Search Results
Results 751 - 800 of 1386
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Herbst A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine 1. whether maternal fever during term labour is associated with acidaemia at birth and neonatal infection and 2. whether fetal tachycardia precedes maternal fever and is associated with neonatal infection. DESIGN: Retrospective matched-pair case-control study. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and forty-eight newborn infants whose mothers developed fever during ...
Brüning T - - 1997
We examined the expression of the CD45RO antigen, which characterizes the antigen primed/memory phenotype of T lymphocytes, as a marker for congenital infection in blood samples of newborns and fetuses. CD45RO expression on T cells was determined by triple-colour fluorescence flow cytometry. In total 537 blood samples of newborns and ...
Phillips J R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical features of Candida species in hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in a neonatal intensive care unit. DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted of hospital-acquired UTI occurring in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between January 1, 1989, and June 30, 1995. ...
Virkola K - - 1997
A total of 44 181 serum samples from 16 733 pregnant women were analyzed for findings suggesting primary Toxoplasma infection. Thirty-seven newborns exposed to maternal primary Toxoplasma infection in utero were studied prospectively with ultrasound, CT, and MRI for signs of intrauterine infection. Their mothers had been treated during pregnancy, ...
Delport S D SD Department of Paediatrica, Kalafong Hospital, - - 1997
To investigate the growth, early feeding practices and prevalence of infections in black infants. Longitudinal study with prospective documentation of data. Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria. Term, appropriately grown infants with a positive rapid plasma reagin test on cord blood were enrolled. Infants who on follow-up did not have congenital syphilis were ...
Oztürk A - - 1997
Sixteen collodion babies followed in the Neonatal Care Unit between January 1982 and December 1994 were evaluated retrospectively. The preterm/term ratio was 1.6, and complete shedding of the collodion membrane took an average of 21.9 days (range 18-46 days). Problems noted were marked temperature instability, defective barrier function, increased insensible ...
Wax J R - - 1997
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 1 g of cefazolin administered preoperatively is no more effective than the same dose administered after cord clamping in preventing postcesarean infectious morbidity. Ninety consecutive laboring subjects undergoing cesarean delivery at > or = 37 weeks gestation were randomized ...
Chalmers R M - - 1997
Wild mice and voles were tested for Cryptosporidium during a 2-year survey at an agricultural site in Warwickshire, United Kingdom. C. parvum and C. muris, the two cryptosporidial species known to infect mammals, were detected. Prevalence figures of 22%, 21% and 13% noted for C. parvum for Mus domesticus, Apodemus ...
Montefiori D C - - 1996
Variants of SIV containing a deletion in the nef gene are attenuated in adult macaques, where they provide protection from challenge with pathogenic SIV, but the mechanism of protection remains unknown. One of these attenuated variants carrying deletions in nef, vpr, and NRE (SIVmac239delta3) was recently found to be pathogenic ...
Suzumura H - - 1996
The case of a female infant who developed chronic respiratory failure after an acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is presented here. She was a very low birthweight (VLBW) infant and was free from oxygen supplement until 2 months after birth. Interstitial pneumonia occurred at 2 months of age, and her respiratory ...
Kimberlin D W - - 1996
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 77 neonates with herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease were evaluated retrospectively by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Samples were collected from 202 infants enrolled in a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group trial that compared vidarabine with acyclovir for the treatment ...
Eaton R B - - 1996
An easy-to-perform fluorometric enzyme immunocapture assay (FEIA) was developed by Labsystems, Helsinki, Finland, to detect toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) in dried blood spots. Assay materials were distributed to two sites that have programs in place designed to identify infants born with congenital toxoplasma infection: the Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark, ...
Doyle M - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of in utero transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in perinatally HIV-exposed infants and to determine whether coinfection with CMV in early life affects outcome. METHODS: Infants born to HIV-infected women between March, 1988, and March, 1995, were evaluated (n = 206). Congenital or in utero CMV ...
Forsyth B W - - 1996
PURPOSE: To develop a prognosis-based clinical staging system for infants infected with human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: Abstraction of data from medical records of 75 infected children. For each clinical finding present in infancy, the magnitude of the relative risk (RR) for early death was used to assign subjects to different ...
Kayaba H - - 1996
PURPOSE: We evaluated preputial development in Japanese boys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preputial retractability and formation of a tight ring were evaluated in 603 Japanese boys 0 to 15 years old. RESULTS: The incidence of a completely retractable prepuce gradually increased from 0% at age 6 months to 62.9% by 11 ...
Tissot van Patot H A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) with non-absorbable antibiotics was extensively used at intensive care units (ICU) in Europe to prevent nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. After three recent meta-analyses in which it was demonstrated that SDD did not influence hospital stay and mortality in these patients ...
