Search Results
Results 51 - 100 of 1367
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Kitchin Omolemo P - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:: Acute severe pneumonia with respiratory failure in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -exposed infants carries a high mortality. Pneumocystis jiroveci is one cause, but other organisms have been suggested to play a role. Our objective is to describe the coinfections and treatment strategies in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected ...
Madlon-Kay Diane J - - 2012
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine clinician adherence to the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics guideline for phototherapy use in newborns; (2) to compare adherence to the guideline in 2 different hospitals; and (3) to determine whether adherence to the guideline improved after the phototherapy nomogram was ...
Wamalwa Dalton - - 2012
Late presentation is common among African HIV-1-infected infants. Incidence and correlates of mortality were examined in 99 infants with HIV-1 diagnosis by 5 months of age. Twelve-month survival was 66.8% (95% confidence interval: 55.9-75.6%). World Health Organization stage 3 or 4, underweight, wasting, microcephaly, low hemoglobin, pneumonia and gastroenteritis predicted ...
Lehman Dara A DA Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, - - 2012
Resistance commonly arises in infants exposed to single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) for prevention of mother to child transmission. Although K103N and Y181C are common following sdNVP, multiple other mutations also confer NVP resistance. It remains unclear whether specific NVP resistance mutations or combinations of mutations predict virologic failure in infants when ...
Mutasa Kuda - - 2012
Among 453 untreated HIV-infected Zimbabwean infants, six-week viral load (VL) was the only infant factor that independently predicted mortality. Infants with VL≥1.59 million copies/mL (cohort median) had 3-fold increased mortality through 6 months [HR 3.07(95%CI 2.16, 4.38); P<0.001] and 2-fold increased mortality through 12 months [HR 2.03 (95% CI 1.41, ...
Nielsen-Saines Karin - - 2012
The safety and efficacy of adding antiretroviral drugs to standard zidovudine prophylaxis in infants of mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who did not receive antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of late identification are unclear. We evaluated three ART regimens in such infants. Within 48 hours after their birth, ...
Frederick Toni - - 2012
Background. Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), congenital CMV rates were higher among HIV-exposed infants compared to unexposed infants. This study examines congenital and perinatal/early postnatal (P/EP) CMV rates among HIVexposed infants before and after HAART.Methods. Infants born to HIV-infected women were evaluated for congenital CMV infection (CMV+ culture in the first ...
Ciampa Philip J PJ Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. - - 2012
Early infant diagnosis (EID) is the first step in HIV care, yet 75% of HIV-exposed infants born at 2 hospitals in Mozambique failed to access EID. Before/after study. Two district hospitals in rural Mozambique. HIV-infected mother/HIV-exposed infant pairs (n = 791). We planned 2 phases of improvement using quality improvement ...
Flax Valerie L - - 2012
The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study evaluated the effect of daily consumption of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) by 2121 lactating, HIV-infected mothers on the growth of their exclusively breast-fed, HIV-uninfected infants from 0 to 24 wk. The study had a 2 × 3 factorial design. Malawian mothers with CD4(+) ≥250 ...
Niknajad Akram A MSc, Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, - - 2012
Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization ...
Frank Monika - - 2012
Single-dose nevirapine for mothers and newborns at delivery is the simplest prevention strategy for vertical HIV-1 transmission and hence widely used in resource-constrained settings. HIV-1-positive mothers and newborns received single-dose nevirapine in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (PMTCT) program in Uganda. In a pharmacokinetic investigation, breast milk and plasma ...
Tuhina Imam - - 2012
OBJECTIVES:: HIV disease can lead to accelerated telomere attrition while certain drugs used as part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) can inhibit telomerase reverse transcriptase activity. This could in turn lead to shorter telomeres. We hypothesized that HIV and ART exposure would be associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length (TL) in ...
Dow Anna - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: The World Health Organization guidelines recommend cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) for all HIV-exposed infants from age 6 weeks to the cessation of breastfeeding and the exclusion of HIV infection. There are limited data about the effects of CPT among this population of infants. We examined the effects of CPT ...
Slogrove Amy A Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa. - - 2012
HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher infectious morbidity than HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants. We present the clinical outcomes from a pilot cohort study of 27 HEU and 28 HUU infants. In the absence of infant malnutrition or advanced maternal HIV, HEU infants experienced a 2.74 (0.85-8.78) times greater risk of ...
Chantry Caroline J - - 2012
Heat-treating expressed breastmilk is recommended as an interim feeding strategy for HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries, but data on its feasibility are minimal. Flash-heating (FH) is a simple in-home technique for heating breastmilk that inactivates HIV although preserving its nutritional and anti-infective properties. Our primary objective was to determine, among ...
