliary tuberculosis. We ...
Calvo Cristina - - 2009
To assess whether infants hospitalized after an apparently life-threatening event had an associated respiratory virus infection, we analyzed nasopharyngeal aspirates from 16 patients. Nine of 11 infants with positive virus results were infected by rhinoviruses. We detected the new genogroup of rhinovirus C in 6 aspirates.
Carey A J AJ Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2010
To assess the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A retrospective chart review was conducted from 2000-2007; demographic and clinical characteristics of infected infants and crude mortality were assessed. During the study period, there were 123 infections ...
Qian Ji-hong - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypogammaglobulinemia is common in infant humoral immunodeficiencies and has complicated causes and outcomes. We aimed to determine the clinical manifestations, immunological changes and outcomes of Shanghai infants with hypogammaglobulinemia. METHODS: Patients under 2 years old, having one or more warning signs of primary immunodeficiency disorders, serum immunoglobulin levels below ...
Mussi-Pinhata Marisa M MM Department of Pediatrics, University of São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, 14049-900, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. - - 2009
The natural history of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is scarcely known in populations with high maternal CMV seroprevalence. This study evaluated the birth prevalence, clinical findings at birth, and hearing outcome in CMV-infected children from such a population. Consecutively born infants were screened for the presence of CMV in urine ...
Nagaty Ibraheim M - - 2009
Congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection may lead to abortion, stillbirth, neonatal death as well as severe congenital toxoplasmosis in the newborn infants. No doubt, early and proper diagnosis of infection pregnant women or her baby pave the way to effective treatment and minimize complications. In this study; the PCR and ELISA-IgM ...
Reij M W - - 2009
Cronobacter spp. has been responsible for severe infections in infants. Relative risks associated with this organism in powdered infant formula (PIF) have been described in several studies. To set priorities and decide on risk management options, it is important for risk managers to have a quantitative perspective on the absolute ...
Mewara Abhishek - - 2009
The clinical manifestations in cytomegalovirus infected-infants vary from asymptomatic illness to highly fatal cytomegalic inclusion disease. The influence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains on the outcome of HCMV disease is poorly explored. The present study was undertaken to explore the role of gB genotypes with clinical features in infants with ...
Krief William I - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the risk of SBIs in febrile infants with influenza virus infections and compare this risk with that of febrile infants without influenza infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, cross-sectional study during 3 consecutive influenza seasons. All febrile infants <or=60 days of age ...
Gombojav N - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To investigate potentially modifiable factors associated with carers' recognition of symptoms and timely presentation of infants with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in urban Mongolia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study nested in a randomised controlled trial of infant swaddling. Data were collected on social, educational and childcare variables and all ...
Patted Suresh V - - 2009
The prevalence of fungal infections in newborns and small infants is on the rise consequent to the improved care and survival of preterm babies. Most of these premature infants are immunocompromised and subjected to invasive monitoring and therapy in neonatal intensive care units making them susceptible to nosocomial infections. We ...
Dey Shuvra Kanti - - 2009
This study investigated the prevalence of group A, B, and C rotavirus (RAV, RBV, RCV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections in infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan from July 2006 to June 2007. A total of 628 fecal specimens collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in five ...
Poespoprodjo Jeanne R - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In areas where malaria is endemic, infants aged <3 months appear to be relatively protected from symptomatic and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but less is known about the effect of Plasmodium vivax infection in this age group. METHODS: To define malaria morbidity in the first year of life in ...
Shah Rahul K - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To describe mediastinitis in infants. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary-care, academic, pediatric hospital. SUBJECTS: Four infants managed during eight months. RESULTS: Patients were eight months (two patients), nine months, and 18 months old. They had retropharyngeal phlegmons and were started on clindamycin/cephalosporin. Interval imaging scans revealed abscess formation ...