Fuentes I - - 1996
The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii ...
Gogoi S C - - 1996
Beginning 1991, a sudden rise of malaria cases were recorded in Tarajulie TE (Assam) coupled with mortality due to malaria. Deaths were confirmed due to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infections and were recorded in all age groups excluding infants. Malaria positives were recorded in all months of the year, however, there ...
Mohapatra R - - 1996
Two chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) viz., triflumuron and hexaflumuron interfere++ with the development of Brugia malayi in Aedes aegypti (a black-eyed Liverpool strain). The development of B. malayi was slow in both the treated populations and the infection rate, infectivity rate and L3 load per mosquito decreased significantly (P < ...
Campbell J R - - 1996
Respiratory infections in young infants are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of pneumonia in the neonate varies widely because of several modes of acquisition of infecting agents. Infants may develop pneumonia in utero as a part of a congenital infection; however, more often, infants are ...
Mitchell S J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: We report four cases of cutaneous infection with Rhizopus microsporus in vulnerable preterm infants in one neonatal nursery. METHODS: There was no overlap in hospital stay between the first two cases and an extensive programme of environmental sampling was therefore initiated, with special attention being paid to items that ...
Kilgore P E - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and is responsible for 24% of hospital admissions for diarrhea in children from 3 months to 2 years of age. However, the prevalence of neonatal RV infections and characteristics of RV strains infecting neonates have ...
Kitua A Y - - 1996
A longitudinal study of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in infants in Idete village, south-eastern Tanzania, was conducted over a period of 14 months in order to determine the incidence of P. falciparum infection and clinical malaria in the first year of life. Of 1356 blood slides from cross-sectional surveys, 52.1% were ...
Snow R W - - 1996
Repeated cross-sectional surveys among infants sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITBN) and contemporary control infants were used to estimate changes in Plasmodium falciparum exposure due to ITBN use on the Kenyan coast. Presence of P. falciparum parasites or total P. falciparum Immunoglobulin M (IgM) seropositivity were used independently and in ...
Gelven P L - - 1996
Disseminated herpes is rare in the adult and usually occurs in the immunocompromised. Twenty-one cases have been reported in which healthy women contracted life-threatening disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the third trimester of pregnancy. Most of these patients had nonspecific symptoms, and many did not have mucocutaneous lesions. ...
Wang L W - - 1996
This retrospective study was designed to investigate the related factors and outcome of systemic fungal infection in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Medical records of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of National Cheng Kung University Hospital between January 1990 and June 1994 were reviewed. Of the 262 VLBW ...
Lindgren C - - 1996
The reflex apnoea response to water stimulation was evaluated in infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and compared to the response in non-infected infants who had sustained an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) or were siblings of infants who had died of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). RSV-infected infants had ...
Davies H D - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the reliability of detecting features and making diagnoses of lower respiratory infections from chest radiograms in young infants. METHODS: Forty chest radiograms of infants younger than 6 months of age admitted with lower respiratory tract infection to a tertiary care pediatric hospital were ...
Berger R M - - 1996
Low risk criteria have been defined to identify febrile infants unlikely to have serious bacterial infection (SBI). Using these criteria approximately 40% of all febrile infants can be defined as being at low risk. Of the remaining infants (60%) only 10%-20% have an SBI. No adequate criteria exist to identify ...
Martin Amedee A - - 1996
The SIV-infected macaque provides an excellent model to study factors involved in maternal-fetal transmission of HIV. In our prenatal transmission studies, female macaques were inoculated intravenously during midgestation with either SIV/DeltaB670 or a combination of SIV/ DeltaB670 and the macrophage-tropic molecular clone SIV/17E-Fr. The females harbored a genetically diverse virus ...
el-Nawawy A - - 1996
To determine the seroprevalence of maternal and neonatal toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies and hepatitis-B (HB) antigenaemia in a rural Egyptian area, a prospective serological study was done on a randomly selected sample of pregnant women (n = 150) and their newborn infants (n = 150). Sera were collected from ...
Nour S - - 1996
A retrospective study of 50 patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) showed wound infection in six patients. In an attempt to assess the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in infantile pyloromyotomy 150 patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis were entered in a prospective randomized controlled study. The infants were allocated ...
Gimenez H B - - 1996
The neutralizing and enhancing activities of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific antibodies were examined. These two biological activities were measured for a panel of six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the RSV surface F and G glycoproteins. Four MAbs specific for the F protein possessed both neutralizing and enhancing activities. One ...