Jamieson Denise J DJ US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. - - 2012
In resource-limited settings where no safe alternative to breastfeeding exists, WHO recommends that antiretroviral prophylaxis be given to either HIV-infected mothers or infants throughout breastfeeding. We assessed the effect of 28 weeks of maternal or infant antiretroviral prophylaxis on postnatal HIV infection at 48 weeks. The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition ...
Chokoe Mmaphuti Jackie - - 2012
Abstract Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. An association between HIV-positive maternal status and increased risk of NEC in preterm infants has been described and antiretroviral therapy has been proposed as an independent risk factor. Aim: ...
Drews-Botsch Carolyn D - - 2012
Little information is available on factors that predict adherence to patching in infants. We evaluated data from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for infants with unilateral congenital cataracts, to investigate factors associated with successful adherence to patching protocols. In the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, ...
Ndirangu James J Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. - - 2012
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is prevalent in many countries where small-for-gestational age (SGA) and premature delivery are also common. However, the associations between maternal HIV, preterm delivery and SGA infants remain unclear. We estimate the prevalence of SGA and preterm (<37 weeks) births, their associations with antenatal maternal HIV infection ...
Holgate Sandi L - - 2012
Because of serious adverse effects, the Food and Drug Administration warns against using lopinavir (LPV) in infants younger than 42 weeks post conception. However, there is an imperative for early treatment. We report on our use of LPV in 8 premature HIV-infected infants. The median age at initiation was 27days. ...
Grant Lindsay - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the viral etiology, through the use of molecular methods, of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), which is a considerable public health burden in Native American infants. STUDY DESIGN: From March 2002 through February 2004, AGE and non-diarrheal stools were collected from Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants who received ...
Pan Calvin Q - - 2012
Telbivudine reduces hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normalizes levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated its use in preventing vertical transmission. We performed an open-label, prospective study of 88 hepatitis B (HB) e antigen (HBeAg)-positive pregnant women with CHB, levels of HBV ...
Alcântara Keila Correia - - 2012
BACKGROUND: A high-coverage public health prenatal program (70,000 women/year) from central western Brazil/Goias State has represented a unique opportunity for the early diagnosis of HIV-1 and implementation of strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). OBJECTIVES: To investigate MTCT among a prospective cohort of HIV-1 infected mothers/exposed infants. STUDY DESIGN: 142 ...
Goga Ameena E - - 2012
We sought to investigate infant feeding practices amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers (0-9 months postpartum) and describe the association between infant feeding practices and HIV-free survival. Infant feeding data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted at three (of 18) purposively-selected routine South African PMTCT sites, 2002-2003, were analysed. Infant ...
Buxmann Horst - - 2012
Abstract Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the current prenatal "off-label use" of cytomegalovirus hyperimmunoglobulin (CMV-HIG) in the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection, including the long-term outcome of the children. Methods: This retrospective observational study comprised mothers and their children, born between January 1, ...
Alvarez-Uria Gerardo - - 2012
We describe a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV that provided universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all pregnant women regardless of the CD4 lymphocyte count and formula feeding for children with high risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding in a district of India. The overall rate ...
Muluye Dagnachew - - 2012
It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during ...
Kim Maria H - - 2012
Loss to follow-up is a major challenge in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme in Malawi with reported loss to follow-up of greater than 70%. Tingathe-PMTCT is a pilot intervention that utilizes dedicated community health workers (CHWs) to create a complete continuum of care within ...
Boily-Larouche Geneviève - - 2012
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main cause of HIV-1 infection in children worldwide. Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing-nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, also known as CD209) is an HIV-1 receptor that enhances its transmission to T cells and is expressed on placental macrophages. We have investigated the association between DC-SIGN genetic variants and risk ...
Gibb Diana M DM MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK. - - 2012
Few data have described long-term outcomes for infants born to HIV-infected African women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy. This is particularly true for World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended tenofovir-containing first-line regimens, which are increasingly used and known to cause renal and bone toxicities; concerns have been raised about potential toxicity ...
Refai Zafer Z Trevor Mann Baby Unit, Royal county Sussex hospital, Brighton, UK. - - 2012
An infant was admitted with symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. After initial improvement she unexpectedly died. Postmortem confirmed a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enterocolitis. The authors report this case and review other published cases of immunocompetent infants who presented with this infection. Clinicians should consider stool CMV PCR test or ...
Kim In K - - 2011
To compare nebulized racemic epinephrine delivered by 70% helium and 30% oxygen or 100% oxygen followed by helium-oxygen inhalation therapy via high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs oxygen inhalation via HFNC in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. This study was conducted from October 1, 2004, through May ...