Mullany Luke C - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Few community-based data exist on the frequency of cord infection signs in low resource settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. We developed simple sign-based definitions of omphalitis and estimated incidence and risk factors for infection over a range of severity among neonates in Pemba, Zanzibar, Tanzania. METHODS: Infants' umbilical stump ...
Shebl Fatma M - - 2009
Although persistent transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from infected mothers to their infants is reported in 4-8%, transient HCV perinatal infection also occurs. This prospective cohort study determined perinatal HCV infection- and early and late clearance-rates in 1,863 mother-infant pairs in rural Egyptian villages. This study found 15.7% and ...
Lohman-Payne B B Department of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. - - 2009
Infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life have a lower viral set-point and slower disease progression than infants infected before 1 month. We investigated the kinetics of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocyte secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma in infants infected before 1 month of life compared with those infected ...
Yam Andrew Ow - - 2009
Aim:  To determine the incidence of sterile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis in infants ≤6 months old with urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods:  Retrospective study of children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital in 2006 and 2007 with UTI who also had a lumbar puncture performed. All urine specimens were tested for ...
Kuhn Pierre - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that prophylactic treatment of neutropenic premature neonates with recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rG-CSF) would reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections (NIs). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 25 neonatal intensive care units participated in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Premature infants of gestational age (GA) ...
Akanbi O M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of malaria infection on pregnant women and the birth weight of the infants in the south western Nigeria. SUBJECT: 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade-Oyo maternity hospital. 128 were primigravidae while 134 were multigravidae. METHODOLOGY: 2ml of blood was withdrawn from ...
Kawaguchi Chiharu - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Although clinical experience in neonates with candidiasis exists for amphotericin B and fluconazole, these standard treatments are often hindered by drug-associated toxicity or development of resistant strains. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a new antifungal agent, micafungin (MCFG), for ...
Sun Zhengrong - - 2009
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause symptomatic or asymptomatic infection in infants. One hundred and twenty-six infants were assessed clinically for disease in infantile period. Eighty of them were classified as symptomatic infection on the basis of physical, instrumental, and laboratory findings, 5 were demonstrated by following up to have later ...
Duran Ridvan - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Leukoerythroblastosis is characterized by the presence of leukocytosis and erythroid and myeloid blast cells in the peripheral blood. The most common etiological factors of leukoerythroblastosis occurring during early childhood are viral infections, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, and osteopetrosis. To our knowledge, an association with parvovirus B19 infection has only been ...
Capretti Maria Grazia - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of post-natal cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants fed with their mother's fresh milk. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational study of 80 VLBW infants and their 68 mothers. Infants' urine and their own mother's fresh breast milk were tested for CMV by ...
Valamparampil Joseph J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical manifestations of Chikungunya infection in infants. METHODS: The inclusion criteria was fever (defined as axillary temperature > 99.6 degrees F) with any one of the following features; seizure, loose stools, peripheral cyanosis, skin manifestations or pedal edema in children less than one year. Details of ...
Koch Laine H - - 2009
Cutaneous manifestations of congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been classically described as grouped vesicles on an erythematous base. We report two cases of HSV infection wherein both infants presented at birth with widespread erosions and an absence of vesicles or vesicopustules. The presence of skin lesions at birth, neurologic ...
Mittal Manoj K - - 2009
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the incidence of serious bacterial infection in infants presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an apparent life-threatening event. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants younger than 12 months who were treated at an urban children's hospital ED during 1 year and who ...
- - 2009
La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is a mosquitoborne bunyavirus of the California encephalitis serogroup. During 2003--2007, West Virginia had the greatest number of cases (95) and highest incidence of LACV disease (5.1 cases per 100,000 population) of any state.* The majority of persons infected with LACV either have no symptoms ...
Marshall Beth C - - 2009
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is very common throughout the world, and has become more of a pediatric clinical concern given the high incidence of congenital CMV infections as well as the increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients. Because of this, the need for antiviral therapies in infants and neonates is growing. Currently, ...
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