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Gibb Diana M DM MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK. - - 2012
Few data have described long-term outcomes for infants born to HIV-infected African women taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy. This is particularly true for World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended tenofovir-containing first-line regimens, which are increasingly used and known to cause renal and bone toxicities; concerns have been raised about potential toxicity ...
Refai Zafer Z Trevor Mann Baby Unit, Royal county Sussex hospital, Brighton, UK. - - 2012
An infant was admitted with symptoms of diarrhoea and vomiting. After initial improvement she unexpectedly died. Postmortem confirmed a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enterocolitis. The authors report this case and review other published cases of immunocompetent infants who presented with this infection. Clinicians should consider stool CMV PCR test or ...
Kim In K - - 2011
To compare nebulized racemic epinephrine delivered by 70% helium and 30% oxygen or 100% oxygen followed by helium-oxygen inhalation therapy via high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) vs oxygen inhalation via HFNC in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. This study was conducted from October 1, 2004, through May ...
Ravert Patricia - - 2011
: Examine changes in oxygen saturation in well neonates at altitudes from 4498 to 8150 feet with serial measurements at 12 to 24 hours of age, 36 to 48 hours, and, if still hospitalized, at 60 to 72 hours. : Convenience sample of well newborn infants meeting inclusion criteria of ...
Musa J - - 2011
Feeding options for HIV exposed infants has remained topical and controversial in most settings of sub-Saharan Africa. This commentary, expresses the author's opinions on this topical issue for and against breastfeeding or infant formula, with supporting evidence drawn from relevant literature on researches conducted in settings of sub-Saharan Africa. At ...
Rhein Lawrence - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To define reference ranges for oxygen saturation (SpO(2) ) values in healthy full-term infants in the first days of life and in preterm infants off supplemental oxygen as they approach neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. METHODS: From April 2009 to March 2010, we enrolled convenience samples of full-term ...
Palm Kara - - 2011
: With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more premature infants are surviving. Many have significant pulmonary morbidities after discharge from the hospital. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common morbidity of prematurity and is a common indication for home oxygen therapy in children. Data are lacking on the appropriate methods for ...
Lagatta Joanne - - 2012
To assess home oxygen use in preterm infants, identify risk factors predicting home oxygen use, and quantify the extent of institutional variation in home oxygen use across neonatal intensive care units. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of surviving infants of 23- to 31-week gestational age discharged home in 2009, ...
Chang Meayoung - - 2011
There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of ...
Bhat Vishwanath - - 2011
Background:  Fluconazole prophylaxis is effective in preventing invasive candidiasis in extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants. The authors previously reported an increased incidence of cholestasis with fluconazole prophylaxis in ELBW infants, which led to fluconazole prophylaxis being changed to a less frequent dosing (LFD) schedule of twice a week at their institution. ...
Rabi Yacov - - 2011
We conducted a blinded, prospective, randomized control trial to determine which oxygen-titration strategy was most effective at achieving and maintaining oxygen saturations of 85% to 92% during delivery-room resuscitation. Infants born at 32 weeks' gestation or less were resuscitated either with a static concentration of 100% oxygen (high-oxygen group) or ...
Severinghaus John W - - 2011
Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to ...
Holmboe K K Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, King's College London, Birkbeck, London, UK. - - 2011
Existing studies of the effect on infant temperament of the 48 base pair variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4 VNTR, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region, 5-HTTLPR, have provided contradictory results, and age seems to be an important factor. The ...
Browning R R - - 2011
Boer, Kiko, and Spanish meat goats were semi-intensively managed in a complete 3-breed diallel mating scheme to evaluate genetic effects on preweaning kid performance. Over a 6-yr period, 1,543 kids were born in March and May with 1,173 kid raised by their dams (i.e., retained) to weaning at 3 mo ...
Neovius K - - 2011
Aim  To investigate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab vs. no prophylaxis for RSV infection in preterm infants in Sweden. Methods  A probabilistic Markov model was populated using a nationwide register linkage and data from the literature. Cost-effectiveness was investigated from a societal perspective over a lifetime for infants born at <29 ...
Neelsen Sven - - 2011
This paper examines the long run education and labor market effects from early-life exposure to the Greek 1941-1942 famine. Given the short duration of the famine, we can separately identify the famine effects for cohorts exposed in utero, during infancy and at 1 year of age. We find that adverse ...
Xiong Tao - - 2011
Neonatal phototherapy (NNPT), a noninvasive, easily available therapy, has been widely used for the treatment of neonatal jaundice for more than half a century. Its efficiency in decreasing plasma bilirubin concentration is well documented, and NNPT leads to greatly reduced exchange transfusion rates for neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. It is generally ...
Ananth Cande V - - 2011
The authors use recent methodology in causal inference to disentangle the direct and indirect effects that operate through a mediator in an exposure-response association paradigm. They demonstrate how total effects can be partitioned into direct and indirect effects even when the exposure and mediator interact. The impact of bias due ...
Cunningham Steve - - 2011
Objectives To assess the potential effect of two guideline discharge oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) recommendations (≥90% and ≥94%) in recovering bronchiolitis. Methods and patients Infants aged up to 18 months requiring therapeutic oxygen for SpO(2) (≤93%) had SpO(2) assessed in air every 2 h. Time from admission to re-establish feeding (>75% ...
Wang Yun - - 2011
To investigate the effect of pregestational maternal, obstetric and perinatal factors on neonatal outcome in extreme preterm deliveries. Retrospective study of deliveries in a Norwegian tertiary teaching hospital. All women with live births at 24(+0)- 27(+6) weeks of gestation between 2004 and 2007 were included. Major morbidity is defined as ...
AlFaleh K - - 2011
Important short-term intermediate outcomes such as patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), severe intraventricular haemorrhage, surgical ligation of PDA and serious pulmonary haemorrhage correlate with worse neurosensory outcomes in extreme low birth weight infants. Indomethacin prophylaxis has been shown to significantly prevent such outcomes. However, this positive effect did not translate into ...
Haines D M - - 2011
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of artificial mothering, simulated by verbal and physical stimulation of the newborn, on passive transfer of IgG in the dairy calf. Newborn heifer calves born without dystocia were removed from the dam before suckling and randomly assigned to 1 of ...
Labenne Marc - - 2011
: To identify the best combination of serum cytokines and clinical parameters to diagnose rapidly early-onset neonatal infection (EONI) in critically ill preterm infants. At birth, most critically ill neonates are receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics pending bacterial culture results, because distinguishing infected from noninfected infants at birth is difficult. : Prospective ...
Ravn Ingrid Helen - - 2011
In a randomized controlled trial at 12-months of age, the effect of the Mother Infant Transaction Program was tested on social interaction between mothers and moderately and late preterm infants with gestational age≥30.0 and <36 weeks. Ninety-three play sessions were videotaped and coded, 46 mothers-infants in the intervention group and ...
Torche Florencia - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Intra-uterine growth is a powerful predictor of infant mortality and of health, developmental and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. The question about whether this relationship is causal rather than driven by unobserved characteristics of low-weight infants is, however, still open. We use twin models to examine the hypothesis that in ...
Chiesa Claudio - - 2011
BACKGROUND: There is still no study evaluating the influence of gestational age (GA) per se on C reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) reference intervals. We therefore investigated how length of gestation, age (hours), and prenatal and perinatal variables might influence the levels of CRP and PCT. We also determined ...
Slotkin Theodore A - - 2011
Maternal smoking during pregnancy greatly enhances perinatal morbidity/mortality and is the major risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that targets monoamine pathways involved in the responses to hypoxia that are in turn, hypothesized to contribute to these adverse ...
Zanardo Vincenzo - - 2011
Late preterm infants are a vulnerable population susceptible to early breastfeeding failure and lactation-associated morbidities. We have found that late preterm gestation has a negative effect on mothers' psychological profiles in the puerperium, with the resulting levels of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress correlating negatively with their early lactation performance.
Slining Meghan M - - 2011
The authors assessed the relation between infant weight velocity and adult insulin resistance, specifically evaluating whether adult size and body fat distribution mediated the association. Data were from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Cebu, the Philippines), in which a birth cohort was followed to age 22 years (n=1,409; ...
Henkle Emily - - 2011
We evaluated infant sera from an immunization trial in Bangladesh to assess influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer increases in 131 unimmunized infants from birth to 6 months. We detected 31 serologically defined infections. Combined with 10 additional rapid test-proven influenza cases, the minimal estimated incidence was 31 of 100 infants ...
Harper Lorie M - - 2011
: To estimate the effect of birth weight difference between the current and index pregnancy on vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) failure in patients whose prior cesarean was for cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD). : This was a retrospective cohort study of women with one cesarean for CPD, comparing the rate of ...
Cassidy Jude - - 2011
This randomized controlled trial examined (a) the efficacy of a brief intervention designed to increase the rate of secure infant attachment, (b) the differential susceptibility hypothesis, and (c) whether maternal attachment styles moderated the expected Treatment × Irritability interaction in predicting infant attachment outcomes. Although there was no main effect ...
Wisanskoonwong Peeranan - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a significant global health problem with serious short and long term consequences. This paper reviews the research literature to answer the question how effective are the medical interventions that aim to reduce the rates of preterm birth? METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in CINAHL, ...
Elder Dawn E - - 2011
Aims:  To document the effect of position on oxygen saturation and changes in oxygen requirement in convalescent preterm infants. Methods:  Twelve infants born ≥ 24 and ≤ 32 weeks gestation, extubated and without congenital anomaly were studied using nap polysomnography in prone and supine, two-weekly until discharge. Mean oxygen saturation ...
Pereira Leonardo - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety, acceptability, and antimicrobial effect of 1% chlorhexidine (CHX) vaginal washing of women in labor and their neonates. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial of 1% CHX vaginal and neonatal washing compared with no washing (usual care [UC]). The study included 502 women (334 CHX, 168 UC) who ...
Westerbeek Elisabeth - - 2011
The gastrointestinal inflammatory response may play a role in the susceptibility of preterm infants for infections. We previously reported a trend towards lower endogenous infection morbidity after enteral supplementation of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides (SCGOS/LCFOS/AOS). We hypothesize that enteral supplementation of prebiotics may decrease infectious morbidity by reducing intestinal inflammation. ...
Havranek Thomas - - 2011
Background: Antenatal MgSO(4) administration is used extensively as a tocolytic agent and to treat preeclampsia. Various effects on the fetus and newborn have been reported, and MgSO(4) has well-documented vasoactive effects. Objective: To determine if antenatal MgSO(4) administration affects intestinal blood flow velocity in newborn preterm infants. Methods: Peak, mean ...
Haas David M - - 2011
Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to ...
Vento Máximo - - 2011
Fetal to neonatal transition poses an extraordinary challenge for the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonate. Indeed a significant number of ELBW neonates will need proactive resuscitation to achieve postnatal stabilization. Positive pressure ventilation and oxygenation are the most relevant interventions in the delivery room (DR). Oxygen needs during resuscitation ...
Pantall Annette - - 2011
To determine the effect of enhanced sensory input on the step frequency of infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) when supported on a motorized treadmill. Twenty-seven infants aged 2 to 10 months with MMC lesions at, or caudal to, L1 participated. We supported infants upright on the treadmill for 2 sets of ...
Pelaez Martha - - 2011
Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the reinforcing effect of maternal vocal imitation ...
Holditch Sara J - - 2011
The majority of infants born, in developed countries, to HIV-1 positive women are exposed to the HIV-1 virus in utero or peri/post-partum, but are born uninfected. We, and others, have previously shown HIV-1 specific T cell responses in HIV-1 exposed seronegative (HESN) neonates/infants. Our objective in this study was to ...
Kwambana Brenda A BA Bacterial Diseases Programme, Medical Research Council Laboratories (UK), Banjul, The Gambia. - - 2011
Frozen storage often precedes metagenomic analysis of biological samples; however, the freezing process can have adverse effects on microbial composition. The effect of freezing on the detection of bacteria inhabiting the infant nasopharynx, a major reservoir of bacterial pathogens, was investigated. 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based terminal restriction fragment length ...
Lau Yoke Yen - - 2011
Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ≥3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a ...
Weinmann Angela - - 2010
Breast milk reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). BH4 is a cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Reduced BH4 levels, or its oxidation to dihydrobiopterin (BH2), uncouple eNOS resulting in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NEC. We evaluated colostrum ...
Karagol Belma Saygili - - 2010
We sought to determine the effect of neonatal transport on the incidence of adverse events of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) in term neonates. A retrospective study was performed of neonates who had TTN and were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Sami Ulus Maternity, Children's Education ...
Usta Ihab M - - 2010
Preterm birth, the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, is estimated at incidence of 12.7% of all births, which has not decreased over the last four decades despite intensive antenatal care programs aimed at high-risk groups, the widespread use of tocolytics, and a series of other preventive and therapeutic ...
Krenz-Niedbała Marta - - 2010
Objectives: The relationship between season of birth and various physical and psychological outcomes was reported in many studies, although the underlying mechanism still remains unrecognized. The aim of this study was to explore the season-of-birth effect on body size in the sample of 1,148 eight-year-old Polish urban children and propose ...
Krenz-Niedbała Marta - - 2011
Objectives: The relationship between season of birth and various physical and psychological outcomes was reported in many studies, although the underlying mechanism still remains unrecognized. The aim of this study was to explore the season-of-birth effect on body size in the sample of 1,148 eight-year-old Polish urban children and propose ...
Micali Nadia N King's College London, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK. - - 2011
Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We ...
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