Ravert Patricia - - 2011
: Examine changes in oxygen saturation in well neonates at altitudes from 4498 to 8150 feet with serial measurements at 12 to 24 hours of age, 36 to 48 hours, and, if still hospitalized, at 60 to 72 hours. : Convenience sample of well newborn infants meeting inclusion criteria of ...
Musa J - - 2011
Feeding options for HIV exposed infants has remained topical and controversial in most settings of sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary, expresses the author's opinions on this topical issue for and against breastfeeding or infant formula, with supporting evidence drawn from relevant literature on researches conducted in settings of sub-Saharan Africa. At ...
Rhein Lawrence - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To define reference ranges for oxygen saturation (SpO(2) ) values in healthy full-term infants in the first days of life and in preterm infants off supplemental oxygen as they approach neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. METHODS: From April 2009 to March 2010, we enrolled convenience samples of full-term ...
Palm Kara - - 2011
: With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more premature infants are surviving. Many have significant pulmonary morbidities after discharge from the hospital. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common morbidity of prematurity and is a common indication for home oxygen therapy in children. Data are lacking on the appropriate methods for ...
Lagatta Joanne - - 2012
To assess home oxygen use in preterm infants, identify risk factors predicting home oxygen use, and quantify the extent of institutional variation in home oxygen use across neonatal intensive care units. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of surviving infants of 23- to 31-week gestational age discharged home in 2009, ...
Chang Meayoung - - 2011
There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of ...
Bhat Vishwanath - - 2011
Background:  Fluconazole prophylaxis is effective in preventing invasive candidiasis in extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. The authors previously reported an increased incidence of cholestasis with fluconazole prophylaxis in ELBW infants, which led to fluconazole prophylaxis being changed to a less frequent dosing (LFD) schedule of twice a week at their institution. ...
Rabi Yacov - - 2011
We conducted a blinded, prospective, randomized control trial to determine which oxygen-titration strategy was most effective at achieving and maintaining oxygen saturations of 85% to 92% during delivery-room resuscitation. Infants born at 32 weeks' gestation or less were resuscitated either with a static concentration of 100% oxygen (high-oxygen group) or ...
Severinghaus John W - - 2011
Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to ...
Holmboe K K Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, King's College London, Birkbeck, London, UK. - - 2011
Existing studies of the effect on infant temperament of the 48 base pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4 VNTR, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR, have provided contradictory results, and age seems to be an important factor. The ...
Browning R R - - 2011
Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were semi-intensively managed in a complete 3-breed diallel mating scheme to evaluate genetic effects on preweaning kid performance. Over a 6-yr period, 1,543 kids were born in March and May with 1,173 kid raised by their dams (i.e., retained) to weaning at 3 mo ...
Neovius K - - 2011
Aim  To investigate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab vs. no prophylaxis for RSV infection in preterm infants in Sweden. Methods  A probabilistic Markov model was populated using a nationwide register linkage and data from the literature. Cost-effectiveness was investigated from a societal perspective over a lifetime for infants born at <29 ...
Neelsen Sven - - 2011
This paper examines the long run education and labor market effects from early-life exposure to the Greek 1941-1942 famine. Given the short duration of the famine, we can separately identify the famine effects for cohorts exposed in utero, during infancy and at 1 year of age. We find that adverse ...
Xiong Tao - - 2011
Neonatal phototherapy (NNPT), a noninvasive, easily available therapy, has been widely used for the treatment of neonatal jaundice for more than half a century. Its efficiency in decreasing plasma bilirubin concentration is well documented, and NNPT leads to greatly reduced exchange transfusion rates for neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. It is generally ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2011
The authors use recent methodology in causal inference to disentangle the direct and indirect effects that operate through a mediator in an exposure-response association paradigm. They demonstrate how total effects can be partitioned into direct and indirect effects even when the exposure and mediator interact. The impact of bias due ...
Cunningham Steve - - 2011
Objectives To assess the potential effect of two guideline discharge oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) recommendations (≥90% and ≥94%) in recovering bronchiolitis. Methods and patients Infants aged up to 18 months requiring therapeutic oxygen for SpO(2) (≤93%) had SpO(2) assessed in air every 2 h. Time from admission to re-establish feeding (>75% ...
Wang Yun - - 2011
To investigate the effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme preterm deliveries. Retrospective study of deliveries in a Norwegian tertiary teaching hospital. All women with live births at 24(+0)- 27(+6) weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 were included. Major morbidity is defined as ...
AlFaleh K - - 2011
Important short-term intermediate outcomes such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), severe intraventricular haemorrhage, surgical ligation of PDA and serious pulmonary haemorrhage correlate with worse neurosensory outcomes in extreme low birth weight infants. Indomethacin prophylaxis has been shown to significantly prevent such outcomes. However, this positive effect did not translate into ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >