Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1347
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Archibald L K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for polymicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients during an outbreak of BSIs. DESIGN: During an outbreak of BSIs, we conducted a retrospective cohort study, assessed NICU infection control practices and patient exposure to NICU healthcare workers (HCWs), and obtained cultures ...
Morita M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The clinical features of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in countries with a higher percentage of maternal seropositivity for CMV has rarely been reported. We conducted a national survey for the first time in Japan to investigate the prevalence of congenital CMV infection. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent in 1994 to ...
Witek-Janusek L - - 1998
Major advances in the management of critically ill low birth weight (LBW) infants have increased their survival. Yet the clinical course of these infants is complicated by the emergence of opportunistic microbial pathogens. Most importantly, serious infections from opportunistic fungi, such as Candida albicans, have produced systemic disease in vulnerable ...
Bobat R - - 1998
Forty-eight children with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection and 93 uninfected infants were followed up at regular intervals from birth for a mean of 26 months. They were examined physically, growth and development were assessed and illnesses recorded. Seventy per cent of infected infants were symptomatic by 6 months. Relative risks ...
Russomando G - - 1998
In 1991 and 1992, a prenatal screening of Trypanosoma cruzi infection was carried out using ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. A total of 840 blood samples from pregnant women, obtained at the Maternity Ward of the Hospital de Clínicas, National University of Asunción (Asunción, Paraguay), and 1,022 samples from the ...
de Ocariz M M - - 1998
We report a 6-month-old girl with erythema multiforme minor occurring during the course of a herpetic whitlow. Erythema multiforme minor is unusual in infants, and in this population herpes simplex virus has not been reported as a significant etiologic factor. The clinical coexistence of erythema multiforme minor and the herpetic ...
Muyldermans G - - 1998
In our 15-bed neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), four new-borns were found to be colonized or infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a period of one week. To identify the outbreak source, three independent studies were performed: epidemiological investigation, environmental surveillance and genotypic typing of isolates. Although epidemiological investigation by a ...
Ordi J - - 1998
Massive chronic intervillositis (MCI) is an infrequently recognized placental lesion thought to be of immunologic origin that has been associated with poor fetal outcome. It is characterized by a prominent inflammatory infiltrate in the intervillous space, composed mainly of monocytes and macrophages that can simulate a maternal malignant disorder involving ...
McDonald L C - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter spp. are multidrug-resistant bacteria that grow well in water and cause infections with unexplained, increased summer prevalence. In August, 1996, eight infants acquired Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infection (A-BSI) while in a nursery in the Bahamas; three infants died and an investigation was initiated. METHODS: A case patient was ...
Maldonado Y - - 1998
Symptomatic and asymptomatic astrovirus infection was prospectively determined in a 3-year birth cohort of Mayan infants. Stool samples from 271 infants and 268 older siblings were tested for astrovirus, adenovirus 40/41, rotavirus and Salmonella, Shigella and Campylobacter species. Concurrent diarrhea, vomiting, fever, or anorexia were noted. Astrovirus was detected in ...
Bachelard M - - 1998
PURPOSE: We studied the urodynamic pattern in infants with urinary tract infection and evaluated the influence of the infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cystometry was combined with voiding cystourethrography (video cystometry) in 90 male and 68 female infants admitted to the hospital with first time urinary tract infection. Evaluation was performed ...
Levy I - - 1998
It has recently been recognized that neonates may develop pneumonia as a result of Legionella pneumophila. The objective of this study is to characterize the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical features, and outcome of neonatal legionellosis. Review of the literature revealed nine cases of neonatal Legionella infection. Five neonates were ...
Navitsky R C - - 1998
Fecal specimens from 292 pregnant women (ages 15-40 yr) and 129 infants (ages 10-20 wk) were examined for helminth eggs by the Kato-Katz method and cultured for helminth larvae identification using a modified Harada Mori method. These specimens were collected from June 1995 through July 1996 in Sarlahi District in ...
Alanen A - - 1998
Intra-amniotic infection during pregnancy can be caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa, Toxoplasma gondii for example. Bacterial intrauterine infections are connected with premature birth, premature rupture of fetal membranes, and infective complications of both the mother and the newborn. Viral infections and Toxoplasma gondii can cause fetal malformations and illness ...
Koch W C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To define the intrauterine viral transmission rate during primary maternal parvovirus B19 infection and identify factors that may influence this rate. METHODS: Forty-three pregnant women at two medical centers were identified with a primary B19 infection and followed to delivery. At delivery maternal and infant (umbilical cord) blood was ...
Cox M J - - 1998
Age-specific patterns of rotavirus infection were investigated using a randomly selected and representative sample of sera from a suburban community of S?o Paulo, Brazil screened for class-specific antibodies to group A rotavirus. Age-serology of anti-rotavirus IgG showed primary infection predominant in young infants with a median age of around 18 ...
Radetsky M - - 1998
Early discharge of suitable newborns is rapidly becoming a hospital standard. One concern is that truncated hospital observation of the infant during the first days of life, even with home visits or early clinical appointments, would allow early signs of a serious infection to go unnoticed, which could lead to ...
Pancharoen C - - 1998
A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital between February and May 1997 to study the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in hospitalized infants. Of 83 cases, 46 were boys and 37 girls, with the mean age of 11.87 months. The seroprevalence of CMV infection was 80.95, 61.90, ...
Murph J R - - 1998
To determine factors that influence the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, the authors surveyed prospectively 8,254 infants born in eastern Iowa between October 1989 and June 1994. The authors conducted a case-control study to identify maternal risk factors, matching each CMV-infected infant with three uninfected infants according to hospital ...
Fowler S L - - 1998
Candida lusitaniae is an increasingly important nosocomial bloodstream pathogen. Epidemiological investigation and molecular typing techniques identified three neonates infected with identical strains of C lusitaniae that were distinguished readily from epidemiologically unrelated strains from other locations in the hospital. The results of this study provide evidence for nosocomial transmission of ...
Levine M M - - 1998
AIM: To study the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infections in infants and young children in Santiago, Chile, as a representative pediatric population in a newly industrializing country where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines may be used in the future. METHODS: A 5-year retrospective laboratory-based review (1989 to 1993) was followed by a ...
Bhanthumkosol D - - 1998
Adenovirus infections occur commonly in infants and children but are rarely fatal. Although immunosuppression has been associated recently with fatal outcome of adenovirus infections, reports of major morbidity or mortality caused by adenovirus infection in HIV positive patients are infrequent. This is the first report on fatal adenovirus infections in ...
Shah S S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In infancy Pseudomonas aeruginosa conjunctivitis may lead to a rapidly progressive invasive eye infection. In some cases this destructive eye disease is associated with or followed by infection at other sites. We observed seven hospitalized infants with P. aeruginosa conjunctivitis who developed systemic complications of P. aeruginosa infection without ...
Branch O H - - 1998
This study was aimed at delineating characteristics of naturally acquired immunity against the merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum, a candidate malaria vaccine antigen. A case/control study was performed on 75 case/control pairs of infants with febrile illness at the time of the first detected infection indicating a clinical ...
Bonadio W A - - 1998
Grading patient clinical appearance using the Young Infant Observation Scale and the Yale Observation Scale can effectively classify approximately 75% of infants with a serious illness or infection as ill appearing and 95% who appear to be well as having low risk for serious illness or infection. Most children with ...
Nivin B - - 1998
We investigated an increase in cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) at a large urban facility where a prior nosocomial outbreak of MDRTB had occurred. Nosocomial transmission appeared to account for this outbreak as well, including a cluster of cases in a newborn nursery. Seven of 24 patients (29%) described in ...
Huang Y C - - 1998
During a 4-month period, 9 premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) developed Candida albicans fungaemia. All 9 infants received antifungal agents. Fluconazole was administered in 7 patients and successfully eradicated this organism in 6 with no adverse effects. For epidemiological investigation, 64 environmental specimens and hand-washings ...
Vochem M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of virus excretion through breast milk and the incidence and significance of postnatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission from mothers to premature infants. DESIGN: Prospective study of mother-child pairs after preterm delivery before 32 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g. Exclusion of donor breast milk and ...
Moisiuk S E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza virus, parainfluenza type 3 causes the majority of infections in young children and infants. Parainfluenza type 3 can occur in newborns, although most are born with neutralizing antibodies. There have been only infrequent reports of parainfluenza type 3 causing nosocomial respiratory infection ...
Cason J - - 1998
There is now compelling evidence that persistent infection with certain types of human genital papillomaviruses (HPV) may, after many years, lead to cervical cancer. However, HPV have been detected in asymptomatic women, infants and children. Several studies have demonstrated that infants can acquire high-risk HPV infections from their mothers at ...
Hansson S - - 1998
We analyzed the number of colony-forming units in urine cultures obtained by suprapubic aspiration in a group of 366 unselected infants with symptomatic urinary tract infection to relate these findings to factors such as pyuria and vesicoureteric reflux. Seventy-three (20%) of 366 infants had fewer than 100,000 colony-forming units per ...
Pustowoit B - - 1998
In an attempt to define diagnostic criteria that may help to distinguish the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) from subclinical intrauterine rubella virus (RV) infection, maternal and fetal serum samples were analyzed using (1) enzyme immunoassay employing RV synthetic peptides as antigen, (2) IgG avidity assay, and (3) immunoblot under nonreducing ...
Ruiz-Diez B - - 1997
Nosocomial neonatal candidiasis is a major problem in infants requiring intensive therapy. The subjects of this retrospective study were nine preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Hospital Central de Asturias between March 1993 and August 1994. The infants were infected with or colonized by Candida ...