Beebe L A - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiologic and pathogenetic significance of placental features and neonatal outcome in a high-risk population. METHODS: One pathologist examined 1252 placentas from clinically selected at-risk singleton pregnancies. Placental pathology features were analyzed relative to gestational age and status of the newborn, including fetal growth restriction (FGR), low ...
Gessler P - - 1996
Developmental immaturities in neonatal host defense predispose the neonates to an increased mortality rate during bacterial infections. Early diagnosis is of great clinical importance, but, especially in neonates, is sometimes very difficult. The ability to generate reactive oxygen species, the so-called respiratory burst, is essential for neutrophils to kill infectious ...
Pinon J M - - 1996
Diagnostic strategies for congenital toxoplasmosis have changed profoundly in recent years. Immunological diagnostic methods, long considered disappointing, can now be used at a very early stage. Over a 3-year period, 1,050 infants at risk of congenital toxoplasmosis (born to 1,048 mothers infected during pregnancy) were monitored for a minimum of ...
Yamataka A - - 1996
Loss of the spleen in infants and young children frequently results in overwhelming infection. To preserve splenic function, heterotopic splenic autotransplantation after splenectomy was performed on a newborn in whom the spleen was traumatized beyond repair because of birth trauma. Postoperatively, the percentage of pitted red blood cells that accurately ...
Grangeot-Keros L - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Conventional approaches to virus detection failed to provide convincing evidence of a viral etiology in sudden unexplained deaths in infants (SUDI). Many viruses may not have been detected by the routinely used methods; among them enteroviruses (EV) have seldom been found in SUDI. METHODS: In this study EV were ...
Roberts J A - - 1996
The incidence of urinary tract infections is 10 times higher in the uncircumcised male than in those circumcised. An extensive review of bacterial adherence, the initiating factor in urinary tract infections, is presented to show that bacterial adherence to the prepuce is necessary for pyelonephritis to occur. Colonization with maternal ...
Edelman K - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory disease and the most serious effects occur in young infants. Recently it has been shown that rapid and highly specific PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool for detection of pertussis infection. To our knowledge there are no previous studies concerning the disappearance ...
Unicomb L E - - 1996
Eight infants followed longitudinally were found to have enteric adenovirus (EAdv) infections: in 5 infants with diarrhea and in 3 with no accompanying diarrhea. Sequential stool samples prior to EAdv infections were tested for adenovirus antigen, anti-adenoviral IgA and neutralizing antibodies to serotypes 40, 41 and 2 in order to ...
Ejzenberg B - - 1996
The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in ...
Mardesić D - - 1996
A ten-months-old girl was evaluated for developmental delay, increased muscle tone and seizures. CT and MRI revealed un uncommon combination of two different manifestations of neuronal migration disturbance: agyria/pachygyria and subcortical laminar heterotopia ("double cortex" syndrome). The occurrence of these two manifestations of neuronal migration dosorders in the same individual ...
Slutsker L - - 1996
Malaria infection is thought to be relatively infrequent in infants less than 90 days of age in sub-Saharan Africa. In a rural area of Malawi with intense malaria transmission, we examined the occurrence of malaria infection during infancy and risk factors for parasitemia in the first three months of life ...
Steketee R W - - 1996
Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women frequently leads to placental infection and low birth weight (< 2,500 grams) of the infant, particularly in the areas of high malaria transmission found in sub-Saharan Africa. Low birth weight is widely known to be an important risk factor for early infant mortality. To ...
Tan S G - - 1995
A 1 year prospective study on routine gowning before entering a neonatal unit was conducted in a maternity hospital in Singapore. This study was done based on previous work by Donowitz, Haque and Chagla and Agbayani et al., as there have been no known studies done in Singapore. The aim ...
Forster J - - 1995
During the course of a 3-year epidemic of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in an Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, we examined premature neonates for the clinical features of RSV infections and the risk factors predisposing towards transmission of the disease. Seventy-nine infants with a median gestational age of 31 weeks were ...
Daniel Y - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Congenital cytomegalovirus is the most common viral infection affecting approximately 1% of newborns. The virus can be transmitted to the fetus during both primary and recurrent infection. Although most of the infants are asymptomatic at birth, up to 15% develop late complications. The annual cost of treating cytomegalovirus infection ...
Lynn R R - - 1995
Fever is common in infants presenting to their physicians for evaluation. Infants younger than 2 months of age are at increased risk of SBI because of their exposure to different pathogens and because of their immature immune systems. The bacteria that may infect them include E coli, group B Streptococcus, ...
Venezia R A - - 1995
Klebsiella oxytoca that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and were resistant to ceftazidime were isolated from infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During a 30-week period, 3 infants developed infections and an additional 60 infants were colonized with these bacteria. The molecular typing data suggested transmission of a single ...
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