Sakuma T - - 1997
Reports on the symptoms of infant influenza (less than 1 year of age) are very few. From 1989 to 1996, 105 infants with influenza were examined. The symptoms, nutrition and source of infection of the 105 patients were investigated in Sakuma Pediatric Clinic and viral studies were performed at the ...
Le Hesran J Y - - 1997
In areas endemic for malaria, pregnant women frequently present with a placenta that has been parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum, an infection associated with a reduction in the birth weight of the offspring. However, the impact of placental infection on malaria-related morbidity during the infant's first years of life has not ...
Allen S R - - 1997
The evaluation of the potentially septic newborn is often a source of frustration for practitioners. In the past, it has often been standard practice to evaluate and treat empirically all neonates whose mothers received antibiotics during labor, regardless of whether the infant had any signs or symptoms suggestive of infection. ...
Glezen W P - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Universal immunization of children with live attenuated cold recombinant vaccine has been proposed. The renewed recommendation for maternal immunization with influenza vaccine should increase the amount of antibody transmitted to the infant and postpone the need for active immunization. This study examines the risk of influenza during the first ...
Hartyánszky I L - - 1997
Infective endocarditis is a rare disease in infants. A 1-year-old boy with a large Candida albicans vegetation in the right atrium and superior vena cava was operated on successfully. During the newborn period he had had a right transverse colostomy for Hirschsprung's disease. Ten months later a subsequent rectosigmoidectomy and ...
Reyes C - - 1997
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Up to 2.5% of newborn infants are cytomegalovirus (CMV) positive at birth. Five percent will be symptomatic at birth, including cytomegalic inclusion disease. Symptoms such as hearing loss and mental retardation will ultimately develop in 15%. METHODS: The authors describe a case of CMV enteritis in a 2.2-kg newborn ...
Richter D D University of Ulm, Department of Paediatrics, - - 1997
A 4-month-old boy with prenatally diagnosed Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome became ill with a severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, the outcome of which was fatal. The parents had isolated the infant from other children and adhered to standards of hygiene in order to avoid CMV infection because their first child had died of ...
Allen S R - - 1997
The evaluation of the potentially septic newborn is often a source of frustration for practitioners. In the past, it has often been standard practice to evaluate and treat empirically all neonates whose mothers received antibiotics during labor, regardless of whether the infant had any signs or symptoms suggestive of infection. ...
Thomas S L - - 1997
Data on patterns of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody test results in infants born to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected mothers were systematically reviewed to aid development of optimum testing schedules and diagnostic criteria for vertically exposed infants and to facilitate early identification of infected infants. Survival and cross-sectional analyses ...
Archibald L K - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for Serratia marcescens infection or colonization, and to identify the source of the pathogen and factors facilitating its persistence in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) during an outbreak. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study; review of NICU infection control policies, soap use, and handwashing practices among healthcare ...
Mastrobattista J M - - 1997
Citrobacter species have rarely been described as-etiological factors of intraamniotic infections. Citrobacter is not a normal inhabitant of the female genital tract. Vertical transmission of Citrobacter from mother to fetus has rarely been reported. A 21-year-old primigravida presented to labor and delivery at 40 6/7 weeks' gestation complaining of ruptured ...
Wainer S - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Standard neonatal systemic antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and flucytosine can be associated with toxicity, drug resistance and the need for prolonged venous access. There is consequently a need for alternative treatment options. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in the treatment of systemic neonatal fungal ...
Wright R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of intrauterine infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus, an uncommonly recognized cause of congenital viral infection. PATIENTS: Three infants born in the midwestern United States in 1994 and 1995 with clinical features and serologic studies consistent with congenital LCM virus infection and cases of ...
Diosi P - - 1997
During the past 30 years prospective epidemiologic studies have clearly established that infants commonly acquire CMV infection in the immediate perinatal or early postnatal period. CMV reaches the offspring with uterine cervical secretions during the birth process and/or with maternal milk during the breast-feeding period, usually resulting in asymptomatic infection ...
Román M - - 1997
Viral infections have been associated with cellular immune responses and production of Th-1 cytokines. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), however, induces virus-specific IgE, which might be a consequence of a Th-2-like activation. To test this hypothesis we quantified interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cells ...
Blau E B - - 1997
A woman with a renal transplant developed a systemic cytomegalovirus infection. She recovered and 3 years later she became pregnant. She had 3 days of fever in the first trimester. She delivered an infant severely affected with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. The incidence of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection in infants born ...
van Ogtrop M L - - 1997
An outbreak of colonization and infection with Serratia marcescens occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). S. marcescens was isolated from five preterm infants (gestational age 25-30 weeks). Two infants developed septicaemia, which were both fatal, and one infant (the presumed index case) had conjunctivitis due to S. marcescens. ...
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